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Clinton Sir Henry - History

Clinton Sir Henry - History

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Clinton, Sir Henry

Clinton, Sir Henry (1730-1795) Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in North America: Although Clinton was a gifted tactician and military strategist, he was too insecure to be a successful commander. In the Revolutionary War, he was subordinate to Thomas Gage and Sir William Howe, and lacked the confidence to introduce his often brilliant ideas to his superiors. On the battlefield, Clinton did well in defense postures, successfully evacuating Philadelphia and securing New York and Rhode Island in 1778. He also took Charles Town as a result of a long, patient siege in 1780. Nevertheless, he was not able to defeat the Continental Army along the Hudson or work with the British Navy against the French at Rhode Island. He could not convince his superiors to implement his strategy for a gradual reconquest of the South, nor could he help Cornwallis at Yorktown. Clinton resigned his command in 1782 and returned to Britain, where he lived for 30 more years.

American Revolution: General Sir Henry Clinton

Henry Clinton (April 16, 1730–Dec. 23, 1795) was the Commander of the British North American forces during the American War for Independence.

Fast Facts: Henry Clinton

  • Known For: Commander of the British North American forces during the American War for Independence
  • Born: About 1730 in Newfoundland, Canada or Stourton Parva, England.
  • Parents: Admiral George Clinton (1686–1761) and Ann Carle (1696–1767).
  • Died: December 23, 1795 in Gibraltar
  • Education: In New York colony and possibly studied under Samuel Seabury
  • Published Works: The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative of His Campaigns, 1775–1782
  • Spouse: Harriet Carter (m. 1767–1772)
  • Children: Frederick (1767–1774), Augusta Clinton Dawkins (1768–1852), William Henry (1769–1846), Henry (1771–1829), and Harriet (1772)

Henry Clinton

Henry Clinton was born in Newfoundland, the son of Admiral George Clinton, a noted British naval officer. Young Clinton spent most of his early years in New York, where his father served as colonial governor in the 1740s. In 1751, Clinton received a commission in the British Army and later served in the Seven Years’ War, seeing action in Germany. A brief stint in Parliament was cut short by his wife's death, which led to Clinton’s temporary retirement from public life. In 1775, Clinton was back in active military service and was assigned to North America, where he was second in command to Sir William Howe. He served at the Battle of Bunker Hill, but his later efforts to galvanize Loyalist forces in the South were unsuccessful. Clinton’s distinguished performance at Long Island resulted in a promotion to lieutenant general and knighthood. When Howe undertook his campaign in Pennsylvania in 1777, Clinton assumed the command in New York City. His drive up the Hudson River resulted in early victories at Forts Clinton and Montgomery, his failure to reach John Burgoyne contributed to the pivotal British surrender at Saratoga in October. In 1778, following a brief stay in England, Clinton returned to America as Howe’s replacement as commander-in-chief. British forces were withdrawn from Philadelphia and on their march toward New York City narrowly escaped disaster at Monmouth Court House in June. Clinton’s command was not a happy one he resented the lack of support from London and tried unsuccessfully to resign. Late 1779, Clinton took the offensive in New York by seizing Stony Brook and Verplanck’s Point. He later opened a new theater of operations in the South and captured Charleston in May 1780. Clinton then returned to New York, where an attack from Washington’s forces was anticipated. Despite an uneasy relationship, Clinton had turned over the reins to the Southern offensive to his second-in-command, Lord Charles Cornwallis, who was instructed to maintain possession of Charleston and Savannah at all costs. Cornwallis’s offensive faltered in the late summer of 1781. Clinton’s rescue fleet with reinforcements from New York was too late to prevent the British surrender at Yorktown. Clinton resigned his command later that year and returned to England. The next years were frustrating as he contended with critics who blamed him for the American debacle and lauded Cornwallis. In 1783, Clinton published the Narrative of the Campaign of 1781, which heightened and personalized the rivalry. Clinton gained some satisfaction late in life when he was reelected to Parliament, promoted to full general and named governor of Gibraltar.

Clinton, Sir Henry

Clinton took part in the battle of Bunker Hill (1775), commanded (1776) an unsuccessful expedition against Charleston, S.C., and served under Sir William Howe in the battle of Long Island, in the occupation of New York, and at White Plains. In 1777 he headed the British occupation of Rhode Island. When Howe moved on Philadelphia, Clinton assumed the command of New York. He did not fulfill the part expected of the New York command in the British strategy that resulted in defeat with the Saratoga campaign he advanced up the Hudson valley, capturing the patriot strongholds of Fort Clinton (strongly defended by James Clinton) and Fort Montgomery, but after burning Kingston he turned back.

