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|About 89% of the people are ethnic Romanians, a group that--in contrast to its Slav or Hungarian neighbors--traces itself to Latin-speaking Romans who in the second and third centuries A.D. conquered and settled among the ancient Dacians, a Thracian people. As a result, the Romanian language, although containing elements of Slavic, Turkish, and other languages, is a Romance language related to French and Italian.|
Romania, located in southeastern Europe, is about the size of Pennsylvania and New York combined. The terrain of Romania mainly consists of rolling, fertile plains with hills in the eastern region of the central Danube River basin and with the Carpathian mountain ranges running north and west in the center of the country. Romania is bordered on the north and northeast by the Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova, on the northwest by Hungary, on the south and southwest by Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, and on the east by the Black Sea. The country occupies an area of 237,499 square kilometers (91,699 sq. mi.).
As of the year 2000, the estimated population of Romania was 22.5 million and was decreasing at a rate of 2.7 percent. Its largest city and capital, Bucharest, had an estimated population of 2.02 million. Although much of the population is rural and agricultural, there are six cities with populations of 300,000 or more (Constanta, Iasi, Timisoara, Cluj-Napoca, Galati, and Brosav).
Its people are overwhelmingly Romanian (89 percent) which, unlike Slavs and Hungarians, are traced to Latin speaking Romans. However, there are a large number of ethnic and minority groups that make up a small portion of Romania's population. Hungarians make up about seven percent of the population and the remainder comprises Germans, Ukranians, Croats, Serbs, Russians, Turks, and gypsies. Hungarians and gypsies are their primary minority groups. The official language is Romanian, but some of its population speaks Hungarian and German. The religious population of Romania is almost entirely Christian. More than 85 percent of its population is Orthodox about five percent is Roman Catholic another five percent is Reformed Protestant, Baptist, or Pentecostal and a very small number are Greek Catholic or Jewish.
Forty-two percent of the Romanian workforce (about 9 million) is in agriculture 38 percent is in industry and commerce and the remaining workforce is in tourism and other occupations. Agriculture (e.g., corn, wheat, potatoes, and livestock) is about 16 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Romania, industry (e.g., textiles, mining, machine building, and chemicals) makes up about 40 percent of the GDP and services (e.g., tourism) makes up about 43 percent of the GDP. Romania's natural resources include oil, natural gas, timber, coal, salt, and iron ore. Its chief exports are textiles, fuels, metals, wood products, chemicals, and light manufactures. The GDP of the economy of Romania has been growing at rates as high as seven percent in the 1990s (in 1998). Its highly literate workforce (98 percent literacy) and its economic base in agriculture, energy, and tourism gives Romania great economic potential in the future (United States Department of State 2000).
Romania's history and politics has driven the intellectual development of their people. Throughout Romania's history the country has been on what has been called a "path of a series of migrations and conquests" (United States Department of State 2000). In 200 B.C. the area of Romania was settled by the Dacians, who were a Thracian tribe. In the second century A.D., Dacia (early Romania) was incorporated into the Roman Empire, but was abandoned by the Romans almost two centuries later. Remnants of early education, including Latin inscriptions, have been found from this time period. Romania was considered to be lost for a number of years, but reemerged in the middle ages as part of Moldova and Wallachia. There were church related schools beginning in 1000 A.D. The oldest known school in Romania was started in the monastery at Cenadul Vechi in the eleventh century.
Due to the influence of Rome in these early principalities, much of the instruction at this time was in Latin and continued to be so from the eleventh through sixteenth centuries. The first schools to teach in the Romanian language are rooted back to the sixteenth century. Like most schools of the time, these were church-related. In the seventeenth century, more schools were founded in the cities of Sighet, Tirgoviste, Jina, Lancram, Hateg, and Turda. Schools of Greek education were later founded in Bucharest and Tirgoviste. The first university was also founded in Moldavia in 1640 where philosophy and literature were the foundations of its curriculum.
It is important to note that a portion of Romania (e.g., Transylvania, Nasaud, and Tara Birsei) was influenced by other empires such as the Austrio-Hungarian Empire and the Germans. This becomes important in Romanian history as Hungarians and Germans later become national minorities and education in their languages is suppressed by latter day Romanians.
