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Battle of Mount Falernus, 90 BC

Battle of Mount Falernus, 90 BC


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Battle of Mount Falernus, 90 BC

The battle of Mount Falernus (90 BC) was a victory for the Italians over a Roman force under Pompey Strabo that was moving to besiege Asculum (Social War).

The Social War began with a massacre of all of the Romans in Asculum, a city in south-central Picenum, on the Adriatic coast of Italy. Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, the father of Pompey the Great and a major Roman landowner in Picenum, was given command of the army sent to besiege Asculum.

The Italians moved to block his advance. The Italian forces were commanded by three generals. C. Vidacilius from Asculum and T Lafrenius, the praetor of the Piceni are clearly identified. The identity of the third commander isn't so clear, with P. Ventidus or P. Vettius Scato given as alternatives.

Vettius Scato was one of the more successful Italian commanders, and Cicero recalled a meeting between him and Pompey Strabo, which probably places Scato in Picenum at some point during the war.

P. Ventidius was the name of one of Caesar's generals, who was said to have been captured as a child during the Social War and forced to take part in Pompey's triumph. He was the son of another Publius Ventidius, who may have been the Italian commander during this battle.

The location of Mount Falernus isn't known for sure. However a town called Falerio was founded, probably by Augustus, on the River Tinna, which flows east through central Picenum, passing just to the north of Firmum and it would seem lilely that Mount Falernus was somewhere close to this site.

This isn't the Mount Falernus famous for producing one of the best wines of ancient Italy, which was on the coast thirty miles to the north-west of Naples.

According to Appian the three Italian commanders combined their forces, defeated Pompey near Mount Falernus, and pursued him east to Firmum. Vidacilius and Ventidus/ Vettius moved away, leaving Lafrenius to besiege Pompey in Firmum. The siege of Firmum ended after Lafrenius was killed during a Roman sortie, and Pompey was finally free to move on to besiege Asculum.


How a 1924 Bigfoot battle on Mt. St. Helens helped launch a legend: Throwback Thursday

What defines the Pacific Northwest in the popular imagination? Surely a mix of stereotypical images comes to the average American’s mind: serial killers and indie rockers, strong coffee and liberal politics.

Then there’s the pièce de résistance: Bigfoot. Our famous hidden resident.

It’s one of the Northwest’s most familiar in-jokes. Sasquatch can be found on hipster mugs and T-shirts, and hairy beasts roam the streets on Halloween. A popular music festival is named after the creature.

Spirit Lake (The Oregonian)

As a result, it’s been largely forgotten that intrepid investigators in these parts took the mystery seriously for years, tracking giant footprints and collecting reports of freaky whistling noises heard in the forest.

No one knows for sure when the Northwest's Bigfoot legend truly began, but the most successful launching pad for the public's obsession with it is known: a battle that supposedly took place in a narrow gorge on the east flank of Mt. St. Helens. The gorge is now called Ape Canyon.

That’s where, in the summer of 1924, a group of gold prospectors stumbled out of the woods, shaking and glassy-eyed, to tell of 7-foot-tall ape-like animals attacking them with boulders.

Fred Beck, Gabe Lefever, John Peterson, Marion Smith and Smith’s son Roy described coming upon “gorilla men” near where they had built a small cabin for their gold-hunting forays.

They claimed they were eight miles from Spirit Lake when they encountered four of the giant animals moving through the forest with erect, human-like strides. “They are covered with long, black hair,” The Oregonian reported, relating the descriptions offered by the men. “Their ears are about four inches long and stick straight up. They have four toes, short and stubby.” The witnesses estimated each animal weighed about 400 pounds.

A 1970s Bigfoot photo submitted to The Oregonian by a hiker. (Oregonian archive)

Taken aback at the sight of the huge beasts, Fred Beck fired his rifle at one of the creatures, and, struck three times, the wounded animal toppled off a cliff. (Beck reportedly claimed years later that another member of the party fired the shots.)

The violence proved a mistake.

That night, the men said, they were awakened when huge stones began clomping against the outside of their cabin. Then they heard -- and felt -- giant bodies slamming against the walls and door. The ape-men were seeking revenge.

The beasts eventually tore a hole in the roof, allowing them to target Beck.

“Many of the rocks fell through a hole in the roof, and two of the rocks struck Beck, one of them rendering him unconscious for nearly two hours,” The Oregonian reported.

Finally, the prospectors said, the sun began to come up, which prompted the animals to break off their attack and slip away. The men poked their heads out the door and, when they decided the coast was clear, ran out of the woods.

Tales of giant “ape-men” weren’t exactly new to the area. Hunters, lumberjacks and prospectors had seen massive footprints now and again over the years, and Native Americans in the area had spoken of “mountain devils.” But few people seriously worried about the possibility of huge, unknown creatures being out there in the forest.

That changed when the gold-hunters returned to civilization that summer day in 1924. The dramatic story of their battle with large, human-like beasts was irresistible -- and thus hard for people to dismiss.


The Role Geology Played In One Of The Most Famous Last Stands In History

The Thermopylae, the "hot gates" or also "gates of fire," is a mountain pass at the foot of Mount Kallidromo in modern Greece where legend tells that King Leonidas and 300 of his Spartan warriors fought millions of Persians during Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. They were able to hold the mountain pass for several days until they were betrayed and finally defeated. The battle recorded by Greek historians was the inspiration for a 1962 movie, a comic and a remake in 2006, very loosely based on the historical facts.

'Leonidas at Thermopylae' (1814) by Jacques-Louis David. Image in Public Domain.

Xerxes assembled his army in the Persian province of Lydia, modern Turkey, and marched along the coastline of the Greek peninsula towards Athens. In August 480 B.C. he reached a narrow coastal strip located between the mountains and the Gulf of Malia - the Thermopylae. At the time of the battle, the slopes of Mount Kallidromo would have been more heavily wooded than today and the sea came right up to the pass. So the Thermopylae were a narrow passage between the impassable high ground and the sea. This location created the perfect bottleneck which would prevent a numerically superior Persian army, with an estimated 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers, from overwhelming the much smaller army of Leonidas, consisting of 300 Spartans and 5,000 to 7,000 soldiers from other Greek city-states. By blocking the way, Leonidas slowed down the Persian invasion, giving the Greeks time to retreat and reorganize.