Sir Henry (knighted 1777) succeeded Howe in the supreme command in America in 1778. Acting on orders from London, he evacuated Philadelphia and, after Washington's attempt to halt him failed (see Monmouth, battle of), he reached New York. He complained that Lord George Germain did not answer his requests for supplies and twice tried to resign. In Dec., 1779, he left Baron Knyphausen in command in New York and redeemed his failure of 1776 by capturing Charleston (1780). After placing Cornwallis in command in the Carolinas, he returned to New York. In 1781, expecting Washington to attack, he remained in New York too long and failed to aid Cornwallis in the Yorktown campaign. He resigned and was succeeded by Sir Guy Carleton.

Clinton later served (1794–95) governor of Gibraltar. He recorded his campaigns from 1775 to 1782 (published in 1954 as The American Rebellion, ed. by W. B. Willcox). Cornwallis criticized his account, and the controversy between the two continued until Clinton's death.

See W. B. Willcox, Portrait of a General (1964).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


By the end of the 1777 campaign, Clinton was again ready to resign, but the home government responded by making him commander in chief in place of Howe. Like Howe, he had to carry out a strategy devised in London while trying to keep his regulars intact for the final, decisive battle. With French entry into the war in 1778, his long transatlantic communications were all the more fragile, with the added danger that the French might at any time secure local superiority at sea. That certainly made him cautious, but as we have seen, he had been wary even in 1776. He was appalled when in May—just as he took over from Howe—he received orders to detach five thousand of his precious soldiers to the unhealthy West Indies for an attack on St. Lucia. Worse, to free these men he was to give up hard-won Philadelphia and with it the confidence of the Pennsylvania Loyalists. Worse, he was to send an expedition to Georgia to exploit the supposed great numbers of southern Loyalists. In short, he was asked to carry out a plan at least as ambitious as that of 1777 with far fewer and even more dangerously dispersed troops.

At first he was thrown onto the defensive. After failing to trap Lafayette at Barren Hill, Pennsylvania (20 May 1778), he had to evacuate Philadelphia by land (fighting the Battle of Monmouth on the way) to avoid a reported approaching French squadron. When he reached New York he found Estaing already threatening the harbor. It was November before the French fleet had gone and the St. Lucia detachment was safely away. Once the coast was literally clear, Clinton carried out the next part of his orders by sending three thousand men to Georgia. When Savannah fell in December 1778, Clinton wanted to exploit his success by attacking Charleston. But like Howe, he had to wait for the reinforcements that would allow him to do so without dangerously weakening New York. Meanwhile, he sent a raid to the Chesapeake and tried to lure Washington into a decisive battle by again thrusting up the Hudson to take Stony Point and Verplanck's Point on 1 June 1779. This move severed the Americans' most important east-west communications and promised to establish that vital supply base. In July, while he waited for Washington to react, Clinton launched the Connecticut coast raid.

To his frustration, he then received orders to send two thousand men to Canada. The reinforcements from Britain came in August—too late and riddled with sickness—just as Clinton heard of another French squadron about to descend on New York. He prudently concentrated his forces in New York, calling in his advanced Hudson posts as well as the Rhode Island garrison. As it turned out, the French and the Americans combined against Savannah, not New York. These events have been used to represent Clinton as a hopelessly indecisive commander, but in truth he was the victim of lack of numbers, French intervention, the intractable problem of transatlantic logistics, and a flawed strategy devised by a ministry three thousand miles away.

Clinton Sir Henry - History

Sir Henry Clinton's 1778 Manifesto and Proclamation
Digital History ID 156

Author: Henry Clinton

In May 1778, General Henry Clinton (1738-1795) became commander of chief of British forces. He replaced William Howe (1729-1814), who was occupying Philadelphia. The British ministry ordered Clinton to abandon Philadelphia, go to New York, and dispatch some of his troops to the West Indies. While marching across New Jersey toward New York, patriots attacked neared Monmouth Court House, and Clinton's forces counterattacked. The Battle of Monmouth Court, which ended in a draw, was the last major battle in the North.

