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Siege of Burgos, 19 September-22 October 1812

Siege of Burgos, 19 September-22 October 1812

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Siege of Burgos, 19 September-22 October 1812

The siege of Burgos (19 September-22 October 1812) was the disastrous end to otherwise successful Salamanca campaign, and his failure outside Burgos forced Wellington to retreat back to the Portuguese border, ending the year almost where he had started it.

At the start of 1812 Wellington captured the key fortresses of Cuidad Rodrigo and Badajoz, allowing him to launch an invasion of Spain. His first target was Marmont's Army of Portugal, and after a month-long campaign inflicted a major defeat on him at Salamanca (22 July 1812). Marmont was wounded during the battle, and command passed to General Clausel, who was forced to retreat behind the Douro. Wellington soon abandoned the pursuit of Clausel and occupied Madrid, forcing King Joseph to abandon his capital and retreat towards Valencia, where Suchet had a third French army. Soult was also forced to evacuate Andalusia, and was also heading towards Valencia. If Joseph, Suchet and Soult united their armies they would have 85,000 men. Clausel still had 40,000 men in the Army of Portugal, and Caffarelli's Army of the North was also theoretically available. In contrast Wellington could count on 60,000 Anglo-Portuguese troops and an unknown number of Spanish soldiers. This included General Hill's detached force, which had been left in the south to watch Soult, and was marching to Madrid.

Wellington had moved to Madrid in the hope that this would convince the Spanish to unite their armies, but he was soon aware that this was unlikely to happen. At the same time Clausel managed to restore order in his army far quicker than Wellington had believed possible, and on 13 August he launched a counter-attack in the north. His main force pushed the Spanish out of Valladolid, while Foy's division was sent to lift the sieges of Toro, Astorga and Zamora. Toro was saved on 17 August and Zamora on 22 August, but Astorga surrendered on 18 August, two days before Foy would have arrived in the area.

Wellington decided to try and push the Army of Portugal as far away from the Douro as possible, and then return to Madrid to deal with Soult and King Joseph. He left Madrid on 31 August, taking the 1st, 5th and 7th Divisions, Pack's and Bradford's Portuguese divisions and Bock's and Ponsonby's dragoons, with the aim of joining Clinton's 6th Division, which had been left to watch Clausel. The rest of the army was left at Madrid to watch Soult, at first under Charles Alton, but later under Hill. Wellington's part of the army concentrated at Arevalo on 4 September. At this point Clausel's main force was at Valladolid.

Wellington crossed the Douro on 6 September and found Clausel drawn up as if he intended to defend Valladolid. This was actually a bluff, and all he was doing was giving his train time to escape and to allow Foy to move from a potentially dangerous position on the French right. Wellington decided not to risk an attack, and Clausel was able to withdraw on the following day. Clausel retreated towards Burgos, with Wellington pursuing rather slowly. On 16 September Clausel paused at Celada, but moved off early on the following morning before Wellington could attack. On 18 September Clausel passed Burgos itself, but did leave a garrison in the castle before moving further towards the Ebro.

The Siege

The siege of Burgos thus began on 19 September, when the 1st Division and Pack's Portuguese brigade surrounded the castle (Burgos itself fell without a fight). Wellington pushed his other three divisions past Burgos and onto a defensive position from where he could guard against any attempt to interfere with the siege. His performance so far had not been impressive - Clausel had been pushed back, but his army hadn't been damaged in any way, which was the whole point of Wellington's advance.

Burgos castle was located on a hill to the west of the city. The castle was almost overlooked from the north by the hill of San Miquel, which the French had planned to fortify strongly, but the money hadn't been available and only a limited hornwork had been built. At the centre of the castle was the donjon, which now contained the main powder magazines on the lower floors and an eight-gun battery on the roof, and the church of S. Maria la Blanca, which contained the main stores. There were two complete lines of defences on all sides, and a third line to the west, where the slopes of the hill were most gentle. The outer line of defences followed the original medieval walls, and hade been updated with shot-proof parapets, palisades and a 30ft wide ditch with a counterscarp. The inner defences were strong earthworks, effectively the equivalent of well built field works.

The garrison was commanded by the very able Brigadier General Dubreton. He had 2,000 men under his command - 1,600 infantry made up of two battalions from the 34th Line and one from the 130th, most of the rest artillerymen. He had eleven field guns, six mortars and howitzers and a number of 9, 12 and 16 pounders.

Wellington hadn't brought a proper siege train with him, and only had three iron 18-pounders and five 24-pounder howitzers (these were both inaccurate and ineffective against fortifications). Burgos would probably have fallen quite quickly if the Allies had been properly equipped with siege guns, but Wellington's guns were totally inadequate to the task. One of the big mysteries of the siege is why Wellington didn't immediately summon better guns, but the answer is probably that he never quite expected the siege to last for any length of time. Wellington was also short of engineers, with only five officers from the Royal Engineers and eight men from the Royal Military Artificiers with the army.

Wellington's first task was to capture the outlying hornwork of San Miquel, which would provide a good position for a gun battery. On the night of 19-20 September Pack's Portuguese attacked, without any artillery bombardment, but with limited support from 300 men who would provide musket fire and three light companies, who would attack the open rear of the fort. The main attack ended in total failure. The Portuguese reached the walls, but their ladders were too short, and they then retreated after suffering heavy losses. However the light companies found the rear of the fort only lightly guarded and were able to break in. The French garrison panicked and fled, despite still outnumbering the attackers. The Allies lost 421 dead and wounded in this assault, the French 198 men, including 60 prisoners. The French guns on the castle then opened fire, forcing most of the Allied troops to evacuate the hornwork. 300 men managed to hold on in the interior. Work began on the first gun battery on the night of 20-21 September and it was soon ready for two of the 18-pounders and three of the howitzers.

Before beginning a bombardment, Wellington decided to risk a direct assault on the outer line of defences. His target was a point at the north-western corner of the walls, where a hollow road allowed the attacking troops to get within sixty feet of the wall without being detected. 400 volunteers from the 1st Division were to make the main attack, supported by a second attack on the southern wall, to be carried out by cacadores from the 6th Division.

The attack, which was made on the night of 22-23 September, was a total failure. The Portuguese came under fire the moment they began to move, and didn't reach the walls. The troops from the 1st Division got to the wall, and even got their ladders up, but none were able to reach the top of the walls. The commanding officer of the assault was then killed, and the survivors fled. The force of 400 men had suffered 158 casualties and achieved nothing.

The next plan was to try and conduct a more regular siege, aiming at the western end of the castle, where the shallow slopes made it more vulnerable. A trench was dug to within sixty feet of the walls, and work then began on digging a mine. At the same time the guns on the hill of San Miguel opened fire, but with little impact.

The miners believed that they had reached the walls at noon on 29 September, but when the mine was detonated at midnight on 29-30 September it became clear that they had actually fallen a little short. Some of the stone wall collapsed, but the earthworks behind weren't touched. Even so the 300-strong storming party that had been gathered still attacked, hoping to use the collapsed stones to reach the top of the walls. Some did reach the top of the walls but were repulsed, but most ended up reaching the wrong part of the walls. This time the repulse only cost the Allies 29 casualties, but it had an impact on their morale.

Wellington still wasn't ready to give up. A second mine was constructed, to the south of the original one, and at the same time a new gun battery was built facing the western end of the castle. The three 18-pounders were moved into the new battery early on 1 October, but the French counter-battery fire was so effective that two of them were disabled before even opening fire and all three had to be withdrawn that night. A better placed battery was built, in a position less exposed to French fire, but even that was quickly knocked out by the French.