View of the Thermopylae pass today. In ancient times the coastline was where the modern road lies, . [+] or even closer to the mountain. Image by Wikipedia/ Fkerasar, CC BY-SA 3.0

The strategic location of the Thermopylae is no geological coincidence. Hot springs of sulfur water, fed by groundwater flowing along tectonic faults, gave the pass its name. The pass is located along a large fault zone, crossing the entire Aegean Sea and the Greek peninsula, where the Eurasian plate meets the Aegean microplate. The movements along the plate boundaries formed a series of parallel faults in the mountains, where a large block of crust moved downwards, forming a tectonic graben. Such normal faults generally occur at angles of 30 to 60 degrees and it is the orientation of the faults that shapes the steep faces of Mount Kallidromo. As the graben was also partially inundated by the sea, the Malian Gulf, the narrow passage of the Thermopylae formed.

Simplified geological map showing the geology at the Thermopylae.

At daybreak on the third day Persian soldiers, using a poorly guarded path above the Thermopylae, attacked the Greek camp. Persian forces outflanked the soldiers and Leonidas, together with all of his men, was killed. The Persians finally overran the city of Athens, evacuated in time thanks to the sacrifice of the Spartans.

The Greek army was able to reorganize and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 B.C. and in 481 B.C. at the Battle of Plataea. Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia.

As the Spercheios River deposited sediments in the graben, the sea has been regressing eastwards since 480 B.C. and today a wide coastal plain marks the site of the battle. Still, the pass remains a natural defensive position for modern armies, and the British Commonwealth forces in World War II made a defense there in 1941 against a Nazi invasion.

Interested in reading more? Try:

KRAFT et al. (1987): The Pass at Thermopylae, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 14 (2): 181-198


Modern Evidence

The recovered male skeletons were all soldiers who had died in the famous 480 BC Battles of Himera more than 2,400 years ago, but until now nobody had a clue where they had come from. The researchers found “a potential bias in ancient writings” which they think means Ancient Greek historians intentionally downplayed the role of foreign mercenaries in the Battles of Himera.

In these battles in 480 BC, the ancient Greek city of Himera successfully defended a string of attacks from a Carthaginian army. According to Hellenicaword it is known this army, led by Hamilcar, comprised troops from “Carthage, Libya, Iberia, Liguria, Helisycia, Sardinia, and Corsica against the Sicilians”. However, an accurate break down of the soldiers of this multi-national army has always been elusive from the available evidence.

Now, the authors of the study are comparing the new geochemical evidence to the historical accounts of the battle. Dr Reinberger compared the analysis of isotopes against the claims of Ancient Greek historians and discovered the two data sets didn’t match. Something was far wrong, for the isotopes revealed Hamilcar´s force comprised significant amounts of “mercenaries and foreign soldiers”. But the Greek accounts mentioned little about this.

Mass grave excavated at Himera (Davide Mauro / CC BY-SA 4.0 )


Siege and Aftermath

The Battle of Megiddo was immediately followed by a siege. Pharaoh had his men dug a moat and built their own defensive wall around the city. After seven months of slow starvation, the city eventually surrendered. The King of Kadesh escaped, but the rest of those within the city were captured, and spared by a merciful Pharaoh.

As well as armor and chariots, the victors took home over 2,000 horses, 340 prisoners, nearly 25,000 cattle and sheep, and the royal war gear of the King of Megiddo.

More importantly, the victory at Megiddo enabled them to conquer other cities in the region, securing it once more for the Egyptian Empire.


Battle of Mount Falernus, 90 BC - History

2000 Abraham meets Melchizedek, King of Salem and Priest of "God most high" (El Elyon), Genesis 14:18 -20, Hebrews 6:20-7:22). Abraham journeys three days from Beersheba or Gerar to Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice in obedience to God's command. God provides a ram as a substitute. (Genesis 22, Hebrews 11:8-19). Mt. Moriah is the site of the Temple Mount.

1400 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem, Joshua launches the conquest into Jerusalem (Joshua 10:23)

1000 The Jebusite stronghold in Jerusalem is captured by King David. The city of David is built south of the Temple Mount. David reigns thirty-three years in Jerusalem after a 7 year reign in Hebron (2 Samuel 5:1-15). The Ark of the Covenant is returned by David into Jerusalem and placed in the Tabernacle Moses built there. (2 Samuel 6:1-18, 1 Chronicles 15:1-16). David plans to build the First Temple but is not permitted because he is a man of war. He purchases Araunah's threshing floor and erects an altar of sacrifice on Mt. Moriah. This is the site of the First Temple.

950 Solomon with the help of Hiram of Tyre and 183, 600 workers builds the First Temple and royal palace. He uses local limestone, cedar from Lebanon and great amounts of gold and silver. (1 Kings 5:9, 2 Chronicles 2). Solomon also enlarges the city. (1 Kings 7:1-12). Building of temple takes seven years.

935 Civil War. The Kingdom is divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah). Ten Tribes are part of the Northern Kingdom while only two (Judah and Benjamin) belong to the southern.

910 Solomon's Temple is plundered by Shishak (Sheshonk) Pharaoh of Egypt. Much gold and silver are taken. (1 Kings 14:25-28, 2 Chronicles 12:1-11).

835 Joash repairs the Temple, establishes maintenance fund, and brings period of revival and reform to the southern kingdom. (2 Kings 12:5ff).

720 Ahaz king of Judah dismantles Solomon's bronze vessels and places private Syrian altar in the Temple (2 Kings 16:1-20, 2 Chronicles 29-31). He later stripped the gold to pay tribute to Sennacherib.

716 Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrians attempt to capture Jerusalem. (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs stopped up.

