The story

List of the main facts that marked the history of Brazil (continued)

List of the main facts that marked the history of Brazil (continued)

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1935 - Decreed the National Security Law. In November, there is the uprising of the National Liberating Alliance (Natal, Recife and Rio de Janeiro). The government represses the movement by decreeing a state of siege.

1937 - A new constitution is imposed on the country. Vargas coup, with support from the Armed Forces and most conservative sectors. Dissolution of the National Congress and grant of an authoritarian Constitution (the "Polish").
- Government disclosure of the "Cohen Plan" (Communist insurrection project forged by an Army officer).

1937 - Estado Novo phase, within the Vargas Era. Political parties are extinct and elections are no longer held. A dictatorship is established and the states are again governed by appointed interveners.

1940 - Government institutes minimum wage.

1941 - Creation of the Ministry of Aeronautics.

1942 - Germans torpedo Brazilian ships and Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.

1943 - The Consolidation of Labor Laws enters into force, a labor code inspired by the “Carta del Lavoro” of Fascist Italy.
- “Miners Manifesto” for the redemocratization of Brazil.

1944 - Participation of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB), the Army, and an Air Force detachment in the fight against the Germans in Italy.

1945 - Vargas is deposed by a military coup. José Linhares, president of the Supreme Federal Court, temporarily assumes the Presidency of the Republic. The Vargas Era comes to an end.

1946 - The fourth Constitution of the Republic is promulgated. Beginning of the Dutra government.

1947 - The Dutra government decrees the extinction of the Communist Party.

1948 - Spared the mandate of the communist deputies.

1950 - Presidential elections. Getúlio Vargas to win.

1951 - Inauguration of the 1st International Biennial of Plastic Arts.

1952 - Created the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil.

1953 - Creation of Petrobras. And 300,000 workers claim wage increases.

1954 - Government grants 100% increase to wage earners.
- Suicide of Getúlio Vargas on August 24.

1955 - Juscelino Kubitschek is elected President of the Republic.

1956 - The Juscelino government, based on its Goal Plan, undertakes various developmental achievements.

1960 - Inauguration of the city of Brasilia.

1961 - President Jânio Quadros takes office in January and resigns in August.
- Institutional crisis. The Armed Forces summit opposes the inauguration of Vice João Goulart as President. Compromise Solution: Additional Act to the 1946 Constitution, establishing the parliamentary system.
- Possession of João Goulart (“Jango”).

1962 - Creation of the National Council of Agrarian Reform.

1963- - Referendum restores presidential system.
- Jango proposes the “Basic Reforms” (agrarian, banking, administrative, university and Armed Forces).

1964 - The political-military coup that drives away João Goulart (Jango) is unleashed. Marshal Castelo Branco assumes the presidency of the Republic. Institutional Act suspends political rights of hundreds of people.

1964 - End of the Populist Republic and beginning of the Military Governments (1964/85).

1965 - Cassation of several political, union and student leaders, especially João Goulart, Juscelino Kubitschek, Jânio Quadros and Leonel Brizola.
- Falling inflation, which at the end of the Goulart administration reached the rate of 100% per year.
- Following the victory of opposition candidates for the state governments of Guanabara, Minas Gerais and Goiás, President Castelo Branco edits Institutional Act No. 2, which extinguishes existing political parties and establishes bipartisanship, embodied in the ARENA (party of the situation). and MDB (opposition party).

1966 - Suspended elections for executive positions, including deputies and senators.

1967 - Marshal Costa e Silva takes office as president. A new Federal Constitution is promulgated.

1968 - Opposition movements are repressed with violence.
- The government edits Institutional Act No. 5, which grants the President of the Republic exceptional powers indefinitely.

1969 - The government is now acting, interimly, by a junta formed by the three military ministers.

1970 - Opposition to the government intensifies with guerrillas in the city and in the countryside. Regime hardens with arrests, torture and censorship.

1972 - Inaugurated Transamazonica amid criticism for the devastation of the environment.