By 4 October Wellington was ready for another attack. The two working 18-pounders, which were now back in their original position, opened fire on the site of the original mine explosion, and rapidly created a sixty foot long breach. The second mine was detonated, and brought down 100 feet of the rampart. Wellington ordered the 2/24th Foot to attack, and they achieved one of the few clear successes of the siege, forcing the French to abandon the outer walls and retreat behind the second line of defences on the western end of the castle (the earthworks).

Preparations now began for an attack on the second line of defences. Saps were dug forward towards the new line, while the artillery fired on the inner walls and the junction between the second and inner lines. Dubreton wasn't willing to let the British work uninterrupted, and at 5pm on 5 October he launched a sortie, which hit the workmen in front of the northern breach, inflicting severe damage before being forced back after inflicting 142 casualties and taking 200 picks and shovels.

Work in the saps continued on 6-7 October, but with little success. Dubreton launched a second sortie on the night of 8-9 October, which undid most of their limited progress. One more the Allies lost heavily, suffering 184 casualties in the fighting. The French only suffered 33 casualties. Work on these saps almost stopped after this sortie.

By now Wellington was also running out of powder for his few guns. He was saved for the moment by Sir Home Popham, who had recently captured Santander, and now managed to transport 40 barrels of powder to Burgos. Popham also offered to move heavy guns, but Wellington turned them down. He didn’t finally agree to this until 2 October, and on 9 October Popham began to move two 24-pounders across the mountains towards Burgos. By 18 October they were at Reynose, only fifty miles from Burgos, but by then Wellington had decided to abandon the siege, and so they were sent back.

Wellington's main efforts after 9 October were in the north, where his few guns began to create a third breach, this time where the third line of defences met the second line, on the northern side of the castle). Unfortunately this time he didn't order an immediate assault, and the French thus had time to built new defences. At the same time a mine was built under the Church of San Roman, on the southern side of the walls. Wellington decided to combine these two lines of assault for his final attack.

The attack would start with the explosion of the mine. The 9th battalion of cacadores, supported by the 1st regiment of Asturias, would occupy the ruins, and a brigade from the 6th Division would wait in the nearby streets ready to take advantage of any opportunities that developed on that front.

In the west part of the Guard's Brigade would attack from the captured part of the defences towards the second line, hoping to take advantage of damage that had been done to the defensive palisades.

Part of the German brigade from the 1st Division was to attack the new third breach, which might get them into the inner defences.

Perhaps the oddest feature of the second and third attacks was how small they were going to be, involving only 300 Guards and 270 Germans.

Unsurprisingly this assault also failed. The mine detonated on time. The Germans managed to get over the outer defences, but only got into the gap between the inner and second lines, and came under such heavy fire that they had to retreat, after losing 82 out of 300 men. The Guards managed to reach the top of the second line of defences, but came under fire from the third line, and had to retreat after ten minutes, after losing 85 of their 300 men. The French only suffered 41 casualties in this attack. In both cases, a larger attack would probably have succeeded, but Wellington was probably overly influenced by the very heavy losses suffered at Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, and didn't want to repeat the experience. Whatever his motives were, this final attack had failed.

By now the French were finally on the move. Souham had replaced Clausel as commander of the Army of Portugal, and his army now began to threaten the covering forces outside Burgos. Caffarelli had joined him with part of the Army of the North, so Wellington was now dangerously outnumbered - the French had around 50,000 men to face his 35,000. Soult, Suchet and King Joseph had finally made contact on 2 October, so the Allied army at Madrid was also now in some danger.

On 19 October the Guard's brigade and the King's German Legion moved to join the 5th and 7th Divisions, leaving one brigade from the 1st Division to blockade the north and western sides of the castle. The south and east was blockaded by Pack's Portuguese. On 20 October Wellington withdrew the remaining guns from the siege batteries, and on 21 October he ordered the siege to be abandoned.

The French suffered 623 casualties during the siege, including 304 dead. The British lost 509 dead and 1,555 wounded or missing.

The Retreat

Worse was to come for the Allies. Wellington's plans to threaten Soult and Joseph if they marched on Madrid failed, and by the time the siege ended it was clear that they French were about to threaten Madrid with some 60,000 men. Wellington was forced to begin a long retreat that only ended when he was back on the Portuguese frontier. On 23 October Souham's cavalry attacked the Allied rearguard (combat of Venta del Pozo and Villadrigo), but failed to take full advantage of their superior numbers. On 24 October Wellington paused on the line of the Carrion River, but his attempt to defend this position failed after the French easily captured Palencia. Elsewhere a second French attack was repulsed at Villa Muriel, but this didn't matter with the line of the river already crossed. Wellington attempted to take up a new position on the opposite bank of the Pisuerga, running upstream from Valladolid, with his left flank protected by the Douro, but this also had to be abandoned after the French managed to get across that river at Tordesillas. By the end of 29 October Wellington's entire army was on the south side of the Douro.

Wellington took up a new position facing the French bridgehead at Tordesillas. He was now given six days to rest, as Souham stopped at Valladolid and Caffarelli departed with his troops, heading back to deal with bad news from the north. This reduced Souham's strength to 40,000 men, making an attack on Wellington's new defensive position too risky.

Any chance of defending the Douro was ended by news from Madrid. Soult and King Joseph were finally on the move, advancing in two columns towards Madrid. On 24 October they reached the Tagus, which Hill had intended to defend. The French were planning to attack on 28 October, but Hill retreated on the night of 27-28 October. By the end of October his army had passed Madrid, heading towards a possible junction with Wellington. A rearguard action at the Puente Larga (30 October 1812), just to the south-east of the city delayed Soult's advance, and his cavalry didn't enter Madrid until 1 November. This allowed Hill to get over the difficult Guadarrama Pass without any incidents by 3 November.

By 4 November Hill and Wellington were only twelve hours apart. However at this point Wellington decided to continue his retreat from the Douro to Salamanca, and so Hill's route was altered, to avoid his moving too far to the north. The French had now got rather badly strung out, and Soult didn't reach Arevalo, on the road towards the Douro, on 6 November, by which time Hill was safely away to the west.

Wellington's new plan was to defend the same positions around Salamanca as at the start of the campaign. Both half of his armies began to move in that direction on 5 November and by the end of 8 June his army was back in a strong defensive position at San Cristobal, north of the Tormes and of Salamanca, while Hill was a little further to the eat, at Alba on the Tormes, although most of his troops were summoned to join Wellington.

Soult and Souham made contact on 7 November, and the French decided to concentrate their forces and try and force Wellington into accepting battle at Salamanca. The French advance guard appeared in front of his new positions on 10 November, and on 10-11 November Soult attacked Hill's position at Alba de Tormes, but without any success. The French eventually decided to try and cross the river further to the south of Alba, after briefly considering trying to cross to the north to try and catch Wellington.

The French needed several days to cross the river, finally making their move on 14 November. Soult's Army of the South was across by the end of the day and the Army of the Centre was following. Drouet had hoped to cross at Alba, expecting it to be evacuated, but Hill blew the bridge and left a garrison in the castle, forcing Drouet to move further south. Wellington was aware of the movement early in the morning, and ordered his entire army to cross to the south bank of the Tormes. By the morning of 15 November Wellington was in position on the Arapiles, the site of his victory at Salamanca, while the French were advancing towards him. Wellington was prepared to risk fighting a defensive battle if the French attacked his strong positions, but not to risk being outflanked. As a result most of the supplies were sent off towards Cuidad Rodrigo, unfortunately travelling along a more northerly route than the retreating troops were soon to take.