Up until the 1700s, churches still dominated schools, but there began to be some schools under the administration of local communities. In the 1700s and 1800s, the majority of schools were tied to localities and varied in organization and curriculum. But starting in the late 1700s and into the 1800s, some of the schools were budgeted by communities, and local laws began to form and administer education systems. Teachers and professors became a profession separate from the clergy. Schools of music, medicine, and engineering were founded and there began to be some sense of equality in education where women and men were treated equally. Private schools also began to open that were not related to churches.
The Moldovian and Wallachian principalities, however, were badly managed under the Ottoman Empire and were eventually unified under a native prince, Alexander Ioan Cuza, in 1859. In 1864, the new Legislative Assembly provided Romania with a compulsory education system that included free primary education for the first four years, a system of secondary education for seven years, and three years of higher education. Romania is considered to be one of the first countries to provide compulsory education.
Romania became independent under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin after the War of 1877. Romania later crowned its first king in 1881. In this early period of Romania, numerous educational laws and regulations were handed down that set out the education system of Romania. Some of these laws provided for the selection and training of teachers, the extension of compulsory education, the exclusion of peasant children from secondary schools, and extensions in the curricula of secondary and higher education. Graduates of Romanian higher education before 1990 had to go through a period of compulsory employment after their studies (Reisz 1994). Through a propaganda program, higher education in Romania was considered elitist and came to be associated with institutions that produced doctors, teachers, engineers, economists, and lawyers.
Although Romania was located between the Hungarian, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian Empires, it garnered much of its educational, cultural, and administrative models from its complex history and from the west. In particular, influence came from trade relations with the French (United States Department of State 2000). Romania was an ally of the west in World War I and was granted more territory after the war in such areas as Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Buckovina. In 1918, the addition of Transylvania established the national state of Romania. Because Transylvania was a portion of the Austrio-Hungarian empire, Transylvania's education and culture were heavily influenced by the Hungarians. Schools in Transylvania, before its annexation by Romania, only permitted instruction in Hungarian. As a result, there were far more Hungarians than Romanians who were enrolled in secondary schools. This became an important foundation in Romanian educational history, because Romanians under communism required Hungarians to be taught in the Romanian language. The University of Cluj, for instance, began to offer instruction in Romanian for the first time.
Pre-World War II, Romania exhibited many of the qualities of a dictatorship although it had a constitutional monarchy. Much of the political thought pre-World War II was anticommunist, pronationalist, and held anti-foreign and anti-Jewish influence on its economy. Educational laws primarily sought to unify the new nation into a single education system. The education system became more egalitarian by the provision of free compulsory primary education and free books for those who could not afford them. Like Romanian politics, education was nationalist in its ideology.
During World War II, Romania, under the direction of General Antonescu, sided with the Axis powers and invaded the Soviet Union to retain some of its territories. In 1944, a coup was staged by King Michael that deposed the Antonescu dictatorship and placed the armies of Romania on the side of the Allied powers. Romanian armies, then, fought the Germans, the Transylvanians, the Hungarians, and the Czechs (United States Department of State 2000). As socialism began in Romania, so did the establishment of Marxist and Leninist thought into its education system.
After the Peace Treaty signings in Paris in 1947, Romania came under the influence of the Soviet Union and communism. The Romanian educational curriculum became socialist as well with the teachings of materialism, scientific socialism, and Marxist historical philosophy. The Bessarabian and the Northern Buckovian territories came under soviet annexation whereas the northern portion of Transylvania was returned from Hungary to Romania. The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romania's Communist Party into the government and political opponents were eliminated. King Michael went into exile in 1947. This early phase of communist rule was dominated by the Soviet Union and the Hungarian minority in Romania (Gallagher 1995).
Under communism, the education system became state-controlled and intimately influenced by the communist revolution in Eastern Europe. Religious and private schools immediately came under state control. For example, the first constitution of the Romanian Peoples Republic (April 1948) had attempted to abolish confessional general schools and the Educational Reform of 1948 abolished all private schools as well as religious teachings in the curriculum (Shafir 1985). This new education law transferred all private schools to state control and all church school property was taken by the state without compensation.