640 King Josiah repairs the Temple and brings about national religious reforms (2 Chronicles 34-35). Last mention of the Ark of the Covenant.

606 The Babylonian Period. The approaching "times of the gentiles" is signalled by Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Judah. Jerusalem is taken and the first wave of Jews carried into captivity, Daniel among them. Jerusalem will soon be lose her national sovereignty as a self-governing entity from the time of the Babylonian captivity until the end of the great tribulation period. The Babylonian dominion of Israel is the head-of-gold period (Daniel 2:36-38 2 Kings 24:1 2 Chronicles 36:5-6 Daniel 1:1-2 Luke 21:24).

598 Jerusalem is plundered by Nebuchadnezzar for a second time.

597 King Jehoiachin is carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar and the second wave of Jews is taken into Babylon, Ezekiel among them (2 Kings 24:10-16 2 Chronicles 36:10 Ezekiel 1:2).

587 Zedekiah rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. He is blinded and taken to Babylon where he dies. Zedekiah is the last king in the line of David to reign in Israel until the Messiah reigns during the millennium (Ezekiel 34:23-24 Jeremiah 23:5 2 Kings 24:18-25:21 2 Chronicles 36:13-21 Jeremiah 9:1-8).

586 9th of Av. Nebuchadnezzar burns the city, and destroys the Temple. He murders many of the inhabitants and carries off a great number into captivity. (2 Kings 24-25, 2 Chronicles 36). The destruction of Jerusalem is the starting date for the "Times of the Gentiles"--Yeshua said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the gentiles until the times of the gentiles are fulfilled" (Luke 21:24 ). Messiah's return in glory will close this period of Israel's history.

573 Prophet Jeremiah predicts a seventy year captivity in Babylon. The prophet Ezekiel, a captive in Babylon, receives a vision from God giving great detail of a future Temple that is to be built.

553 Belshazzar desecrates the Temple vessels in Babylon. Handwriting on the wall seals his fate that night as Babylon is taken by the Medes and Persians. (Daniel 5)

539 Cyrus, having established himself in control of the Medo-Persian empire in 549 B.C., captures Babylon, and the second world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles comes upon the world scene. This is the breast-and-arms-of-silver period (Daniel 2:32, 39 6:1-3).

538 The edict of Cyrus opens the way for the Jews in Babylon to return to the land (Ezra 1:1-4).

536 The seventy years of captivity are over. Cyrus the Persian gives the decree as the prophet Isaiah had predicted 170 years earlier.

517 Through the leadership of Nehemiah and Zerubbabel, the Second Temple is completed despite fierce opposition and delays. An altar of sacrifice is built on the Temple Mount. Temple is completed after a fifteen year delay.

332 Flavius Josephus records that Alexander the Great's invading army is met by priests outside of Jerusalem. They convince him not to destroy Jerusalem by showing prophecy contained in Scripture concerning him. Alexander spares city and the Temple.

515 The second temple is dedicated in Jerusalem (Ezra 6:15-18).

539 Fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians.

539-334 The Persian Period. The Jews are in the land but are under the control of the Persians (Josephus, Antiquities 111:7).

538 First return to build the Temple, (Ezra Chapter 1).

536 Feast of Tabernacles kept in Jerusalem, and foundation of temple laid, (Ezra 3). Then Temple building stopped for 16 years

515 Temple finally finished

458 Nehemiah goes to Jerusalem. Rebuilds the walls of the city in 52 days (Nehemiah 6:15), August/September

445 Decree of Artaxerxes Longimanus starts the 70 weeks of Daniel running (Daniel 9:24 Neh 2).

334-332 Alexander the Great

320 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Soter.

314 The city is taken by Antiochus the Great.

301 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Epiphanes.

170 Jerusalem is captured by Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus murders Jews and plunders Jerusalem. He offers a pig on the altar and carries off the Temple treasuries. Worship and sacrifice is halted.

166 Judas Maccabaeus leads a Jewish revolt that gains back Jerusalem. Temple is cleansed and sacrifices are restored. (1 Maccabees 4)

164 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Eupator.

141 The Roman fortress is conquered by the Maccabees freeing the Temple from pagan supervision.

126 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Soter.

65 Jerusalem is besieged by Aratus.

63 Jerusalem is captured by the Roman general Pompey. Pompey enters the holy of holies in the Temple and is disappointed to find it empty.

40 Jerusalem is captured by the Parthians.

38 Taken by Herod the Great a cruel ruler who was a ruthless murderer. It was he who ordered the slaughter of the innocents at Bethlehem. (Matt. 2). Herod ordered the Temple enlarged. A new Temple is rebuilt over the sight of Zerubbabel's Temple. Temple and courts rebuilt until A.D. 63. City and walls under construction for 46 years (John 2).

334-167 The Hellenistic Period. The Jews, in the land, are under the successive dominion of the Greeks, then the Ptolemies of Egypt, and then the Seleucids of Syria. This is the third great world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles. It is the belly-and-thighs-of-brass era (Daniel 2:32. 39 Josephus, Antiquities 11.7-12.6 Daniel 11:2-20).

175-163 The reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes whom Daniel saw as a type of the coming Antichrist (Daniel 8:1-2 11:21-35 Josephus, Antiquities 12.5-9 1 Maccabees 1:16:16 2 Mac. 4:7-9:28).

167-63 The Maccabean revolt and subsequent Hasmonean dynasty in Judea. A short time of Jewish independence. This is the little-help period of Daniel 11:34. (Josephus, Antiquities 12.6-14.4).

New Testament Events (6 B.C. to A.D. 60)

Luke 2: Jesus was circumcised and dedicated in the Temple.

Luke 2: Jesus at age twelve visits the temple. At Jesus' temptation, the Devil takes Him to the pinnacle of the Temple.

John Jesus cleanses the Temple.

Matthew 24 Jesus pronounces judgment on the Temple.

Acts Peter and John heal a lame man at the gate beautiful.

Acts Herod puts James to the sword.