Soult had no intention of launching a frontal assault on Wellington's positions, and instead repeated Marmont's tactics of 22 July, but without repeating his mistakes of allowing gaps to open up in his line. By the early afternoon of 15 November Wellington knew that he wasn't going to get a chance to win a second battle of Salamanca, and so ordered a full retreat back to Ciudad Rodrigo.

This final stage of the retreat caused discontent on both sides. On the French side Soult was so determined not to repeat Marmont's mistakes that he missed every chance to attack Wellington. The Allies were thus allowed to escape without having to fight. Very heavy rain set in late on 15 November, making a pursuit more difficult. The French then abandoned any hope of defeating Wellington and split their forces. Soult was sent to press Wellington, while Joseph and the Army of Portugal moved to Salamanca.

On the British side the problems were caused by the terrible weather and by the decision to send the supplies along the wrong road. As a result what should have been a simple march turned into a near disaster which cost Wellington around 3,000 men and caused him to write an angry letter criticising his men. Soult's cavalry pressed the retreating British to a limited extent, and even captured General Paget, and he even managed to get some infantry up, although the resulting combat of San Munoz (17 November 1813) ended with an inconclusive artillery duel across the Huebra River. On the following day the French didn't attack, and once again the only problem for the British was a lack of food. On 19 November Soult retreated east, effectively ending the campaign, while the Allies almost reached Ciudad Rodrigo, and more importantly finally caught up with their supplies.

Although the Burgos campaign had ended in failure and a long retreat back to Portugal, and the French had returned to Madrid, the 1812 campaign had permanently weakened their position in Spain. Soult was never able to return to Andalusia, and large parts of Spain had been permanently liberated. In 1813 Wellington was able to complete the job, defeating the French at Vitoria and forcing them to retreat back to the Pyrenees.

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Alexander Cruikshank (1787-1857)

He was born in Knockando, Morayshire in 1787 and in 1805, aged 18, enlisted in the 79 th Highlanders and was commissioned in 1838 ending up as Fort Major of Edinburgh Castle.

[After a reorganisation of the British Army in the late 19 th century, the 79 th became The Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders they were amalgamated in the 1960s first with the Seaforth Highlanders to become The Queen’s Own Highlanders which more recently merged with the Gordon Highlanders and now known as The Highlanders Battalion of The Royal Regiment of Scotland or more simply as the Highlanders].

Historical Background – The need to contain and defeat Napoleon’s expansionist plans provides the backdrop to virtually all the battles, engagements and actions in which Alexander Cruikshank was involved from the age of 20 in 1807 until Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815.

The primary aims of the Peninsula Campaign led by the Duke of Wellington (see the statue of him on horseback in front of the entrance to Glasgow Museum of Modern Art, GOMA, in Exchange Square) at that time was to stop Napoleon gaining complete control of the Iberian Peninsula countries of Spain and Portugal and to enable these countries to regain their sovereignty. Supported by these countries Wellington achieved the objectives finally taking Madrid in 1808. Wellington continued to advance into France and after Napoleon’s return from exile in Elba, a coalition of British, German, Dutch and Belgian countries, determined to defeat Napoleon, came together in two armies led by Wellington and Blucher leading to Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo, followed by his exile in St Helena in 1815.

1807 saw Alexander Cruikshank in Denmark during the Napoleonic wars when a force of 30,000 soldiers and a fleet of 50 British ships bombarded the Danish fleet and the city of Copenhagen. They used Congreve rockets which were fire rockets developed by Britain after being on the receiving end of Mysorean rockets in south India. This bombardment of Copenhagen is considered the world’s first terror bombardment of civilians.

In 1808, Sweden was at war with Russia, Denmark and France. Though Alexander Cruikshank was in Sweden as a member of Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore’s (Glasgow born and a statue of him is in Glasgow’s George Square) expeditionary force, they did not fight for Sweden because of a disagreements with Gustavus IV and returned home. However, ships of the British Royal Navy assisted the Swedish Navy in the Baltic and oversaw the blockade of the Russian fleet at Baltiyskiy Port until the sea started to freeze.

By August 1808, Cruikshank and the regiment, still under Lt-General Sir John Moore were sent to Portugal and joined the British army encamped at Lisbon. The objective was to drive the French out of Spain. They were joined by more men at Mayorga and moved on to Sahagun before their epic retreat to Corunna where the French troops caught up with them and Lt-General Sir John Moore was killed in action. On 16 th January 1809, the 79 th , as part of Lt.-General Fraser’s division, was to hold the heights in front of the gates of Corunna. The French were held off and the troops embarked on ships to return to the UK.

Death of Lt-General Sir John Moore (1761-1809) on 17th January 1809 at Corunna

By July 1809, Alexander Cruikshank was a member of the ill-fated British Expeditionary Force of over 39,000 soldiers sent to the swampy island of Walcheren in Belgium. The intention was to support the Austrian forces against Napoleon’s French forces. Although Flushing was captured, the Austrians had already been defeated and were negotiating a peace treaty with Napoleon by the time the force had landed. The French force had been moved to Antwerp.

Although the British had captured Flushing, the French had moved their fleet to Antwerp, thus denying the British any chance of destroying it. 4,066 deaths occurred during the expedition, but only 106 officers and men were killed in combat, the rest died from Walcheren Fever (malaria like) and after returning to the UK, 11,513 officers and men were still sick.

For further information see

In January 1810, Alexander Cruikshank and the 79 th Highlanders embarked for Portugal again, but this time to join the army acting under Sir Arthur Wellesley and proceeded to assist in the defence of Cadiz in Spain. In August they returned to Lisbon and joined the army under Lord Wellington at Busaco on 25 th Sept. On the 27 th Sept, the French attacked and the regiment fought with distinction but lost a number of soldiers. A number of skirmishes followed throughout the time up till March 1811 when the regiment captured the Lt-Colonel of the 39 th French infantry at Fez d’Arouce.

Alexander Cruikshank took part in the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro (3–6 May 1811) village when the French repeatedly attacked the position held by the 79 th , 71 st Highlanders and 24 th Regiment all under command of the 79 th Regiment’s Lt-Col Philip Cameron who among many others, lost his life. Cruikshank was captured by the French during this battle but managed to escape from his captors while on a march to France between Burgos and Vittoria and begged his way through Spain and Portugal until he re-joined his regiment at Almeida in Portugal.

From 16 March to 6 April 1812, Cruikshank took part in the Siege of Badajos (Baqajos on the memorial) castle under the control of a French garrison of 5000 men. This was a particularly bloody time with 4,800 allied forces killed.

After the Siege of Badajos, the regiment moved around different areas and did not take part in any military engagements till Salamanca. However, during this period the 79 th were hit with two severe sickness epidemics and it appears that Alexander Cruikshank did not take part in the Battle of Salamanca which took place on 22 nd July 1812 when the French fought a joint British, Portuguese and Spanish force in the hills to the south of the village. It was a fierce battle but was a total success for Wellington and his men albeit there were very heavy casualties the British, Portuguese and Spanish suffered 5,000 killed and wounded and the French 7,000 killed and wounded and 7,000 French soldiers were taken prisoner.

View from the British memorial on the Arapil Grande east to the heights of Arapil Chico and Salamanca on the horizon

After Salamanca the army entered Madrid by mid-August 1812

The Siege of Burgos Castle

The Siege of Burgos Castle (150 miles north of Madrid), took place from 19 th Sept to 21 st Oct 1812. A garrison of French were stationed there and eventually the British and coalition forces were forced to withdraw when French reinforcements arrived and the British found themselves vastly outnumbered. Alexander Cruikshank didn’t take part as he was still to re-join his regiment after being captured at the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro (3–6 May 1811).