France, eager to rebuilt its prestige and power after the humilitating defeat in the Seven Years' War, had secretly aided America with money, arms, and supplies, and then in 1778 entered the war, thanks in part of Benjamin Franklin's successful diplomacy. Spain followed France in 1779, hoping to recover Gibraltar and the Floridas. In May 1780, French Count Rochambeau would land at Newport, Rhode Island, with 6000 troops, who would eventually march south to Yorktown in Virginia.

Alarmed in February 1778 by France's intervention, Lord North sent commissioners to North America with a peace offer, renouncing the right of taxing Americans. But Congress rejected this offer June 17, since with the French alliance, independence had become an attainable goal. Clinton subsequently offered amnesty to Americans and argued that only France would benefit from continued warfare. Clinton's proclamation of October 3, 1778, represented Britain's last formal attempt at reconciliation, offering the colonists all they had originally wanted.

Having amply and repeatedly made known to the Congress, and having also proclaimed to the inhabitants of North America in general, the benevolent overtures of Great-Britain towards a re-union and coalition with her colonies, we do not think it consistent either with the duty we owe to our country, or with a just regard to the characters we bear, to persist in holding out offers which in our estimation required only to be known to be most gratefully accepted.

To the members of the Congress then, we again declare that we are ready to concur in all satisfactory and just arrangements for securing to them and their respective constituents, the re-establishment of peace, with the exemption from any imposition of taxes by the Parliament of Great-Britain, and the irrevocable enjoyment of every privilege consistent with that union of interests and force on which our mutual prosperity and the safety of our common religion and liberties depend.

To the General Assemblies and Conventions of the different Colonies. we now separately make the offers which we originally transmitted to the Congress, and we hereby call upon and urge them to meet expressly for the purpose of considering whether every motive, political as well as moral, should not decide their resolution to embrace the occasion of cementing a free and firm coalition with Great-Britain. It has not been, nor is it, our wish, to seek the objects which we are commissioned to pursue by fomenting popular divisions and partial cabals we think such conduct would be ill-suited to the generous nature of the offers made, and unbecoming the dignity of the King and the State which make them. But it is both our wish and our duty to encourage and support any men or bodies of men in their return of loyalty to our Sovereign and of affection to our fellow-subjects.

The policy as well as the benevolence of Great-Britain have thus far checked the extremes of war when they tended to distress a people still considered as our fellow-subjects, and to desolate a country shortly to become again a source of mutual advantage: but when that country professes the unnatural design not only of estranging herself from us but of mortgaging her self and her resources to our enemies, the whole contest is changed and the question is, How far Great Britain may by every means in her power destroy or render useless a connexion contrived for her ruin, and for the aggrandizement of France. Under such circumstances the laws of self-preservation must direct the conduct of Great Britain.


Source: Gilder Lehrman Institute

Additional information: Sir Henry Clinton, "Manifesto and Proclamation to the Members of the General Assemblies"

Battle of Monmouth

The winter of 1777-78 was one of relative ease for British forces under General William Howe. They occupied the American capital of Philadelphia, having dispatched the rebel Congress in ignominious flight to York, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia’s large loyalist population wined and dined the officers and Howe conducted an open affair with the wife of consenting Joshua Loring Jr., a prosperous prison contractor. The general’s inclination to enjoy the comforts of urban life precluded an effort to engage Washington’s forces at nearby Valley Forge, but it did anger Howe’s superiors. Benjamin Franklin, then the American diplomatic representative in France, was asked if Howe had taken Philadelphia he responded that, in truth, Philadelphia had taken Howe. In the spring, a replacement was sent in the person of Sir Henry Clinton. British commanders had received word in early 1778 that a French fleet was on its way to America Louis XVI’s government was intent on aiding the patriot cause in the wake of the British failure at Saratoga in October of the previous year. France had initially doubted America’s resolve and ability to wage an effective war against Britain, but was now willing to cast its lot with the upstart colonists. Clinton moved quickly to return to the British safe haven in New York City, fearing that if he remained in Philadelphia he would risk being surrounded by hostile forces. It was anticipated that the French fleet would soon control Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, and in so doing drive a wedge between the British armies. On June 18, Clinton began the evacuation, giving frightened loyalists first crack at the waiting ships this left the bulk of the British force to proceed across New Jersey on foot. The long queue of soldiers, loyalists, wagons and baggage stretched out for 10 miles.