29/30 The first Pentecost after the death and resurrection of Jesus sees the coming of the Holy Spirit to create the church by baptizing believers into the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:13). The age of the church runs its course within the times of the gentiles between Pentecost and the rapture. This is the great parenthesis. The age of the church is never seen in the Old Testament. The course of the church age is pictured in Matthew 13 and Revelation 2-3. The close of the church age is seen in 1 Timothy 4:1-3 2 Timothy 3:1-5 4:34 and 2 Peter 2:1-3 3:3-4.

29/30 The Messiah Prince is cut off on the cross, and the sixty-ninth week of Daniel's prophecy ends. The prophetic time clock stops for Israel and will not resume again until the tribulation (Daniel 9:26).

40 Roman Emperor Caligula orders an image of himself to be placed in the Holy of Holies. Order is not carried out and Caligula soon dies.

63-70 The Roman Period. This is the fourth great world empire to dominate the Jews in the times of the gentiles. It is the legs-of-iron-and-feet-of clay era of Daniel 2:33 (Josephus, Antiquities 14.4-20.11).

63-70 The time of Israel's travail (Matthew 24:4-8) includes the great revolt against Rome, the coming of the people of the prince, and the fall of the second temple in 70 AD (Daniel 9:26 Matthew 24:2 Josephus, Wars 2:17-7:11).

70 Roman General Titus lays siege to Jerusalem destroying inhabitants, city, and Temple. The Temple is set afire.

132-135 The Jewish revolt of Bar Kokba against Rome.

135-1948 The second exile of the Jews (the diaspora).

135 The city of Jerusalem is sacked by the Emperor Hadrian.

395-636 Byzantine rule in Palestine.

614 Jerusalem is taken by the Persians.

629 Jerusalem captured by Heraclius.

636 Beginning of Arab rule in Palestine.

637 Jerusalem captured by the Saracens under Omar ibn al-Khatab.

691 The Dome of the Rock is completed on the temple mount where the Jewish temple previously stood. Until this day it dominates the only spot on earth where sacrifices can be offered according to the Torah.

1076 Atsiz takes Jerusalem from the Caliph al-Mostanther Billah.

1095 al-Afdhal ibn Bedr captures the city for Egypt after a 40 day siege.

1099 The Crusaders take Jerusalem. Christians rule in Palestine intermittently from 1099 to 1244.

1099 The Crusaders, under Godfrey de Bouillon, capture Jerusalem.

1187 Jerusalem captured by Salah-ed-Din the great Moslem conqueror.

1244 Sacked by the Mongol Hordes.

1247 Jerusalem captured by the Carizmians.

1517 Ottoman Turks under Saladin conquer Palestine. The present walls that surround the old city of Jerusalem are built.

1517 Selim I takes the city bringing it into the Ottoman Empire.

1822 Jerusalem taken by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

1897 The first Zionist Congress meets in Basel.

1917 Jerusalem captured by General Allenby of Britain. He humbly walks into the city of Jerusalem.

1948 War between newly established Israel against Jordan and Egypt in Jerusalem after which part of the city remains under Israeli rule and part under Jordan.

Other Events A.D.

1897-1948 This is the great era of Zionism's aliyahs in which many Jews return to the land-but in unbelief. This is as predicted in Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37).

1917 The British capture Palestine from the Turks in World War I. Death of the last Czar in Russia and last Kaiser in Germany. End of one form of old Roman Empire, (Revelation 17:10).

1922-1948 The British rule Palestine under a mandate from the League of Nations.

11/29/47 The United Nations General Assembly adopts partition plan for Palestine, providing for the establishment of a Jewish state.

5/24/48 The new state of Israel is proclaimed. Open immigration now permits vast numbers of Jews to return to the Land. The second exile ends (Ezekiel 11:14-17).

June, 1967 The Six-Day War. Jerusalem is liberated from Jordanian control and for the first time in nearly two thousand years the Jews are in complete control of Jerusalem. Control of the Golan Heights, Gaza Strip and Judea/Samaria (West Bank) by Israel.

6-24 Oct. 1973 The Yom Kippur War. U.S. and Russia send massive air lifts to their allies.

1992 Aliyah of at least 500,000 Jews from Russia. 16,000 Falasha Jews airlifted to Israel from Ethiopia.

Other Recent Events

The following is a more detailed chronology since the Old City of Jerusalem was regained by the Jews in 1967.

June 7th The Old City of Jerusalem falls into Israeli hands. Israeli paratrooper Mordehai Gur, mounted on a half track, takes the Temple Mount on the third day of the Six Day War. The Temple Mount is regained but authority is turned back over to the Muslims.

June 28 Prime Minister Levi Eshkol meets Moslem and Christian leaders from both side of the pr-war border and pledges free access to all holy places and the government's intention to place the internal administration for the holy places in the hands of the respective religious leaders. The same day the barriers came down between east and west Jerusalem.

August 1 Jerusalem police take on the maintenance of public order at the holy places in the Old City at the request of Moslem and Christian authorities who claim of improper behavior by visitors at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Temple Mount.

August 8 A committee headed by the ministry of religious affairs Zerah Warhaftig is given cabinet responsibility for the Holy places in Jerusalem and the West Bank.

August 15 IDF Chief Chaplain Aluf Shlomo Goren, and fifty followers including other army chaplains hold a service on the Temple Mount. Goren contends that some parts of the compound are not part of the Temple Mount and therefore the ban against Jews stepping on the Mount until the Temple is rebuilt does not apply. He said his measurements were based upon Josephus, Maimonides, Sa'adia Gaon and archaeological evidence. He also declared that the Dome of the Rock is not the site of the Holy of Holies.The defense ministry criticizes Goren noting that he is a senior army officer. Goren claims he first met with Warhaftig and that the Moslem authorities consented to his prayers.

August 17 An Israeli Defense Forces spokesman reveals that the arms cache was found during the fighting in the Al Aksa Mosque.

August 22 The Chief Rabbinate puts up signs outside the Compound noting the religious ban on visiting the Temple Mount area.