The 79 th Highlanders were not involved in the Battle of Vitoria on 21 st June 1813, as they were guarding the magazines and stores at Medina de Pomar.

The Battle of Pyrenees took place on 28 th July 1813 with the 79 th taking up a position across the valley of the Lanz and was almost immediately attacked by the French. Alexander Cruikshank is not thought to have taken part in this battle.

The Allied army (British, Portuguese and Spanish) followed the French army towards the French frontier and Cruikshank’s next action was with the 79 th Highlanders at the Battle of Nivelle on 10 th Nov 1813

This led Cruikshank and fellow soldiers into the Battle of Nive in Dec 1813 where the French army were entrenched on the river bank.

Cruikshank and the Allied forces continued their advance to the blockade of Bayonne and the next major battle at Toulouse in Bordeaux in April 1814 ending on 11 th April, the day before the abdication of Napoleon. 3500 Allied soldiers were killed. Alexander Cruikshank was awarded a silver medal with 5 clasps (see example of this medal below)

The 79 th Highland Regiment remained in the south of France embarked in July 1814 and arrived at Cork in Ireland on 26 th July from where the ship made two abortive (very stormy weather) attempts to sail to North America. The regiment then moved to Belfast in Feb 1815 where it remained till May.

June 1815 saw the regiment return to the Continent with all other available forces under Wellington and in another battle with the French by the 16 th June at the important cross roads at Quatre Bras, in Belgium. This time it was a joint British and Dutch army that faced the French.

This battle was two days before the Battle of Waterloo, Belgium, in which Alexander Cruikshank, now aged 28, also participated. The Imperial French army (67,000 men consisted of 48,000 infantry, 14,000 cavalry, and 7,000 artillery with 250 guns) under Emperor Napoleon faced up to Wellington’s army (67,000 men: 50,000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry, and 6,000 artillery with 150 guns, including support from Holland, Belgium and Germany). 50,000 men from the British, coalition and French army were killed in this battle.

Following the defeat of the French army, the coalition army, including the 79 th Regiment, entered France on 19 th June arriving in Paris on 8 th July 1815. King Louis XVIII was restored to the French throne. Napoleon abdicated, surrendered to the British, and was exiled to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.

The regiment camped just outside Paris till Dec 1815 when, as part of the Army of Occupation, they went into cantonments in Pas de Calais, where it remained till the end of October 1818, when it embarked for England, taking up its quarters at Chichester on the 8th of November.

In 1819, Alexander Cruikshank was promoted to Corporal in November and in 1820 the regiment went to Ireland where they were deployed at Fermoy, Limerick, Templemore, Naas, Dublin, and Kilkenny

1822 – Alexander married Elizabeth Whitehearth

1824 – He was promoted to Sergeant

In August 1825 Cruikshank embarked from Cork for Quebec in Canada, arriving in October and remaining there till 1828 when the regiment moved to Montreal.

1832 – Alexander’s second marriage, to Ann Gordon

1833 – Alexander Cruikshank was promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant and the regiment returned to Quebec from Montreal where it remained till 1836 when it embarked for the UK and by October was stationed in Glasgow before being moved to Edinburgh in June 1837.

1834 – Maria, a daughter was born in Perth,

1836 – Margaret, a daughter was born in Stirling

1838 – Cruikshank was commissioned Quartermaster on 12 th October. The regiment returned to Ireland and remained there till the end of 1840 when it returned to Gibraltar where it arrived in January 1841 and carried out garrison duty till June 1848.

1841 – , Alexander Cruikshank’s second wife, Ann Gordon, died in Gibraltar on 28 th June, aged 30. She was buried at Sandpits cemetery, Gibraltar

1843 – Isabella, daughter of Alexander Cruikshank and his first wife Elizabeth, died in Gibraltar by drowning on 18 th June, at 15 years of age and is buried in Sandpits cemetery, Gibraltar.

1849 – Alexander Cruikshank retired on half pay after an active service of 46 years (including the two years allowed for Waterloo)

1851 – On the recommendation of Lord Panmure, Cruikshank was appointed Fort Major at Edinburgh Castle by the Duke of Wellington. He held this position until his death. In the 1851 census, he lived at 11 Forres St, Edinburgh with two daughters, Maria and Margaret plus a servant, Catherine Ferguson.

Alexander Cruikshank By kind permission of the Trustees of The Highlanders’ Museum (Queen’s Own Highlanders Collection).Fort George, Inverness-shire

In the Memoires of Col. E W Cumming, 79 th News, January 1935 it states “Quarter Master Alexander Cruikshank or ‘Auld Crooky’ as he was called, was the last of those grand soldiers who, in the 79 th , had fought in the Peninsular War and Waterloo. All the rest had passed away by death, discharge or to prison…….He delighted in dining at Mess, and always sat amongst the youngsters……He was a prisoner of war in the hands of the French for some time at Fuentes d’Onor (he escaped and rejoined) and this was the only part of his career that he was silent about, and could not be induced to speak of……he was a hard featured old fellow but had always a kindly pleasant smile on his face”

Group of the 79th Highlanders beside the Mill Mount Battery, Edinburgh Castle, 1852 by Robert Ranald McIan –
shown here by courtesy of the Trustees of The Highlanders’ Museum (Queen’s Own Highlanders Collection)., Fort George, Inverness-shire

Standing from left to right: Lieutenant Adam Maitland Captain John Douglas of Glenfinart Lieutenant Keith Ramsay Maitland Captain Andrew Hunt of Pittencrieff Fort Major Alexander Cruikshanks Captain William Chauval Hodgson Lieutenant and Adjutant Henry MacKay Lieutenant Edward William Cuming Captain William Monro Paymaster John Cornes Captain Thomas Bromhead Butt Major Edmund James Elliot Lieutenant Colonel The Honourable Lauderdale Maule Lieutenant George Murray Miller Lieutenant William Cunninghame Captain Henry Murray Orderly Room Clerk Sergeant David Cant Paymaster Sergeant George McLuckie Private Charles Mackay.

1857, Alexander Cruikshank died aged 70 having completed 52 years of service to his country. He was buried in Warriston Cemetery, Edinburgh. See The Scotsman newspaper’s report below for a full description of the funeral parade.

Alexander Cruikshank’s Medals – Peninsula Medal with 5 clasps

Pictures of Alexander Cruikshank’s memorial in Warriston Cemetery, Edinburgh where he was buried not in Glasgow Necropolis
Photographs by kind permission of Caroline Gerard of the Friends of Warriston Cemetery, Edinburgh

Another Glasgow Necropolis connection with the Peninsula war is through the memorial to Alexander Allan (1825-1890) in Zeta Division.

His father, Capt Sandy Allan (1780-1854) founded the Allan Line but before that, his 175 ton brigantine Hero was chartered by the British Government to transport troops, cattle, and goods to Spain to supply Wellington’s army. He made much faster voyages than his competitors because he refused to remain in convoy with other ships being protected by a naval escort.