Washington immediately began to shadow the British movement. He decided to strike against the rear guard and initially chose the Marquis de Lafayette to lead the attack. However, Major-General Charles Lee felt slighted by the foreigner's proposed elevation and succeeded in wresting the command. On June 28, Lee’s forces engaged a portion of the British army near Monmouth Court House (present-day Freehold, New Jersey). After a brief skirmish, Lee learned that British reinforcements under Lord Cornwallis were drawing near and ordered the withdrawal of his men. As he pulled back, Lee encountered an astonished George Washington. An angry exchange occurred between the two and Lee was relieved of his command. With the invaluable assistance of Baron von Steuben, Washington managed to re-form the American ranks and engage the enemy again the fighting continued throughout the remainder of the day. During the night the British broke camp and marched on toward Sandy Hook in extreme northeast New Jersey. From there they quickly embarked upon a short voyage over Lower New York Bay and through The Narrows to the safety of Manhattan. Washington prudently decided not to follow and instead marched his army northward to rejoin other American forces encamped along the Hudson River. Both sides claimed victory at Monmouth. British losses were considerably higher than the Americans (approximately 1,200 casualties to 300), but the latter force was further depleted by heavy desertions. The patriot forces took credit for their enemy’s flight from Philadelphia and New Jersey, and experienced a large boost in morale. Most historians regard this battle as a tactical draw. Charles Lee’s conduct was curious at best. He resented his dismissal by Washington and demanded a court-martial. He was found guilty of disobedience and willful neglect of duty, and was sentenced to a one-year suspension. This verdict was later upheld by the Congress, but Lee refused to accept the suspension. He was then expelled from the army and retired into obscurity.

Clinton Sir Henry - History

Clinton's Family Tree
by William F. Dankenbring

In a recent issue of "Prophecy in the News" magazine, author J. R. Church informs us of a most striking genealogy. He writes:

In an Associated Press article published in The Daily Oklahoman, October 28, 1996, Harold Brooks-Baker, director of Burke's Peerage, a London-based publishing house that traces the lineage of royal and noble families, said that Bill Clinton and Bob Dole have more in
common than wanting to be president. They are distant cousins! However, Clinton has bluer blood, giving him an election edge.

Bill Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe, but took his stepfather's name as a teenager. Clinton's ancestry can be traced
back, on his mother's side, to King Henry III who ruled England from 1227 to 1272. He is descended from King Robert I of France.

Furthermore, he is related to every Scottish monarch to the current British royal family. Clinton's royal roots include several medieval
monarchs and Simon de Montfort, a statesman and soldier under King Henry III. Through de Montfort, Clinton is related to every ancient aristocratic family in Britain today.

J. R. Church continues the incredible story:

Over the past six years, efforts to uncover Clinton's personal history have been nigh unto impossible to confirm. The President had
all records of his family history, school records, medical history, etc. sealed.

In 1992, we called Burke's Peerage and asked if they had done any research into Clinton's lineage. We were told that they had not done
a genealogical search on his ancestry. It seemed strange to us at the time that they denied knowing anything about Clinton. Shortly
afterward, we came across an AP story that linked Clinton to a Gypsy king--citing Burke's Peerage as a source. We again called Burke's
Peerage and repeated our request. Again, they told us that no work had been done. That's when we read the article to the person on the
phone, naming Harold Brooks-Baker as a source. She then admitted that they had done some work on the genealogy. She said that we should talk with Harold Brooks-Baker, himself. She requested that we fax a letter and request a reply.

We did as she asked. Two days later, having received no reply, we called again. This time, we were able to get Mr. Harold Brooks-Baker on the phone. He asked why we wanted the information, and said he would have to clear our request with Washington. He said, 'It's a very touchy subject.' He talked like there might be something to hide.

Indeed! What might that closely-guarded secret be? J. R. Church continues his riveting story:

Bill Clinton's family goes back to William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison, making him related to Gerald Ford and Jimmy
Carter. His kinship to Ford makes him 'near kin' to Richard Nixon and George Bush. Small world, isn't it?

There is no official documentation for what I am about to relate. I talked with a man in the summer of 1996 who claimed to be a
descendant of the Rothschild banking family. He informed me that Bill Clinton used to attend their family functions as a boy.