Sept. 9 Muslims protest against the abolition of fees to enter the Temple Mount area. The Defense Ministry says that the Wakf can only charge fees to enter the Mosques.

July 15 The President of the Moslem Court of Appeals turns down a request by an American Masonic Temple Order who asked permission to build a $100 Million "Solomon's" temple on the Temple Mount.

Dec. 19 Hanukkah prayers are offered by a group of nationalistic Jews on the Temple Mount.

April 15 State Attorney Zvi Bar Niv responding to an order against the Police Minister Shlomo Hillel, explains that Jews should not be allowed to pray on the Temple Mount because "premature prayer" by Jews on the Temple Mount would raise grave security and international political problems. The plaintiff is the Faithful of the Temple Mount.

August 21 A fire at the Al Aksa Mosque guts the southeastern wing. Brigades from West and East Jerusalem fight the blaze together for four hours while an angry Moslem crowd chants "Allah Akbar" and "Down with Israel." A curfew is imposed on the Old City. The president of the Moslem Council claims arson and charges deliberately slow response on the part of the fire brigades. Arab states blame Israel.

August 23 A non-Jewish Australian tourist, Dennis Michael Rohan, identifying himself as a member of the "Church of God" is arrested as a suspect in the arson. East Jerusalem and major West Bank towns go on general strike as an expression of grief and sorrow over the fire. Police use force to break up a demonstration at the compound exit. Angry demonstrations break out in Arab capitals.

August 27 Rohan tells the court he acted as the Lord's emissary" in accordance with the Book of Zechariah. The Temple Mount is closed to non-Muslims for two months.

Dec. 30 Court convicts Rohan but declares him not criminally liable by reason of insanity.

Sept. 9 High Court of Justice decides it has no jurisdiction in matters connected with the right and claims of different religious groups. Therefore it won't interfere with the position of the government prohibiting Jewish prayer on the Mount.

March 11 Altercation on Temple Mount occurs when students led by Gershon Salomon, a leader of the Faithful of the Temple Mount try to hold prayers on the site.

August 8 Despite police warnings, Rabbi Louis Rabinowitz and Knesset Member Binyamin Halevi pray on the Mount. They are removed.

October The Yom Kippur War. Israel is attacked by four nations. Israel gains territory in the Sinai and Golan Heights. Temple Mount is not affected.

Jan. 30 Magistrate Court Judge Ruth Or rules that Jews are permitted to pray on the Temple Mount. She acquits eight youths who were accused of disturbing public order by holding prayers on the site against police orders. Police Minister Shlomo Hillel says he will continue to bar prayers.

Feb. 1 Yitzhak Raphael, Minister of Religious Affairs, says praying on the Temple Mount is a religious law question and not in his jurisdiction.

Feb. 9 East Jerusalem high schools protest the court decision. The protests continue nearly two week with over 100 arrests. Shopkeepers strike and riots occur in West Bank towns. Security services impose inter-city travel ban.

Feb. 11 The January Magistrate Court decision of January 30th is appealed.

March 4 Kurt Waldheim, ex-Nazi and UN Secretary General, pledges to take up Islamic complaints about Israel interference with Moslem holy places and worshipers in Jerusalem.

March 8 A group of young people many non-religious led by Rabinowitz and Salomon are barred from the Temple Mount by police. The police say they are acting in accordance with the High Court decision of September 9, 1970 decision.

March 11 Ramallah Birzeit and El Bireh councils join Nablus in resigning to protest against police action against Arab demonstrations protesting Judge Ruth Or's Temple Mount decision.

March 17 Magistrate Or's ruling is overturned by Jerusalem District Court. The Court rules that eight Betar youths who attempted to pray "demonstratively" on the Temple Mount were guilty of behavior "likely to cause a breach of the peace." The court also rules that Jews have an "unquestionable historical and legal right to pray on the Temple Mount, but that these rights could not be exercise until the authorities had adopted regulations fixing the time and place for such prayers. Such regulations were necessary, said the court, in order to maintain public order. The court notes that the Religious Affairs Ministry had "good reason" for not yet setting the rules.

Aug. 10 The attorney general appeals to the Supreme Court on its Temple Mount ruling. Religious Affairs Minister Yitzhak Raphael will not rule on district Court jurisdiction until there's a Supreme Court decision.

June 28 Interior Minister Joseph Burg, given the police is a part of his purview, notes that those trying to pray on the Mount are "not exactly from the God-fearing sector." He states "the law will be kept. That is taken to mean that the Jews would continue to be barred from attempting to pray on the Temple Mount on the coming Tisha B'Av.

August 14 (Tisha B'Av) An attempt by 30 members of the El Har Hashem (To the Mount of God) to pray on the Temple Mount is foiled by the General Security Services. At a press conference, the group led by Gershon Salomon, emphasizes the ties of the Jewish people to the site and claims it is "absurd" that Jews were forbidden from entering the compound.

March 25 Rumors that followers of Meir Kahane and Yeshiva students would attempt Temple Mount prayers cause a general West Bank strike and bring 2,000 Arab youths with staves and rocks to the compound. They disperse after police intervention.

August 3 Land of Israel movement "Banai" and other nationalists, are prevented from praying on the Temple Mount.

August 6 The High Court is asked to revoke ban on prayer on the Temple Mount, in light of clause three of the new Jerusalem Law, which guarantees freedom of access.

August 10 300 members of Gush Emunim try to force their way onto the Temple Mount and are dispersed by police.

August 28 Religious Affairs Ministry workers are found digging a tunnel under the Temple Mount. The work began secretly a month earlier when water began leaking from a cistern under the Temple Mount and had to be drained. Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren closes the dig because of the issue's sensitivity.

August 30 Former Deputy Prime Minister Yigael Yadin protests quasi-archaeological activities of Religious Affairs Ministry north of the Western Wall.

