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The Chaldeans (612 BC - 539 BC)
Chaldea was a region in southern Mesopotamia, mainly on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River, but often the term is used to refer to the entire Mesopotamian plain. The Chaldean region is a vast plain formed by deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending about 250 kilometers along the course of both rivers, and about 60 kilometers in width.
The Chaldeans were a tribe (believed to have emigrated from Arabia) that lived on the shores of the Persian Gulf and became part of the Babylonian Empire. This empire became known as Neobabilonic or Second Babylonian Empire. His most important sovereign was Nebuchadnezzar.
In 587 BC, Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem. In addition to extending their domains, many slaves were made among the inhabitants of Jesuralém. This was followed by a period of material prosperity when large buildings were constructed of colored bricks.
In 539 BC, Cyrus, king of the Persians, seized Babylon and made it another province of his gigantic empire.
The social organization of the Mesopotamians
Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldeans. Among the many peoples who inhabited Mesopotamia there were profound differences. The Assyrians, for example, were warriors. The Sumerians were more devoted to agriculture.
Despite these differences, it is possible to establish commonalities between them. With regard to social organization, religion and economy. Let's now get to know them:
Social classes - Society was divided into classes: nobles, science-savvy and respected priests, merchants, smallholders, and slaves.
Social organization has varied greatly over the centuries, but generally speaking we can say:
- Dominant: rulers, priests, military and merchants.
- Dominated: peasants, small artisans and slaves (usually prisoners of war).
- Dominants held the power of four basic forms of manifestation of that power: wealth, politics, military, and knowledge. The highest position was that of the king who held political, religious and military powers. He was not considered a god, but a representative of the gods.
- The dominated consumed directly what they produced and were forced to deliver surpluses to the dominant