Further reference reading –

The Years of the Sword by Elizabeth Longford

To War with Wellington from the Peninsula to Waterloo by Peter Snow

War of 1812 Part 5

The key to understanding war of any kind is to recognize that no action in war is isolated from another. For example, success in Normandy (D-Day) was not an isolated event, purely the result of planning an executing the attack. It was, in addition, due to a number of events and actions that distracted the German army and diluted their forces, including the Italian campaign and the Russian Front. So it was with the War of 1812, political events and the war in Europe had an effect in the happening in North America. This chart, from

Political Events

Military Events

Military Events in

March 4: James Madison is
inaugurated as president of the United States

October 12: Prevost becomes Governor- in-Chief and Commander of all forces in British
North America

November 4: US War
Congress convenes

June: Baltimore Riots start against anti-war Federalists

June 1: Madison’s recommendation to Congress to declare war over sailor’s rights and British support of western frontier tribes.

June 4: House of Representatives passes war bill

June 18: Senate passes
House bill Madison signs War Bill.

June 19: U.S. President
Madison declares war or Great Britain.

July 1: US doubles Customs Duties

October 20: Sheaffe becomes Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada

June 23: USS President vs. HM Frigate Belvidera

July 12: U.S. General Hull invades Upper Canada at Sandwich across from Detroit

July 17: British forces from Fort St. Joseph capture Fort Michilimackinac

August 5: Battle of Brownstown

August 8: Battle of Maguaga

August 15: Fort Dearborn massacre

August 16: British forces under Brock capture Fort Detroit.

September: Baltimore Riots finish

September 3 : Indian
attack at Pigeon Roost Creek

September 4: Indians
attack Fort Harrison

September 5: Indians
attack Fort Madison

September 6: Indians
attack Fort Wayne

September 16: Americans fail in capturing batteaux convey at Toussiant Island of the St. Lawrence River

September 21: American attack and capture village of Gananoque in the Thousand Islands area

October 9: Two British schooners captured off Fort Erie small skirmish near Fort Erie

October 13: Battle of Queenston Heights and death of Brock and Macdonnell

November: Royal Navy blockades South Carolina

November 27: US attacks the outlying fortifications of Fort Erie

November 28: U.S. invasion
attempt at Frenchman’s Creek repulsed.

December 26: Royal Navy
expands blockade to Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

January 19: British storm Ciudad Rodrigo, Portugal
April 6: British repulsed at Badajoz, Spain June 24: Napoleon invades Russia July 22: Wellington’s famous victory at SalamancaAugust 13: British Army enter Madrid September 7: Battle of Borodino September 14: Napoleon enters Moscow September 19: Napoleon begins retreat from Moscow

Romantic Circles

2157. Robert Southey to William Peachy, [10 October 1812] ⁠*

Thank you for Lord Williams letters [1] – I had the Russian news last night in a note from Bedford. [2] You are aware that this is the battle of Moskwa or Mojaisk, of which we had the French account some time ago, & for which rejoicings have been made in France. [3] Buonaparte says the battle was fought in the rear of Mojaisk, & dates from Mojaisk two days after the battle. This phrase was so ambiguous that it is impossible to learn from it whether he had advanced or retreated. The truth probably is that in this murderous conflict French Generalship could not prevail over <was baffled by> Russian courage, but that <the> Russians courage could not take advantage of the enemys repulse, for want of equal skill. Even this is matter for <a> great thing, for if the Russians continue to fight thus, their ultimate success must be certain.

I had not heard of the fall of Burgos, & was prepared to expect a battle before it would surrender. [4] Lord Wellington, I think, will bring Massena [5] to action, or put him to the rout, & then strike down upon Zaragoza.

I stocked myself with Ottleys [6] wine some months ago, & only intended taking more, in case it hung upon hand & could not be otherwise disposed of. Take what you want without reference to me.

I have as little opinion of Goldsmith [7] as you have, but take his paper, because the very circumstances which damn his character made him acquainted with many facts x concerning the continental courts, & the proceedings between France & America

The Times shall be sent every night to Miss Crosthwaites. [8] I failed on Wednesday, & I had nothing better than Goldsmith to send in its stead.

Are you not amused with the termination of General Hills campaign? [9]


* Address: To / Col. Peachy.
MS: British Library, Add MS 28603. ALS 3p.
Dating note: This letter was written the day after that to Grosvenor Charles Bedford of 9 October 1812, Letter 2156. BACK

[1] Possibly official bulletins of events in Russia from William Cathcart, Earl Cathcart (1755–1843 DNB ), Ambassador to Russia 1812–1820. BACK

[2] Southey replied to Bedford on 9 October 1812, see Letter 2156. BACK

[3] The battle of Mojaisk, also known as the battle of Borodino, 7 September 1812, saw massive casualties on both sides. Although it was a French tactical victory, in the longer-term Napoleon’s failure to destroy the Russian army marked a turning point in his campaign in Russia. BACK

[4] Wellington and his allies besieged the Spanish city of Burgos from 19 September–21 October 1812, but failed to capture it. BACK

[5] The French Marshal André Massena (1758–1817). BACK

[6] Edward Ottley (dates unknown), wine merchant at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in The Strand, London. BACK

[7] The journalist and political writer Lewis Goldsmith (c. 1763/4–1846 DNB ) had started a Sunday newspaper, the Anti-Gallican Monitor , in 1811. It was possibly backed by the Bourbons (it promoted the restoration of the French monarchy) and the British government. BACK

[8] Peter Crosthwaite (1735–1808), was a retired naval commander, publisher of maps and inventor of the aeolian harp. In the 1780s he established the first museum in Keswick. Its treasures included a set of musical stones, a stuffed albatross and a pig with no legs. By 1811 the Museum was run by his son Daniel (c. 1776–1847), a portrait painter. Miss Crosthwaite might be his sister, Sarah Crosthwaite (1771–1817). BACK

[9] The British general Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill (1772–1842 DNB ), commander of the forces south of Madrid. After winning a number of victories he quietly retreated with the other British forces into Portugal in the autumn of 1812. As some compensation he was elected MP for Shrewsbury 1812–1814. BACK

Retreat [ edit | edit source ]

Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington

Soon afterward, Souham's pursuit slackened when General of Division Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga reclaimed 12,000 Army of the North troops and returned to the Bay of Biscay coast to deal with a new outbreak of Spanish guerilla attacks. ⎗] Following instructions from Wellington, Hill evacuated Madrid on 31 October 1812. Hill's 4,000-man rear guard held off Soult's advance guard at the Aranjuez bridge on the 30th. A week later, he linked up with Wellington near Alba de Tormes. Meanwhile, Souham joined Soult on 8 November. ⎚] On 10 and 11 November the two armies sparred along the Tormes River near Alba. Twelve voltiguer (light infantry) companies and the 45th Line Infantry Regiment of the French 5th Division were repelled by Brigadier General Kenneth Howard's brigade of the 2nd Division. This unit included the 1st Battalions of the 50th Foot, 71st Foot, and 92nd Foot and was supported by 2nd and 14th Portuguese Line Infantry Regiments. Casualties amounted to 158 French, 69 British, and 44 Portuguese. Disappointed here, Soult's army crossed the Tormes farther south and Wellington fell back. ⎛]

On 15 November, 80,000 French troops faced 65,000 Allied soldiers on the old Salamanca battlefield. To the fury of the French soldiers and officers, Soult failed to order an attack. Instead, Wellington began retreating that afternoon. As the Allies marched away, rain began to fall continuously. ⎜] As the supplies in the Salamanca depots were feverishly packed up and sent away, Wellington's logistical arrangements collapsed completely. Fortunately for the Allies, Joseph had forbidden all but his cavalry to pursue. ⎝] On 16 November at Matilla de los Caños del Río, Brigadier General Victor Alten with 1,300 men clashed with 2,000 French cavalry consisting of the 2nd Hussar, 5th and 27th Chasseurs à Cheval and 7th Lancer Regiments. Alten had the 1st and 2nd Hussars of the King's German Legion and the 14th Light Dragoons, as well as two cannons and the light company of the 1st Battalion of the 28th Foot. The French lost 50 men, almost all of whom were wounded and captured, while Alten's command suffered 34 casualties. ⎞]