In the 1950s, the Romanian Communist Party was considered by a majority of Romanians to be a gang taking orders from the Russians, which were in turn directed by the Hungarians (Gallagher 1995). Thus, a very important part of Romanian education was a suppression of the Hungarian minority in Romania. This was done in part by an educational philosophy that "Romanianized" all minorities through the educational process. Because of the past Romanian encounters with Hungary, reforms in education after the 1960s made it very difficult, if not impossible, to learn or teach in the Hungarian language. Hungarian schools were merged with Romanian schools and beginning in 1956 this effort was stepped up (Gallagher 1995). One of the most important events in this regard was when, in 1959, the Hungarian Bolyai University was merged with its Romanian counterpart, the Babes University. Technical classes that were formerly taught in Hungarian were now taught in Romanian. In fact, it was nearly impossible to study applied sciences or engineering in the Hungarian language. Those courses that were taught in Hungarian were generally of an ideological nature. The ultimate result of this merger was a real blow to Hungarian language education. The number of Hungarian undergraduates dropped from 10.75 percent in 1957 to 5.7 percent in 1974 (Romania: Language, Education, and Cultural Heritage, 2001).
In the 1950s and into the 1960s, Romania began a nationalist communist regime that distanced itself from the Soviet Union both economically and socially. This new regime was influenced by the leadership of Gheorghiu-Dej and emphasized Romanian national values, history, and patriotism. As to education, this meant the building of a Romanian intelligentsia that promoted state-controlled education and communist thought. In addition, the vision of totalitarian Romania was an educational emphasis on preparing young people for industrial tasks (Gallagher 1995). Higher education in Romania was still elitist, but it did increase in the 1950s (Reisz 1994). Another important part of this movement in Romanian history was an abandonment of Russian and Soviet interpretations of Romanian history in the 1960s (Gallagher 1995).
After the death of Gheorghiu-Dej, the Romanian Communist Party was controlled by Nicolae Ceausescu. Ceausescu became head of state in 1967. Education under Ceausescu became much more communist and nationalist. Romania under Ceausescu from 1967 until the revolution in 1989, was a time of foreign policy that was independent from Russia. In 2000 the U.S. Department of State said that Romania's independence from Russia led to some respect by Western democracies that allowed Ceausescu's rule to become increasingly tyrannical in the 1970s. As the anticommunist revolution increased political inertia in the late 1980s, Ceausescu's policies, including education, became more and more nationalist and more and more geared toward the needs of the economy. There were severe cuts in the diversity of higher educational programs in the mid-1970s that led to 74 percent of students being enrolled in engineering and agricultural schools by 1988 (Reisz 1994). In addition, numerous reforms were undertaken to continue the domination of the Romanian language in education.
In 1989, the Ceausescu regime fell along with other communist dominated governments in Eastern Europe. Ceausescu and his wife were executed on Christmas Day in 1989 and the government was taken over by the National Salvation Front (NSF), which claimed that it had restored freedom and democracy. Elections were held in 1990 and Ion Iliescu, the NSF leader, won the vote and two-thirds of the seats in parliament. The NSF then began what was termed as "cautious free market reforms" (U.S. Department of State 2000). However, much of the country was impatient with the slow reform and blamed it on the intelligentsia and other communist devotees. As a result, protesters and miners who were angry with the progress led to an angry and brutal treatment of these Ceausescu-era intellectuals. The miners returned to Bucharest in 1991 and demanded higher wages. As a result of this unsettling political environment, the FSN split into two parties shortly after the parliament drafted a new democratic constitution in 1991 and after that constitution was approved by referendum in December of that same year.
Along with the fall of came a slow, but progressive set of reforms in Romanian society. The reforms in education included the slow decentralization of the education system, the increase in number of private schools in Romania, and the increased pressure by Hungarians to restore education in the Hungarian language. Progress has been hampered by the lack of resources, the slow progress of changing textbooks from communist to reform, and the remaining communist intelligentsia in Romania that dominated education and political life under communism (Gallagher 1995).