Sept 2 Jews and Arabs clash with stones and fists in a tunnel north of the Western Wall. The Arabs had attempted to seal the cistern. A group of Yeshiva students under orders from Rabbi Getz, rabbi of the Western Wall, knocked down the wall. The two groups were separated by police after a scuffle. Police inspector-General Arye Ivtzan says the cistern will be sealed to restore the previous situation until there is a legal ruling. Ivtzan is praised by Mayor Teddy Kollek, and condemned by Goren, who says the cistern was part of the Second Temple and had nothing to do with Islam. The next day the cistern is sealed. Goren is quoted as saying the cistern was a tunnel that could lead to temple treasures "including the lost ark."

Sept. 4 A strike by the Supreme Moslem Council closes shops and schools in East Jerusalem to "protest against excavation under the Temple Mount."

Sept. 10 The Waqf seals the cistern from the other side to prevent Jewish penetration. Meanwhile archaeologist Dan Bahat discounts theories the cistern was connected with the Temple.

Sept. 15 Attempt by the Temple Mount Faithful to pray in compound thwarted by Moslem opposition. The High Court decides that the right of the Jew to pray on the Mount is a political issue upon which the government must decide. The Jerusalem Law doesn't cover the issue, rules the court.

April 11 Israeli soldier Alan Harry Goodman, a U.S. immigrant goes on a shooting rampage on the Temple Mount. He kills one and wounds three. The incident sets off a week of rioting in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza and angry reaction internationally against Israel. At his trial Goodman told the court that by "liberating the spot holy to the Jews," he expected to become King of the Jews. A year after the incident Goodman is convicted and sentenced to life plus two terms of 20 years.

Various factions join together July 25 Yoel Lerner, member of Meir Kahane's Kach Party, is arrested for planning to sabotage one of the mosques on the Temple Mount.

Oct. 26 Lerner convicted of planning to blow up the Dome of the Rock. Previously he had served a three year sentence for heading a group that plotted to overthrow the government and establish a state based upon religious law. He was sentenced to two and one half years in prison.

Dec. 9 Knesset Member Geula Cohen charges that the Arabs have arm caches on the Mount.

March 10 Police arrest more than forty people suspected of planning to penetrate the Temple Mount. Police had found four armed youths trying to break into the underground passage known as Solomon's Stables. Working on the basis of intelligence reports, the police surround the home of Rabbi Yisrael Ariel, former head of the Yamit Yeshiva. There, the others are arrested and a search of his apartment and others reveals several weapons and diagrams of the Temple Mount.

May 11 High Court allows Faithful of the Temple Mount to hold prayers at the Mograbi Gate on Jerusalem Day, after police had earlier denied them a license. A similar decision is handed down for Tiasha B'Av.

May 22 SRI's seven man was thwarted from performing the first scientific study of the Rabbinical Tunnel. Muslims called the Israeli police to stop scientific expedition.

Sept. 17 On Yom Kippur the police try to prevent former chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren from holding prayers in a room beneath the Temple Mount. Goren claimed he had the consent of IDF chief of staff Rav-Aluf Moshe Levy. Levy showed up for the prayers. Police then allowed the prayer to take place.

Sept 21 The Temple Mount 29 are acquitted of all charges against them. The police are reprimanded by District Court Judge Ya'acov Bazak and describes the 29 as "amateurish" But he does not rule on the legality of prayer on the Mount.

Oct. On Jerusalem Day, Temple Mount Faithful unfurls banner on Temple Mount. A riot breaks out leaving over twenty Palestinians dead. United Nations censures Israel for this act but says nothing as to those who started the riot. Press erroneously report that group was about to lay a foundation stone on the Temple Mount.

FUTURE EVENTS

The rapture of The church. The dead in Christ are raised and the generation of living believers is translated. The judgment seat of Christ is set and rewards are given to believers for faithful service (1 Thessalonians 4:13-17 1 Corinthians 15:51-54 2 Corinthians 5:10-11).

Daniel's seventieth week begins as Israel enters the tribulation period (Daniel 9:27). This time period is seven years in duration. Israel's "time of Jacob's trouble" (Matthew 24:9-14). This is the first three and one-half years of the seven-year period comprising Daniel's seventieth week (Revelation 6:1-9:12).

World chaos occurs as a result of the rapture of the church which makes possible the rise of a new world leader, the Antichrist (2 Thess. 2, Revelation 6:1-16). The ancient Roman empire revives as the political Antichrist arises out of the midst of the ten-nation confederation. This is the feet-part-of-iron-and-part-of clay period of the times of the gentiles (Daniel 2:33, 41-42 7:24).

Apparent world peace for 3.5 years. Many come to Christ world-wide spiritual awakening during the last part of the tribulation period, the latter rain of the Spirit, (James 5:7-8 Joel 2:23 Zechariah 10:1 Hosea 6:3). During this time the 144,000 Jewish missionaries are saved and sealed (Revelation 7:1-8) they preach the gospel during the entire tribulation period (Matthew 24 14). Many others, both Jews and gentiles, are saved and make up the saints of God who are martyred by the Antichrist (Daniel 7:21, 25 Revelation 7:9-17).

A covenant is made between the Antichrist and Israel. The temple is rebuilt and the Levitical system of priesthood and offerings begins again (Daniel 9:27). The apostate Christian church flourishes during the first half of the tribulation period (Revelation l7:1-7).

Israel feels secure under the protection of the Antichrist's covenant until she is invaded at Midtribulation by Syrian and Russian armies. The Antichrist comes to Israel's defense. Russia is defeated and the Antichrist becomes a world ruler (Ezekiel 38-39).

At Midtribulation the Antichrist breaks the covenant made with Israel and the great tribulation period begins. (Daniel 9:27 Matthew 24:15-28 Revelation 11:1-18:24).

Antichrist is now manifest as the First Beast of Revelation 13. His image is set up in the third temple in Jerusalem and he demands worship as god (Matthew 24:15 2 Thessalonians 2:4 Revelation 13:1-10).

The second beast, the false prophet in Israel appears to aid the beast and cause the earth-dwellers to worship him as god (Revelation 13:11-18).