Already demoralized by having to retreat, the Allied soldiers were soon forced to survive on acorns when the inept Quartermaster General James Willoughby Gordon directed the supply trains onto the wrong road. On 17 November, Gordon sent the cavalry rear guard off to a flank and for a time the retreating infantry were directly exposed to the attentions of the French cavalry. On this day, Wellington's second-in-command Edward Paget was made a prisoner by the French horsemen. The misery of the hungry foot soldiers was intense as they struggled to march on muddy roads in the cold weather. ⎟]

During the retreat three of Wellington's division commanders took matters into their own hands. Lieutenant General William Stewart and two others decided to disobey the army commander's direct order to retreat by a certain road. Stewart was joined by Lieutenant General James Broun-Ramsay, Lord Dalhousie and either Major General John Oswald or Lieutenant General Henry Clinton. When Wellington found them in the morning, the three divisions were in complete confusion. Later the army commander was asked what he said in the situation and he replied, "Oh, by God, it was too serious to say anything." ⎠] On 16 November, the French cavalry rounded up 600 stragglers and the following day, they captured even more. ⎝]

The Allies staggered into their base at Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 November. Two-fifths of the army's soldiers were either ill or missing. The humor of the rank and file was not improved when Wellington issued a nasty letter to his division and brigade commanders and it was leaked to the press. ⎡] A total of 5,000 men were missing. While many of the missing were on the way to French prison camps, the majority had died from starvation or hypothermia. Though the Allied army had apparently been defeated, in fact much had been accomplished in 1812. The French had been ejected from the cities of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Seville, and Astorga, and the provinces of Andalusia, Extremadura, and Asturias. ⎢]

Napoleonic Timeline: 1812

18 January 1812 &ndash Order is given to send to Rome two thousand workers for the restoration of ancient monuments. &ndash 26 January &ndash Meeting of Catalonia to France it will form four departments.

23 February 1812 &ndash Concordat of 1801 is broken. &ndash 24 February &ndash The King Frederick William III of Prussia is forced by Napoleon 1 to supply a contingent of twenty thousand men.

14 March 1812 &ndash The Emperor of Austria Francis I is ordered to supply thirty thousand men.

9 April 1812 &ndash Russia and Sweden conclude an alliance. &ndash 18 April &ndash The Army Corps stationed in Germany is ordered to be ready for war. &ndash 22 April &ndash At Vilna, Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, takes command of his army. &ndash 24 April &ndash Russia issues an ultimatum.

1st May 1812 &ndash An employee of the French Department of War, convicted of spying for the Russians, is condamned and executed. He provided information on the French armies in Germany. &ndash 9 May &ndash Napoleon 1 arrives in Dresden. &ndash 21 May &ndash Transfering the Pope Pius VII to Fontainebleau is decided. &ndash 29 May &ndash Napoleon leaves Dresden. He will take command of the army.

19 June 1812 &ndash Puis VII arrives at Fontainebleau as a prisoner. &ndash 22 June &ndash Napoleon 1 sends a proclamation to the Grand Army. &ndash 24 June &ndash The Neman river is reached. &ndash 28 June &ndash Entry of Napoleon in Vilna. He stays in the house occupied by the Tsar Alexander 1 a few days earlier. &ndash 29 June &ndash Evacuation of Grodno by General Platov. &ndash 30 June &ndash Jerome Bonaparte enters the city of Grodno. The Russian army retreats on Mostoui.

1st July 1812 &ndash At Vilna, Napoleon 1 installs the Administrative Commission of Lithuania. It must govern Lithuania and White Russia and load requisitions among the peasants and landowners. &ndash 2nd July &ndash Napoleon orders that the soldiers found guilty of plundering or marauding should be arrested, tried by martial court and shot, if convicted. &ndash 8 July &ndash Occupation of Minsk by Marshal Davout. &ndash 16 July &ndash The Grand Army marches on Vitebsk. &ndash 28 July &ndash Napoleon enters Vitebsk. He says to Marshal Murat that the first Russian campaign is over. 1813 will see us in Moscow, 1814 in St. Petersburg. The Russian war is a war of three years.

14 August 1812 &ndash Passage of the River Dnieper. Fight of Krasnoi. &ndash 16 August &ndash Battle of Smolensk. &ndash 17 August &ndash Evacuation of Smolensk by the Russians. &ndash 18 August &ndash Entry of Napoleon at Smolensk. &ndash 25 August &ndash Departure from Smolensk. &ndash 26 August &ndash Letter to Empress Marie-Louise. Napoleon writes: My vanguard is forty miles from Moscow . &ndash 29 August &ndash Entry to Wiazma. Appointment of General Kutuzov as commander of Russian troops.

1st September 1812 &ndash In France, class 1813 (137,000 men) is called in advance. &ndash 2nd September &ndash Napoleon 1 writes to Marie-Louise: I have been making war for nineteen years, I have given many battles and made many sieges in Europe, Asia, Africa. I'm going to hurry and finish it for seeing you again soon. &ndash 5 September &ndash French troops attack the Russian avant-garde and reject it to Borodino, a village nearby. &ndash 6 September &ndash Occupation of Borodino. The portrait of the King of Rome painted by François Gérard is exposed to the tent of the Emperor. Napoleon sends a proclamation to the army: Soldiers, this is the battle you have so desired. Victory now depends on you, we need it, it will give us plenty of good winter quarters and a speedy return home. &ndash 7 September &ndash New proclamation: Soldiers, the day you desired has arrived. The enemy's army who fled is now in front of you. Remember that you are French soldiers . Battle of Borodino. &ndash 8 September &ndash Kutuzov's troops retreat to Moscow. &ndash 13 September &ndash Kutuzov decides to evacuate Moscow. &ndash 14 September &ndash Napoleon enters Moscow. The Russians burn the city. &ndash 15 September &ndash Installation of Napoleon in the Kremlin. Spread of fire. &ndash 16 September &ndash Napoleon settles in Petrovsk palace, outside the city in flames. &ndash 18 September &ndash Wellington besieges Burgos, Spain. &ndash 23 September &ndash Napoleon sends a letter from Moscow to Marie-Louise: The weather is beautiful, we shot so many incendiaries that they have ceased. &ndash 24 September &ndash Napoleon makes to the Tsar confidential offers of peace the latter takes no action.

5 October 1812 &ndash Napoleon 1 begins to make arrangements for departure. He orders to evacuate the wounded soldiers. &ndash 13 October &ndash First snow. &ndash 15 October &ndash Napoleon signs the Decree of Moscow reorganizing the French Comedie. &ndash 19 October &ndash Napoleon gives the signal for retreat and leaves Moscow, ordering to blow up the Kremlin. &ndash 22 October &ndash Faced with the heroic resistance of General Dubreton and its 1,800 men, Wellington raises the siege of Burgos. &ndash 23 October &ndash In Paris, attempted coup of General Malet. &ndash 24 October &ndash Battle of Maloyaroslavets. &ndash 25 October &ndash At Ghorodnia, a group of Cossacks just miss to capture Napoleon. &ndash 28 October &ndash In Paris, Malet and his accomplices are judged by a council of war. &ndash 29 October &ndash They are shot. &ndash 31 October &ndash Napoleon arrives in Wiazma. He had entered the city as a winner two months earlier.