Table of Contents
The so-called Romanian Old Kingdom (a consolidation of the principalities of Moldova and Valachia) was not established in a political-territorial way until the middle of the 19 th century and it remained a small state at the edge of Europe in the subsequent decades. Hence, Romania could not play a role within Europe until it joined one of the political alliances. The country was part of the Triple Alliance between 1883 and 1914 (initially Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, later also Italy and Romania) under which the Central Powers operated during World War I (WWI), but it changed sides in 1916 and became a member of the Entente. The roots of the modern Romanian nation-state are based on many different influences from Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which affected the country during the 19 th century. Especially French and German factors were brought into play and complemented the local tradition which was closely associated with the Orthodox culture and the Ottoman civilisation. Romania declared its neutrality in 1914 and the following questions arose for the opposed alliances: Would Romania stay permanently neutral or change its policy depending on the course of the war? At what time and for which reason would a change happen? Which advantages and disadvantages would arise for all parties? Between 1914 and 1916 both rival groups made efforts to make Romania predictable and after that applicable for their own calculations. While the Romanian policy Carol I, King of Romania (1839-1914) was pro-German until 1914, his successor Ferdinand I, King of Romania (1865-1927) adopted a Francophile course in order to promote the principle of unification of all Romanians. This aim was given priority over the insufficiently advanced modernisation within the kingdom (industrialisation, democratisation). Thus, the Romanian nation did not uniformly support entry into the war in 1916. While the national liberal powers and their supporters were in favour of war, the agrarian majority looked to the solution of social questions, which could not be answered until the end of World War I or even until the end of World War II.
The Romanian economy contracted by 3.9 percent in 2020, reflecting a better-than-expected fourth quarter performance of -1.4 percent year-on-year. The fiscal deficit surged to 9.8 percent of projected GDP at the end of 2020 on the back of COVID-19-related expenditures and lower revenues due to the economic downturn and tax relief. The impact of the stimulus pursued at the European Union (EU) level will play a critical role in the recovery, given the limited fiscal space. Poverty is anticipated to increase in the short term as the protracted impacts of COVID-19 affect domestic income sources and remittances.
The World Bank classified Romania as a high-income country for the first time, based on 2019 data (per capita income of $12,630). This is an important development for investment rating decisions and for accession negotiations to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
The Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB) officially became an emerging market as of September 21, 2020, when the first two Romanian companies were included in the FTSE Global Equity Index Series (GEIS). The two Romanian companies to be included in the FTSE Global All Cap Index and three other indexes are lender Banca Transilvania (TLV) and energy producer Nuclearelectrica (SNN).
Number of Active Projects
Under the Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for FY19-23, the World Bank supports Romania’s efforts to accelerate structural reforms and convergence with the EU. The Bank uses the full range of instruments for financial and technical assistance.
In the past year, the Bank has worked to adapt to the changes brought by the COVID-19 pandemic and restructured the existing portfolio. The Health Sector Reform Project was reorganized to help authorities procure emergency supplies and equipment.
Also, the Romania Secondary Education (ROSE) Project was restructured to deliver equipment and materials to 1,100 high schools and to provide over 60,000 vulnerable students with access to online education. The ongoing Performance and Learning Review will provide small adjustments to the CPF to reflect the current challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Engagement over FY19-23 has the overarching goal of strengthening Romania’s institutions, advancing poverty reduction, and promoting shared prosperity through three pillars:
- Equal opportunities for all
- Private sector growth and competitiveness
- Resilience to shocks
The Romania program consists of nine lending projects and 59 Advisory Services and Analytics (ASA) tasks, out of which there are:
- 42 tasks corresponding to 34 Reimbursable Advisory Services (RAS) agreements that are signed and under implementation
- five RAS agreements under preparation
- four non-RAS ASA (Bank budget-funded)
- seven non-RAS ASA (EU-funded Trust Funds)
- 1 EU-funded Trust Fund under preparation
The active lending portfolio of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) amounts to $1.98 billion and covers such sectors as: education, health, disaster risk management, justice, and the environment.