Two godly witnesses (probably Moses and Elijah, but perhaps Enoch and Elijah) appear on the temple mount and prophesy during the great tribulation period, until they are killed at the close of the period, after which they are resurrected and raptured. (Revelation 11:1-12).

Israel, faithful to her orthodox faith, is severely persecuted by the Antichrist during the great tribulation period (Jeremiah 30:57 Daniel 12:1 Zechariah 13:8 Matthew 24:21-22). Many in Israel flee and are protected by the nations (Matthew 24:15-20 Revelation 12:6,13-17).

The fall of commercial Babylon toward the close of the great tribulation (Revelation 18:1-24). The apostate church is destroyed (Revelation 17:1-6).

The kings of the Orient invade Israel and hostilities erupt between them and the forces of the Antichrist. The battle of Armageddon and the doom of the Antichrist (Daniel 11:44-45 Revelation 16:12-16 2 Thessalonians 2:8 Revelation 19:19). One third of the Jewish people recognize Jesus as Messiah and are rescued, Zechariah 12-14, and two thirds will be cut off.

The second coming of Christ ends the times of the gentiles (Daniel 2:44 7:9-13, 22-28 Revelation 19:11-16). Jesus returns to the Mount of Olives bringing the faithful remnant of Jews from Edom, Isaiah 63, and the church, Revelation 19:11ff, Zechariah 14.

Antichrist and the false prophet are cast into the lake of fire. (Revelation 19:20-20:10).

The gentile nations are judged on the basis of their treatment of God's covenant people Israel, during the times of the gentiles (Matthew 25:31-46).

Jesus rules the nations, "with a rod of iron" for 1000 years. Satan and his evil angels are bound and removed to the abyss, Revelation 20.

Jesus said, "Take heed that you are not led astray for many will come in my name, saying, `I am he!' and, `The time is at hand!' Do not go after them. And when you hear of wars and tumults, do not be terrified for this must first take place, but the end will not be at once." Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom there will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences and there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. This will be a time for you to bear testimony. Settle it therefore in your minds, not to meditate beforehand how to answer for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and kinsmen and friends, and some of you they will put to death you will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.

But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. Alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! For great distress shall be upon the earth and wrath upon this people they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all nations and Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. "And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and upon the earth distress of nations in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves, men fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then they will see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, look up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near. (Luke 21:6-28)


Third Servile War

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Third Servile War, also called Gladiator War and Spartacus Revolt, (73–71 bce ) slave rebellion against Rome led by the gladiator Spartacus.

Spartacus was a Thracian who had served in the Roman army but seems to have deserted. He was captured and subsequently sold as a slave. Destined for the arena, in 73 bce he, with a band of his fellow gladiators, broke out of a training school at Capua and took refuge on Mt. Vesuvius. Here he maintained himself as a captain of brigands, and he recruited as his lieutenants two Celts named Crixus and Oenomaus, who like himself had been gladiators. Other escaped slaves soon joined the band, and the Romans moved to eliminate the growing threat.

A hastily collected force of 3,000 men under either Claudius Pulcher or Claudius Glaber (sources vary) endeavoured to starve out the rebels. In an audacious move, Spartacus’s forces clambered down the precipices and put the Romans to flight. Groups of hardy and desperate men now joined the rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain. Before the Romans could act, the rebels slipped away, and when Varinius advanced to storm their lines he found them deserted. From Campania the rebels marched into Lucania, a region that had opposed Rome in several significant conflicts, most recently the Social War (90–88 bce ). The country there was also better suited for the kind of guerrilla warfare tactics that favoured Spartacus and his band. Varinius followed, but was defeated in several engagements and narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. The insurgents reoccupied Campania, and with the defeat of Gaius Thoranius, the quaestor of Varinius, they obtained possession of nearly the whole of southern Italy. The cities of Nola and Nuceria in Campania were sacked, as were Thurii and Metapontum in Lucania. The Senate at last despatched both consuls against the rebels (72 bce ). The historian Appian suggests that at this point, Spartacus’s army numbered some 70,000 men.

A force of escaped German slaves under Crixus was soundly beaten at Mt. Garganus in Apulia by the praetor Quintus Arrius, but this defeat did little to check the revolt. According to Plutarch, Spartacus, with the main body of his army, defeated the consul Lentulus and then pressed towards the Alps. A force of some 10,000 men under Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius was defeated at Mutina. Freedom was within sight, and Plutarch characterized Spartacus as holding realistic views about his army’s chances of defeating a fully mobilized Rome. Rather than crossing the Alps and returning home, however, Spartacus marched towards Rome itself. Instead of attacking the capital, he passed on again into Lucania.

The conduct of the war was now entrusted to the praetor Marcus Licinius Crassus. Upon taking command, Crassus is said to have carried out a decimation of the consular armies that had taken the field against Spartacus in an attempt to restore order one in ten of the men were selected by lot and killed. Spartacus defeated two legions under Crassus’s legate Mummius and withdrew towards the strait of Messina. There he intended to cross to Sicily, where the first two Servile Wars ( 135–132 bce and 104–99 bce ) had been fought. Spartacus hoped to reignite these rebellions and to bolster his forces by recruiting freed slaves to his cause. The pirates who had agreed to transport his army proved untrustworthy, however, and Spartacus quickly found himself trapped in Bruttium (modern Calabria). While Spartacus was attempting to carry his rebellion to Sicily, Crassus endeavoured to end the war by effectively besieging the entire “toe” of Italy. In short order, he erected an impressive ditch and rampart fortification system that stretched some 40 miles (60 km) across the neck of the peninsula, Denied both the ability to maneuver his army and ready access to fresh supplies, Spartacus saw that his situation was desperate. Under the cover of darkness and in the middle of a snowstorm, Spartacus’s army bridged the 15-foot- (5-metre-) wide ditch, scaled the wall, and forced the Roman lines. Once more southern Italy lay open to Spartacus, but disunion had gripped the rebel army. A force of Gauls and Germans, who had withdrawn from the main body and encamped some distance away, were attacked and destroyed by Crassus.