This man grew up in the same town with Clinton. They attended the same schools. He would see Bill at family get-togethers wearing a
Jewish skullcap. According to him, Bill Clinton is a descendant of the Rothschild family.

He said the rabbis would kiss his hand and refer to him as the Segulah Yeled Eklatosh--the 'royal-boy-chosen.' He said that
according to private family records, the original Meyer Amschel (Bauer) Rothschild (pictured, right) claimed to have had a heavenly visitor in 1773,
who informed him that Jesus was not the Messiah. He told Meyer Amschel that the family from which he descended would produce the
Messiah in the last half of the twentieth century.

A few weeks later I read in 'The Jewish Festivals' by Hayyim Schauss (published in 1938) that the Roman Emperor Nero had faked his death, escaped and married a Jewish woman. The famous thirteenth century
Rabbi Meir (also spelled Meyer) of Rothenberg, Germany, claimed direct descent from Nero. I called my Rothschild family friend and
asked it there was a family connection. Two days later he called me back, and said 'Yes! The Rothschilds are descended from Nero!'. "
("Roots of the Presidents," by J. R. Church, Prophecy in the News, July 1998, pages 18-19).

[This article goes on to describe Nero's character and ends by saying Nero's Aramaic name (Nron Ksr) equals 666. They also show
William Jefferson Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton as both adding up to 666 but the numbers are off as published.]

Prophecy Flash!
Jan-Feb 1999
Triumph Prophetic Ministries


Henry Clinton was born, probably in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. [1] Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date widely propagated even in modern biographic summaries [ citation needed ] according to biographer William Willcox, Clinton claimed in a notebook found in 1958 to be born in 1730, and that evidence from English peerage records places the date of birth as 16 April. [1] Willcox also notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. [2] Historian John Fredriksen claims that Clinton was born in Newfoundland [3] his father was posted there from 1732 to 1738. [1]

Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. [1] Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain. They were not obviously well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. [2] In 1739 his father, then stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle (who was his brother's brother-in-law). [4] However, he did not actually go to New York until 1743 he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. [5] Henry's career would also benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. [6]

Records of the family's life in New York are sparse. He is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. [6] Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745. The next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, and he was assigned to garrison duty at the recently captured Fortress Louisbourg. [6] In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career. It was two years before he received a commission as a captain in the Coldstream Guards. [7] His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. [8]

Seven Years' War

By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, which was later renamed the Grenadier Guards, and was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London. The 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 then joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. [9] George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760.

Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761, then under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld. His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs.

In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position. It was after this engagement that the unit lost its Commanding Officer, General (Colonel) Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a Colonel (seniority dated to 24 June 1762), was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton severely wounded forcing him to quit the field. This and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. [10] Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship. [11]

During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances, mostly with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling" both of these men would face Clinton as enemies in North America. He formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, and William Phillips Phillips later served under Clinton in North America, and Jervis rose to prominence in the Royal Navy. He also made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. [12]

Family and marriage

While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died. As the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, and attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere these lands were confiscated during the American Revolution, and even his heirs were unable to recover any kind of compensation for them. His mother, who had a history of mental instability and played only a small part in his life, died in August 1767. [13]

On 12 February 1767, Clinton married Harriet Carter, the daughter of landed gentry, [14] and the couple settled into a house in Surrey. There is some evidence that the marriage was performed in haste six months later, the household accounts contain evidence of a son, Frederick. Frederick died of an illness in 1774, two years after his mother. Although Clinton did not write of his marriage, it was apparently happy. The couple produced five children: Frederick, Augusta (1768), William Henry (1769), Henry Jr. (1771), and Harriet (1772). Clinton's wife died on 29 August 1772, eight days after giving birth to Harriet. [15] It took him over a year to recover from the grief. He took his in-laws into his house, and his wife's sisters took over the care of his children. [16]


Upon the death of the Duke of Newcastle, his patronage was taken up by the latter's nephew and successor Henry Pelham-Clinton. Although he was at times instrumental in advancing Clinton's career, the new duke's lack of attention and interest in politics would at time work against Clinton. Clinton also complicated their relationship by treating the young duke more as an equal than as a noble who should be respected. [17] A second patron was King George III's brother the Duke of Gloucester. Clinton was appointed Gloucester's Groom of the Bedchamber in 1764, a position he continued to hold for many years. However, some of Gloucester's indiscretions left him out of favour at court, and he was thus not an effective supporter of Clinton. [18]