3rd November 1812 &ndash Command of the rearguard is given to Marshal Ney. &ndash 7 November &ndash Napoleon is informed of the conspiracy of Malet. &ndash 9 November &ndash Napoleon arrives in Smolensk. &ndash 16 November &ndash The Russians take over Minsk. &ndash 19 November &ndash Passage of the river Dnieper. In Orscha, Napoleon personally takes care of burning everything he intends avoiding to fall into the hands of the Russians. &ndash 21 November &ndash Russians take control of bridges at Borisov. &ndash 23 November &ndash Napoleon orders the construction of bridges over the Berezina river, and the burning of all bodies' Imperial eagles. &ndash 24 November &ndash Vans and cars will also burn. &ndash 27 November &ndash The Emperor, custody and artillery cross the Berezina river. &ndash 28 November &ndash The rest of the army fights against the Russians: it's the battle of the Berezina.

5 December 1812 &ndash Napoleon 1 entrusts the command of the army to Joachim Murat, and leaves for Warsaw. &ndash 10 December &ndash Napoleon arrives in Warsaw and leaves it at once. &ndash 18 December &ndash Napoleon reaches the Tuileries palace, shortly before midnight. &ndash 20 December &ndash The wreck of the army arrives in Königsberg. &ndash 25 December &ndash For Christmas, Napoleon grants a major hearing in the Throne Room. &ndash 26 December &ndash Napoleon hunts in the park of Marly, then attends a military parade at the Carrousel . &ndash 28 December &ndashNapoleon visits the annual Salon of Painters installed in the Louvre. &ndash 29 December &ndashAgain hunting, in the forests of Versailles.

The siege [ edit | edit source ]

In August and September 1475 Queen Isabella I of Castille had strengthened garrisons near the city of Burgos while her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon besieged the city's fortress. ΐ] The fortress was armed with large Lombard guns that bombarded the city, which had pledged to support Isabella. Ώ]

The queen's forces harassed King Afonso V of Portugal troops, and managed to cut their supply lines. Α] After learning that the road north from Peñafiel was cut, the Portuguese turned back. ΐ] Consequently, the Portuguese retreated back to Toro and moved to Zamora in October for the winter. ΐ] These actions prevented the Portuguese from relieving the besieged castle garrison. Α]

By the end of November 1475, King Ferdinand's brother Alfonso of Aragon arrived with skilled siege engineers. He had gained fame for capturing the Catalan castle of Amposta. ΐ] Α]

King Ferdinand II could not be present when the Burgos garrison surrendered, as he held the siege of Zamora so important that his presence was required there. Β] He left for Zamora in early December. Γ] The city had fallen quickly, but the castle of Zamora was retained by the Portuguese. As the king had left, Queen Isabella was tasked with receiving the surrender of Burgos. Β]

The city's fortress surrendered after nine months. Tunnelers had cut off the water supply, and the garrison asked for surrender terms ten days later, Α] on 2 December 1475. ΐ] After a customary truce of two months, the besieging force was to take control of the fortress. ΐ] Α] However, commander (alcaide) of the garrison Juan de Stúñiga Ώ] surrendered early on 19 January, and was commended for his valor before his dismissal by Isabella. This act made his father switch sides to Isabella. ΐ] Cardinal Mendoza, usually part of Queen Isabella's retinue, had overseen the final negotiations, and by 2 February 1476 the queen could visit the fortress. Α]

Atlas to Alison's History of Europe, 1850

This page links to scans of the maps from "Atlas to Alison's History of Europe", by Alex. Keith Johnston, published by William Blackwood and Sons in 1850.

To see these plates you will need to have Java installed, and enabled for the browser that you are using.