Crassus was now compelled to bring the war to a close on his terms and on an accelerated timeline. He had prevailed upon the Senate to reinforce his campaign by recalling Lucius Licinius Lucullus from Thrace and Pompey from Spain, but quickly realized the danger of such a move. Pompey was already a formidable force in the capital, and he had just completed the Roman reconquest of Spain by crushing a rebellion under Quintus Sertorius. By affording Pompey the opportunity to return to Italy with an army at his back, all the glory for defeating Spartacus would almost certainly accrue to him and not to Crassus. In Appian’s account, Spartacus acknowledged this rivalry in the Roman command and attempted to make a separate peace with Crassus, but his terms were rejected.

Spartacus took up a strong position in the mountainous country of Petelia (near Strongoli in modern Calabria) and inflicted a severe defeat on the vanguard of the pursuing Romans. His men, their confidence bolstered by this small victory, refused to retreat farther. Anticipating the decisive battle to come, Spartacus is said to have slain his horse, stating that if his army carried the day, he would have his choice from among the fine horses of the Romans, and if he lost, he would no longer have need of a mount. In the pitched battle which followed, the rebel army was annihilated and Spartacus was killed in combat. A small body of rebels escaped from the field, but they were met and cut to pieces at the foot of the Alps by Pompey. The remnants of the rebel army were captured, and thousands were crucified along the Appian Way as a warning to those who would rise against Rome. As Crassus had feared, Pompey claimed the credit of finishing the war, and received the honour of a triumph, while only a simple ovation was decreed to Crassus. Both men were jointly elected consuls in recognition of their victory.

Spartacus was a capable and energetic leader, and he did his best to check the excesses of the men he commanded. He is also said to have treated his prisoners with humanity. His character was often misrepresented by contemporary Roman writers, who invoked his name as a source of terror through the age of the Empire.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


BIBLE HISTORY AFTERMATH of the Battle of Rephidim

COLORS

Banners were used in ancient military tactics for communication. We do not have an indication of banners being used in this battle. Indeed it was Moses’ arms that served as a banner for the battle reflecting God’s power over the outcome. Moses served as a banner for the fighting men but he was but a reflection of God, the true banner.

The spirit of God lifts up the war banner in our spirit man for us to have strategic advantage in the fight.

Isaiah 59:19 AMP: [19] So as the result of the Messiah’s intervention they shall reverently fear the name of the Lord from the west, and His glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord will lift up a standard against him and put him to flight for He will come like a rushing stream which the breath of the Lord drives.

The best the Devil is is slow. Our power is fast moving, stronger and better than the enemy. If we speak right then he doesn’t even show up. All translations have a weak adjective to describe the enemy’s rising waters and a strong adjective to describe the spirit of God.

This attack was particularly harsh because the Amalekites had no compassion for a helpless people that was not even an enemy. They had no fear of God and an attitude of utter disdain for God’s heart of charity and compassion will not be forgotten and God thereafter instructs his people to never have anything to do with the Amalekites and to shun them forever.

The Amalekites, that day, lost a lot more than a battle. They were perpetually cut off from the creator of a heaven and Earth and disallowed the benefit and protection of being under Him.

POINT A CROSS

(1) Moses had struck the rock and water came out. Jesus was struck by the lance after his death and water also came out. Spiritually, living water comes out of Jesus out so that the world is saved by it.

(2) Moses arms were held up on a hill just like Jesus was held up on the hill of Golgotha.

Rephidim was the first time water came from a rock to supply the people. There would be a second time, later, where things did not take place as God willed it and with serious consequences.

PRAISE & WORSHIP

Father: you laid your affliction upon your Son, the Rock, so that we might have acces to the water of Life. For this I thank you. 1


Roman Conquests Reach Overseas

The Roman victory at The Battle of Mylae, 260 B.C. during the First Punic War. From Hutchinson&aposs History of the Nations, published 1915.

Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group/Getty Images

This strategy of absorption changed as Rome conquered its first overseas territories. During the Punic Wars with Carthage between 264 B.C. to 146 B.C., Rome spread over multiple Mediterranean islands and onto the east coast of modern-day Spain. Yet instead of extending its republic into these territories or forming alliances, Rome designated these new territories as provinces and appointed Roman governors to oversee them.

Taking this new territory wasn’t something Rome had initially intended to do. “The First Punic War is something that they kind of stumble into, but they’re happy to take territory as a result of it,” Watts says.

After Rome pushed Carthage out of Sicily in the first war, the Italian island became Rome’s first foreign province. During the Second Punic War, Rome found itself on the defense as the Carthagian general Hannibal and his elephants marched over the Alps and south into Italy. Again, Rome defeated Carthage and conquered some of its territory, this time in Spain.

Yet by the time it entered the Third Punic War, “Rome has definitely decided that it is just going to take territory,” he says. 𠇊nd that’s very different from what they were doing even in the third century.”


An Ancient Mystery

There is no way to determine for certain why Hazael’s forces chose tribute over territorial conquest after reaching Jerusalem. It’s possible that the resistance they’d met at Gath had been potent and effective enough to deplete their manpower and sap them of their fighting strength. Perhaps they decided the best course of action under the circumstances was to accept a generous bribe and depart, rather than take the risk of losing even more men and resources in another fierce battle.

If that is the case, it means the Israelite kingdom of the ninth century BC may have owed their survival to the Philistines, a people they’d been in conflict frequently over the years (as the Philistines’ vilification in the Bible shows).

The land once occupied by Gath is now a part of Israeli territory. This makes Israel responsible for exploring and preserving the legacy of this lost but not forgotten city, whose people may have inadvertently saved their ancestors from destruction a long, long time ago.

Top image: The bone arrowhead may be evidence of a desperate defence of Gath. Source: Oksana Volina / Adobe Stock.


Watch the video: Battle of Geronium, 217 BC Hannibal Part 10 - Second Punic War (July 2022).


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