1973 - Medici signs agreement with dictator Stroessner for the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam. The country is experiencing the period of the "economic miracle".

1974 - Inaugurated the Ilha Solteira hydroelectric dam, the Rio Niterói Bridge and the São Paulo Subway. Beginning of the government of general Geisel. In his government, political openness begins, which Geisel himself defines as "slow, gradual and secure."

1975 - Brazil enters the nuclear age by signing agreement with Germany.

1977 - The civil society movement for the recovery of democratic rights intensifies.

1978 - Geisel starts the opening process. End of AI-5. Indirect election of General Figueiredo, chief of SNI.

1979 - Beginning of the government of General João Figueiredo. Amnesty law approved.

1980 - Release of political prisoners and authorization for exiles to return to the country…

1981 - The government re-establishes direct elections for executive positions, except for president and mayors of capitals and areas of national security.

1982 - - Direct governor elections, suspended since 1966.

1984 - The country mobilizes, demanding direct elections. The “Diretas-Já” Campaign gathers crowds in the main capitals of the country; but the Dante de Oliveira amendment, which would institute them, is rejected in Congress.

1985 - End of the military governments and beginning of the New Republic.

1985 - In indirect elections for the Presidency of the Republic opposition candidate Tancredo Neves is elected the new President of Brazil, however due to health problems does not take over and on April 21 is announced his death.

1986 - Decree Cruzado Plan I and II, designed to contain inflation and stabilize the economy.

1987 - The Constituent Assembly is installed under the chairmanship of Ulysses Guimarães. The economic crisis is getting worse; inflation is not contained.

1988 - Promulgated the eighth Brazilian Constitution. Violence is growing in the countryside and in the city. - Murdered in Acre the rubber tapper leader Chico Mendes.

1989 - Fernando Collor de Mello is the first president elected by direct vote since 1960.

1990 - Collor launches the Collor I Plan, a revolutionary economic plan, which changes the current currency and holds for 24 months deposits made in checking accounts or savings.

1991 - Resumption of inflation. The government does not get congressional support and the economic crisis deepens. Collor II plan.

1992 - Successive scandals shake the Collor government. Inflation resumes its growth process.

1992 - Fernando Collor resigns shortly before suffering impeachment Congress, which declares it ineligible for eight years. Vice President Itamar Franco becomes effective president.

1993 - Popular referendum opts for republican presidentialism as a system of government. New makeover creates the actual cruise.

1994 - Launched a new currency, the real. The finance minister, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, runs for president and wins.

1995 - Inflation is slowed and the country regains confidence. Privatization process begins.

1996 - Brazilian government is the main articulator for the effective establishment of Mercosur. Several campaigns begin to project a new country on the global stage.

1997 - Society protests for social reforms, including Tax, Social Security and Health. Fernando Henrique's government is concerned with approving the amendment for reelection.

1998 - Fernando Henrique is reelected and a new congressional bench takes over in 1999.

2000 - The country celebrates the 500th anniversary of the discovery.

2000 - Argentina's economic crisis and global slowdown shake the Brazilian economy.

2002 - Victory of opposition candidate Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) as President of the Republic.

2003 - President Lula speaks at the UN General Assembly proposing the creation of a global fund to fight hunger.

2006 - Marcos Pontes, the first Brazilian astronaut, spends eight days in space as a participant in a Russian mission.

2006 - Luís Inácio Lula da Silva is reelected President of Brazil.

2007- Beginning of the second term of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva.

2008 - Centenary of the Brazilian Red Cross. Centenary of Japanese Immigration in Brazil. Bicentennial of the Brazilian Civil Police.

2009 - Series of scandals undermines the credibility of the National Congress. Mensalão scandal in the Federal District, secret acts scandal in the Brazilian Senate. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Anti-smoking law takes effect.

2010 - Effective in Brazil, in May, the Clean Sheet Project. The bill aims to prevent politicians convicted in court from running for election.

2011 - Dilma Vana Rousseff, was inaugurated the first woman president of the Republic of Brazil.