Peacetime service

In 1769 Clinton's regiment was assigned to Gibraltar, and Clinton served as second in command to Edward Cornwallis. During this time, Newcastle asked him to see after one of his (Newcastle's) sons who was serving in the garrison. The young man, described by his father as having "sloth and laziness" and "despicable behavior", was virtually unmanageable, and Clinton convinced the duke to put him into a French academy. [19]

Clinton was promoted to major general in 1772, [20] and in the same year he obtained a seat in Parliament through Newcastle's influence. [21] He remained a Member of Parliament until 1784, first for Boroughbridge and subsequently for Newark-on-Trent. [22] In April 1774 he went on a military inspection tour of the Russian army in the Balkans. He inspected some of the battlefields of the Russo-Turkish War with his friend Henry Lloyd, a general in the Russian army, and had an audience with Joseph II in Vienna. [23] He very nearly had the chance to watch an artillery bombardment, but it was called off by the onset of peace negotiations. Clinton was at one point introduced to the Turkish negotiators, of whom he wrote that "they stared a little, but were very civil." [24] He returned to England in October 1774, and in February 1775 was ordered by King George to prepare for service in North America. [25]

Clinton Sir Henry - History

Sir Henry Clinton was born in England on April 16, 1730, the son of George Clinton (1686-1761) and Anne Carle (1696-1761). His father served 35 years in the Royal Navy and as governor of Newfoundland (1733-41) and New York (1743-1753), and was the uncle of Henry Fiennes Clinton, 2nd duke of Newcastle. Clinton's mother was the daughter of Major-General Peter Carle. George and Anne Clinton had two additional children: Mary (1727-1813) and Lucy (1729-1750).

Henry Clinton's first military experience came in 1745, when he became a lieutenant of fusiliers in an independent company of infantry. He obtained a commission as a captain the following spring and was involved in the occupation of the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton during King George's War. By the autumn of 1748, Clinton had risen to the rank of captain lieutenant, and in the summer of 1749 he was promoted to captain and granted leave to go to France.

During this period, the Duke of Newcastle secured Clinton a commission in the Coldstream Guards, where Clinton served from 1751 to 1758. After his time in the unit, he joined the 1st Foot Guards from 1758 to 1762, where he was promoted lieutenant-colonel. During the Seven Years' War, Clinton served with his regiment in Germany, where he was aide-de-camp to Prince Charles of Brunswick. Promoted to colonel, he was wounded in late August 1762 in the Battle of Friedberg, and returned to England where he continued his military career, becoming colonel of the 12th Regiment of Foot in 1766. In 1772, he entered Parliament on behalf of his cousin, the 2nd Duke of Newcastle in the same year, Clinton was promoted to major general, and in February 1775 he accepted an appointment as third in command of British forces in North America under Thomas Gage and William Howe.

Arriving in Boston on May 25, 1775, Clinton immediately became involved in planning and executing British military strategy. Though successful in persuading a council of war to fortify Dorchester Heights, his recommended action against Nook's Hill was never carried out, and his relationships with Gage and Howe became increasingly strained. Clinton found himself unable to dissuade Gage from launching the attack on Charlestown Neck in the Battle of Bunker Hill that contributed to high British casualties. On September 26, following a lack of success against the rebels, Gage was ordered to transfer his command to Howe, and Clinton became second in command.

After being appointed to lead a detachment of Howe's forces in North Carolina, Clinton sailed from Boston in January 1776. In June of that year, Clinton led a joint force of Howe's detachment and forces newly arrived from England in an assault against Sullivan's Island, which commanded the entrance to Charleston, South Carolina. The attack failed, in part because of a miscalculation of water depth, and Clinton returned north, arriving in Sandy Hook with Charles Cornwallis and a contingent of 45 ships and 3,000 troops. Clinton was present at the Battle of Long Island on August 27, but was unable to convince Howe to accept his plans to destroy Washington's army. He was, however, able to capture Rhode Island on December 8, where he set up winter quarters.