The health program has been expanded and now includes the Health Sector Reform Project and the Health Program for Results (Health PforR). The Health PforR of €500 million will help the Government increase the coverage of primary health care for underserved populations and improve the efficiency of health spending by addressing underlying institutional challenges.
The RAS program - one of the largest in the World Bank at $114.12 million - is focused on priority areas for Romania’s EU convergence, such as improved strategic planning and budgeting, evidence-based policy making, protection of the vulnerable, disaster risk management, human development, and strengthened capacity for monitoring and evaluation. It also features engagements supporting a number of municipalities, including Bucharest, Brasov, and Cluj, as well as other subnational authorities, to enhance their capacity for planning and prioritizing investments and urban regeneration.
The ASA program includes technical assistance projects financed directly by the European Commission through a Trust Fund framework in areas, such as: early school leaving, social inclusion of the Roma minority, business development/entrepreneurship, civil service reform, and flood risk management.
International Finance Corporation
The International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) committed own account portfolio in Romania ranks second in the Europe and Central Asia region after Turkey. Since the start of operations in Romania in 1991, IFC has invested approximately $3.5 billion, including over $700 million in mobilization, in over 112 projects.
As of February 28, 2021, IFC's committed portfolio in Romania was $735.41 million, of which 64 percent represented investments in financial institutions (banks, non-bank financial institutions) and the remaining 36 percent investments in the real sector. The outstanding portfolio is US$691.5 million. In FY20, IFC’s commitments in Romania totaled $334 million, including mobilization.
Recent Economic Developments
The Romanian economy contracted by 3.9 percent in 2020. Trade and services decreased by 4.7 percent, while certain sectors, such as tourism and hospitality, remained heavily affected. Industry contracted by 9.3 percent, reflecting weakened external demand and supply chain disruptions. The biggest contraction was seen in agriculture, linked to persistent droughts affecting crops. The unemployment rate reached 5.5 percent in July 2020 before edging down to 5.3 percent in December.
Rapid household assessments of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic showed a substantial rise in the share of the population at risk of poverty in April 2020, which gradually declined until January 2021, as temporarily inactive workers returned to work. Poverty levels at the start of 2021, however, remain elevated, linked to the combination of the sharp agricultural contraction and the persistence of the pandemic.
The Government provided a fiscal stimulus of 4.4 percent of GDP in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 crisis. In the first COVID wave, poor and vulnerable households were less supported by the fiscal response measures, which extended more directly to those in formal employment structures subsequent programs for daily wage and seasonal workers extended protections to typically more vulnerable segments.
The economy is projected to grow at around 4.3 percent in 2021. The strength of the recovery will depend on the success of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout and the policy response to the health crisis, as well as on developments in the EU. In view of the limited fiscal space, the impact of the EU-level stimulus will play a crucial role in the economic recovery. Romania is expected to receive €79.9 billion from the EU by 2027 under the Multiannual Financial Framework 2021–2027 (€49.5 billion) and the economic recovery plan (€30.4 billion).
A substantial reduction of the fiscal deficit in 2021 is improbable, as the Government will have to support the economic recovery process. Over the medium term, the deficit will follow a downward trajectory but is likely to remain above 3 percent throughout the projection period. The widening fiscal deficit would push public debt to 62.2 percent in 2023 from 37.3 percent in 2019. However, public debt remains one of the lowest in the EU.
Poverty is projected to remain elevated due to the triple-hit in incomes facing poorer segments of the population in the form of the persistent pandemic, the poor agricultural year, and declining remittance incomes.
The expansion of the Ottoman Empire marks Romania’s history
After centuries of migratory tribes invasions that followed the decay of the Roman Empire, the Romanian historical provinces — Transylvania, Southern Romania, Moldavia, Dobrogea — appeared as distinct and independent regions starting with the 13th century. The only exception was Transylvania, conquered by the Hungarian Kingdom in the 11th century.
However, the independence of the Romanian provinces was short-lived because of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire that threatened to conquer everything on its way to Central Europe. Following the siege and fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman menace was greater than ever for the Romanian provinces.