Plate no.Plate titleComments
frontispFrontispiece: Military signs and illustrations of modern fortification
t.p.title page
1Part of Europe showing the boundaries of France and adjoining coutries before the revolution of
2Part of Europe showing the boundaries of France and adjoining coutries at the height of Napoleon's power in
3Paris at the outbreak of the French revolution, 1789 Environs of
4Map of the Netherlands & part of the adjoining countries to illustrate the campaigns of
5Battle of Jemappes, 6 November 1792battle plan
6Map of France to illustrate the campaigns of 1793
7Battle of Neerwinden, 18 March 1793battle plan
8Siege of Toulon, 19 December 1793siege plan, land and sea
9Battles of Turcoing & Tournay, 18 & 22 May 1794battle plan
10Battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794battle plan
11Map of North Italy, Switzerland, South Germany etc, to illustrate the campaigns of 1796
12Map of the valley of the Po to illustrate the campaigns of 1796-7 &
13Battles of Lonato & Castiglione, 3 August 1796 and of Medola, 5 August 1796battle plan
14Siege of Mantua and the affairs of St. George & La Favourite, 15 September 1796.siege plan, land
15Battle of Arcole, 15 16 & 17 November 1796 (first day - 15 November)battle plan
16Battle of Arcole, 15 16 & 17 November 1796 (third day - 17 November)battle plan
17Battle of Rivoli, 14 & 15 January 1797battle plan
18Battle of Cape St. Vincent, 14 February 1797.sea battle plan
19Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797.sea battle plan
20Map of Lower Egypt and part of Syria, to illustrate the expedition to Egypt, and the campaign of 1798-1801 Battle of Aboukir, 25 July battle plan
21Battle of the Nile, 1 August 1798.sea battle plan
22Siege of St. Jean d'Acre by the French army of Egypt from 19 March to 21 May 1799 map of the country between the Jordan and Acre.siege plan, land and sea map
23Battle of Mount Thabor, 16 April 1799.siege plan, land
24Battle of Stockach, 25 March 1799 Map of the Tyrolbattle plan map
25Battle of Zurich, 4 June 1799.battle plan
26Battle of Trebbia, 18, 19 & 20 June 1799.battle plan
27Battle of Novi, 15 August 1799.battle plan
28Battle of Marengo, 14 June 1800: sheet 1.battle plan
29Battle of Marengo, 14 June 1800: sheet 2.battle plan
30Battle of Hohenlinden, 3 December 1800: sheet 1.battle plan
31Battle of Hohenlinden, 3 December 1800: sheet 2.battle plan
32Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801.sea battle
33Battle of Alexandria, 21 March and sea battle plan
34Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805: plate 1.sea battle plan
35Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805: plate 2.sea battle plan
36Map of the operations which led to the Capitulation of Ulm in October 1805battle plan
37Battle of Austerlitz, 2 December 1805.battle plan
38Map of South Italy to illustrate the invasion of Naples in 1806
39Map of Prussia & Poland to illustrate the campaigns of 1806 etc. (See enlarged maps, plates 39, 75 & 79.)map
40Battle of Jena, 14 October 1806.battle plan
41Battle of Auerstädt, 14 October 1806.battle plan
42Battle of Pultusk, 26 December 1806 environs of Pultusk and Golymin.battle plan map
43Battle of Preussisch-Eylau: first sheet - evening of 7 February 1807.battle plan
44Battle of Preussisch-Eylau: second sheet, 8 February 1807 Part of Old or East Prussia explanatory of the campaigns of Eylau & Friedland.battle plan map
45Battle of Heilsburg, 10 June 1807.battle plan
46Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807.battle plan
47Map of India to illustrate the campaigns from 1799 to
48Map of Spain and Portugal to illustrate the campaigns of 1808
49Siege of Saragossa, by the French army of Aragon in 1808 and 1809.siege plan, land
50Battle of Medina de Rio-Seco, 14 July 1808.battle plan
51Battle of Vimeira, 21 August 1808.battle plan
52Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809.battle plan
53Map of the valley of the Danube from Ratisbon to Pressburg to illustrate the campaigns of 1808-9 Valley of the Danube west of Ratisbon on the same scalemap
54Battle of Abensberg, 20 April 1809.battle plan
55Battle of Ecmühl, 22 April 1809.battle plan
56Battle of Aspern or Essling, 21 & 22 May 1809: sheet 1.battle plan
57Battle of Aspern or Essling, 21 & 22 May 1809: sheet 2.battle plan
58Battle of Wagram, 5 & 6 July 1809: sheet 1, 5 July.battle plan
59Battle of Wagram, 5 & 6 July 1809: sheet 2, 6 July.battle plan
60Siege of Gerona by the French army of Catalonia from May to October 1809.siege plan, land
61Battle of Talavera de la Reyna, 27 & 28 July 1809.battle plan
62Battle of Ocaña, 19 November 1809.battle plan
63Battle of Busaco, 27 September 1810.battle plan
64Map of part of Portugal to illustrate the defence of Lisbon by the Lines of Torres Vedras, October & November
65Battle of Barossa, 5 March 1811.battle plan
66Plan of the siege of Tarragona by the French army of Aragon, 4 may to 30 June 1811.siege plan, land and sea
67Battle of Albuera, 16 May 1811.battle plan
68Plan of the fortifications of Ciudad Rodrigo explanatory of the sieges of July 1810 & January 1812. The field works refer to the siege of 1812.siege plan, land
69Siege of Badajos by the Allies under Wellington from 17 March to 6 April 1812.siege plan, land
70Battle of Salamanca, 22 July 1812.battle plan
71Siege of the Castle of Burgos by the Allies under Wellington from 10 September to 21 October 1812.siege plan, land
72Map of Turkey to illustrate the war with Russia
73Map of part of Russia to illustrate the campaigns of
74Battles of Smolensko & Valtellina 17, 18 & 19 August 1812.battle plan
75Battle of Borodino, 7 September 1812.battle plan
76Battle of Malo-Jaroslawitz, 24 October 1812.battle plan
77Battle of Krasnoi, 16, 17 & 18 November 1812.battle plan
78Passage of the Beresina, 26, 27 & 28 November 1812.battle plan
79Battle of Lutzen, 2 May 1813.battle plan
80Battle of Bautzen, 20 & 21 May 1813.battle plan
81Battle of Vitoria, 21 June 1813.battle plan
82Map of part of the Pyrenees to illustrate the campaign of
83Siege of St. Sebastian by the Allies, under Wellington, from June to September 1813.siege plan
84Battle of Dresden, 26 & 27 August 1813.battle plan
85Battle of Culm, 29 August 1813.battle plan
86Battle of Katzbach, 26 August 1813.battle plan
87Battle of Gross Beeren, 23 August 1813 Battle of Dennewitz, 6 September 1813.battle plans
88Battle of Leipzig, 16, 17, 18 & 19 October 1813: sheet 1.battle plan
89Battle of Leipzig, 16, 18 [sic] & 19 October 1813: sheet 2.battle plan
90Battle of Hanau, 30 October 1813.battle plan
91Attack of the French entrenched position on the Nivelle, 10 November 1813.battle plan
92Battles in front of Bayonne, 10-13 December 1813.battle plan
93Map of parts of France & Belgium to illustrate the campaigns of
94Battle of La Rothière, 1 February 1814.battle plan
95Battles of Champaubert & Vauchamps, 10 & 14 February 1814.battle plan
96Battle of Montmirail, 11 february 1814.battle plan
97Battle of Craone, 7 March 1814.battle plan
98Battle of Laon, 9 March 1814.battle plan
99Battle of Orthes, 27 February 1814.battle plan
100Battle of Toulouse, 10 April 1814.battle plan
101Battle of Fère Champenoise, 25 March 1814 Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, 21 March 1814.battle plans
102Paris and its environs, to illustrate the Battle of Paris, 30 March 1814.battle plan
103Map of part of North America to illustrate the naval and military events of 1812-13-14 Enlarged map of the Niagara district.maps
104Battle of Ligny, 16 June 1815.battle plan
105Battle of Quatre Bras, 16 June 1815.battle plan
106Battle of Waterloo, 18 June 1815: sheet 1, morning of the battle.battle plan
107Battle of Waterloo, 18 June 1815: sheet 2, crisis of the battle.battle plan
108Battle of Wavre, 18 & 19 June 1815.battle plan

Another version of plate 49, from another copy of the Atlas to Alison's History of Europe, that has been attacked by a growth, apparently dry rot.

You can buy higher-resolution versions of the scans listed here, see price list

Project Leipzig (1813)

"Wellington entered Valladolid on September 7 and pursued Clausel, which retired unhurried northwards, first on Burgos and then on Briviesca. On September 19, Wellington (reinforced by 11,000 men from the Castaños's Ejército de Galicia) laid siege to Burgos, an open city, dominated by a castle protected by the hornwork of San Miguel, and with a 2,000-men French garrison under Dubreton.
The hornwork was immediately assaulted and taken at the cost of 500 casualties. Four days later, an impatient Wellington gave the order to storm the castle without artillery preparation, but the assault was repulsed with heavy losses. Then, began a regular siege but the lack of siege artillery forced the use of mining galleries, which allowed the capture of the exterior defensive works in October 4, but proved insufficient against the castle main walls. After several failed attempts of assault, Wellington had to raise the siege on October 21and retired towards Valladolid. The unsuccessful attempt took 700 French and 2,000 Allied casualties, and was one of the few failures of Wellington as Commander-in-Chief during the Peninsular War."

Wellington at Bay

The Battle of Villamuriel was the largest engagement of Wellington&rsquos retreat from Burgos in 1812. Twice as many men were involved as in the better-known actions at Villadrigo/Venta del Pozo two days earlier. This is the first full length account of the action and improves significantly on previous accounts in the campaign histories by Napier, Fortescue, Oman, and Divall. Archival sources from Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal have been used to build a coherent and balanced account. The orders of battle are detailed and the military experience of both the commanders and their units is provided. Detailed maps of the deployment of both forces throughout the action are provided. A detailed breakdown of the casualties on both sides is also given. Also highlighted are the previously unreported role of 9th Foot as an aspiring light infantry regiment, and the 1835 controversy around Napier&rsquos account using the archives of the Sir John Oswald and a potential source for Napier&rsquos account is identified. This has resulted in a detailed study of one day&rsquos action in the 1812 campaign, with a view to extracting improved understanding of how the armies fought. The wargamer is provided with detailed scenarios to enable them to recreate the action on the table top. The action is effectively a re-match between the Anglo-Portuguese 5th Division and the 5e Division of the Armée de Portugal, only a few months after the former successfully dispersed the latter at Salamanca in July. Wellington at Bay includes a Foreword by Carole Divall.

"An excellent book for anyone interested in the British campaigns in the Peninsular War, which also offers an ideal scenario for a division level wargame based upon an unfamiliar action, with the added bonus that the author has already done the work for wargamers who use Black Powder or General de Brigade rules!" Miniature Wargames

"It is a delight to review a book about one of the less celebrated battles of the Napoleonic Wars, especially one combining serious academic work with an easily readable style. The careful consideration of original sources from all nationalities involved, rather than relying upon the accepted narrative history, is to be applauded. Wellington at Bay is a fantastic resource for the wargamer by giving us virtually all we need to recreate the battle on the tabletop in one book. If you are interested in wargaming this battle of the Peninsular War, I cannot suggest strongly enough that you buy a copy." Wargames Soldiers & Strategy #113

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