After being granted leave, Clinton arrived in England on February 28, 1777, where he was invested with the Order of the Bath in April and briefed on the British government's plans for the prosecution of the war. Upon his return to New York in July, he learned of the campaign planned by Howe and Burgoyne in his absence, in which Howe would move against Philadelphia and New York while Burgoyne simultaneously invaded from Canada. Clinton failed to convince Howe that the government expected him instead to cooperate with a British force moving south from Canada in a campaign along the Hudson River, and was left to hold New York City while Howe proceeded to Pennsylvania. In early October, Clinton embarked with three thousand troops, intent on going up the Hudson to meet Burgoyne's forces, and on October 5 he was able to capture the Highland forts. A displeased Howe stripped Clinton of his troops, which, combined with Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga, prompted Clinton to request to resign. Howe could not, however, grant Clinton's resignation as he had already submitted his own and needed to keep Clinton as his presumptive successor. On February 4, 1778, George Germain accepted Howe's resignation and informed Clinton of his promotion to commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America.

After France announced its treaty with the United States on March 13, 1778, Clinton was ordered to send five thousand troops to capture the French colony of St. Lucia and three thousand more to reinforce the Floridas and Britain's position in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. He evacuated Philadelphia in June and subsequently marched to New Jersey, where, on June 28, he engaged Continental troops at the Battle of Monmouth, the only battle that he commanded during the war. After an inconclusive result, Clinton and his army were ferried to New York to which, after a brief stint in Rhode Island, Clinton returned in September. In November, he sent seven thousand men south in a successful attempt to assist loyalists in the restoration of royal government in Georgia. Despite the promise of success, Clinton remained in New York through the spring and summer of 1779, capturing Stony Point and Verplanck's Point in May, but primarily awaiting reinforcements before embarking on any large military action. When these reinforcements did arrive in late August, Clinton prepared to meet the incoming French forces by withdrawing his forces from the Points and, on October 7, evacuating Rhode Island.

On December 26, 1779, Clinton embarked with Mariot Arbuthnot for South Carolina in an attempt to capture Charleston. The British Army landed near Charleston on February 14, 1780, and besieged the city in an attempt to capture both the city and the large American army quartered there. After Charleston's surrender on May 12, Clinton established the British hold on the South by building armed camps in the South Carolina interior and raising local Loyalist units. Before leaving, Clinton appointed Lord Cornwallis to take command of the British forces in the southern provinces, which numbered approximately 6,500 troops. Clinton returned to New York on June 18, but gradually saw his movements restricted by the arrival of French troops at Rhode Island. Consequently, he moved his army southward, inadvertently focusing the war on Virginia.

Meanwhile, Cornwallis attempted to invade North Carolina, necessitating the transfer of significant reinforcements from Clinton's army. After defeating Horatio Gates at the Battle of Camden, Cornwallis was able to take his remaining force to Virginia, leaving the interior of South Carolina exposed and greatly angering Clinton, who still did not intend to concentrate the war effort on the southern colonies. With the knowledge that the approaching French fleet would make British forces in the Chesapeake vulnerable, Clinton nonetheless allowed Cornwallis to establish a base at Yorktown, where Cornwallis was eventually forced to surrender on October 19, 1781. On that same day, Clinton and Admiral Thomas Graves embarked from Sandy Hook with the intention of engaging the French fleet and relieving Cornwallis position, but the defeat at Yorktown irrevocably handed victory to the Americans.

Clinton's active military career was effectively ended after the defeat at Yorktown, and on April 27, 1782, he received Lord Germain's dispatch accepting his resignation a day later he was notified that Sir Guy Carleton was appointed his successor. Clinton returned to England in June 1782, where he found his reputation severely undermined by his failure in America and where he subsequently undertook various efforts to defend his actions in the war. His efforts to rehabilitate his reputation included writing pamphlets against Cornwallis and a long unpublished manuscript apologia. Despite his unpopularity, Clinton secured a seat in Parliament from 1790-1794, representing Launceston, Cornwall. On December 23, 1795, after receiving the governorship of Gibraltar, but before he could embark, Clinton died at Portland Place, his home in London.

On February 12, 1767, Clinton married Harriot Carter (ca. 1746-1772), with whom he had at least four children: Augusta (1768-1852), William Henry (1769-1846), Henry (1771-1829), and Harriot (1772-1812). Before their marriage, they may have had an additional child, Frederick, who died in 1774. Clinton also had a daughter, Sophia, with a German woman named Elizabeth Preussen, and several children with his longtime mistress, Mary Baddeley.

Watch the video: King Henry VIII vs. Hillary Clinton - SCRAPPED AUDIO. (July 2022).


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