Chindia Tower, the Princely Court from Targoviste
After numerous wars and immense destruction, by the end of the 15th century, local princes accepted the suzerainty of the Sultan translated into annual payments in exchange for autonomy. While the Romanian provinces were never part of the Ottoman Empire, except for Dobrogea, the Sultan often decided the faith of local princes or the succession to the throne. The long-term consequences were dramatic. Local reigns lasted only a few years and were marked by an urgent need to raise tax revenue enough to repay the goodwill of the Sultan.
The princes who rebelled against the Ottomans were rapidly outcasted or even executed, one of them being the very rich Prince Constantin Brancoveanu who was beheaded in 1714 together with his four sons. His long reign (1688-1714) is remembered today also because of the beautiful ‘Brancovenesc’ architectural style you’ll see in many old churches from Bucharest and at Mogosoaia Palace.
The most impressive medieval landmarks still conserved today were built against the Ottoman menace. The fortified churches of Transylvania, the fortresses of Rasnov and Rupea, Neamt Fortress, and Poenari Fortress are some of the best examples.
Romania in the EU
There are 32 members of the European Parliament from Romania. Find out who these MEPs are.
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Romanian government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Romanian presidencies:
The following link is a redirection to an external website Current presidency of the Council of the EU
The Commissioner nominated by Romania to the European Commission is Adina-Ioana Vălean, who is responsible for Transport.
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Romania has 15 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Romania has 15 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Romania also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Romania's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Easter in Romania
Easter is an important holiday on the Romanian calendar. Romanians, the majority of whom adhere to Orthodox Christianity, place significance on this holiday more than any others, including Christmas.
This day is marked by family gatherings, special foods, and the decoration of Easter eggs in traditional Romanian style. The days leading up to Easter are also important and are marked by traditions similar to those throughout the Christian world.
You can visit Easter markets for a sense of some of these generations-old customs and buy crafts made with techniques developed over hundreds of years.
The "National Legionary State," 1940–41
In September 1940, King Carol II was forced to abdicate after the loss of northern Transylvania to Hungary. A coalition government of radical right-wing military officers, under General Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard, came to power and requested the dispatch of a German military mission to Romania. On November 20, 1940, Romania formally joined the Axis alliance.
The "National Legionary State" established by Antonescu and the Iron Guard quickly promulgated a number of restrictive measures against the Jews of Romania. In addition, Iron Guard thugs arbitrarily robbed or seized Jewish-owned businesses. They assaulted, and sometimes killed, Jewish citizens in the streets. Iron Guard confiscations and corruption threatened to disrupt the Romanian economy and led to tension with Antonescu and the Romanian army. The Iron Guard rose against the regime on January 21, 1941. During a three-day civil war, eventually won by Antonescu with support from the German army, members of the Iron Guard instigated a deadly pogrom in Bucharest, the capital city. Particularly gruesome was the murder of dozens of Jewish civilians in the Bucharest slaughterhouse. After the victims were killed, the perpetrators hung the bodies from meat hooks and mutilated them in a vicious parody of kosher slaughtering practices.
Romania facts for Kids
31. The flag of Romania consists of blue, yellow and red vertical stripes. These stripes represent Transylvania, Moldavia and Walachia, the three historic components of the combined country of Romania.
32. Transylvania (which means ‘land beyond the forest’) was the home of Vlad the Impaler who inspired Bram Stoker’s novel, “Dracula”.
33. One of the stars of the 1976 Montreal Summer Olympics was fourteen year old Romanian Nadia Comăneci, a gymnast. During the team competition, the score for her stunningly perfect routine on the uneven parallel bars was displayed as a 1 on the scoreboard. The crowd quickly learned that Nadia had scored a ten, the first perfect score ever awarded in gymnastics, and the scoreboard had no zero for it. She would continue on to be awarded six more perfect tens in the same games as well as three gold medals.
34. Romania is situated halfway between the North Pole and the equator.
35. The capital of Romania is Bucharest, also spelled Bucuresti.