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Charles of Lorraine (d.1780)

Charles of Lorraine (d.1780)


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Charles of Lorraine (d.1780)

Austrian general during the War of the Austrian Succession and at the start of the Seven Years War; Stadholder of the Austrian Netherlands until his death in 1780. Charles of Lorraine's campaigns were marked by his cautious, careful, approach that frequently lost him opportunities. He gained command of the Austrian armies in 1742. His first battle, at Chotusitz (17 May), was technically a Prussian victory, although both sides suffered large numbers of casualties, and Charles was able to extract his army largely intact. The campaign of 1743 was largely marked by his inability to work well with George II of England, and his unwillingness to be second in command. His best year was 1744, when he was able to threaten an invasion of Alsace and Lorraine, still considered as conquered Germany territory rather than as part of France, but he was forced back across the Rhine by the arrival of Louis XV and the duc de Noailles. His recrossing of the Rhine was a marked achievement, done without lose despite the presence of a hostile army, but he was unable to take advantage, as in August 1744 Frederick the Great invaded Bohemia and Charles had to be withdrawn to defend Austria. In 1745, Charles look a attacking posture, although Frederick himself desired battle, which he got at Hohenfriedberg (4 June 1745). Charles had allowed his army to become too stretched, and by the time he arrived on the battle field with his main force, his vanguard had already attacked the Prussian position and been defeated. His army took twice the casualties of the Prussians, but he was still in an apparently stronger position, and was able to outmarchFrederick, getting ahead of him, and launching a surprise attack on his camp at Sohr (30 September 1745). Despite Charles' advantage, Frederick demonstrated his superior tactical ability and was able to defeat the Austrian attack. He was finally replaced as commander by the duke of Cumberland in 1747.

At the start of theSeven Years War he had one final chance at command, and was placed in charge of the defence of Bohemia. His first decision was to change from an attacking plan to a purely defensive one. This change of plan negated all of the work that had been done in preparation for the attack, and left powder magazines, barracks and stores all vulnerable to Frederick's attack. The battle of Prague (6 May 1757 was Charles' last major battle, and during the course of the battle he suffered a fit that removed him from command, possibly helping Frederick take the day. Charles recovered his health enough to retake command after the battle of Kolin (18 June), and to waste that victory, before finally being replaced by Leopold von Daun.


Charles the Bold

Charles (Charles Martin German: Karl Martin Dutch: Karel Maarten 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold [1] (German: der Kühne Dutch: de Stoute French: le Téméraire), was the Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477.

His main objective was to be crowned king by turning the growing Burgundian State into a territorially continuous kingdom. He declared himself and his lands independent, bought Upper Alsace and conquered Zutphen, Guelders and Lorraine, uniting at last Burgundian northern and southern possessions. This caused the enmity of several European powers and triggered the Burgundian Wars.

His early death at the Battle of Nancy at the hands of Swiss mercenaries fighting for René II, Duke of Lorraine was of great consequence in European history. The Burgundian domains, long wedged between France and the Habsburg Empire, were divided, but the precise disposition of the vast and disparate territorial possessions involved was disputed among the European powers for centuries.


Charles of Lorraine (d.1780) - History

Note: The History of Lehigh Co PA published in 1914 has many major errors
regarding the early Frantz immigrants and their relationships.

From research of:
Charles F. Kerchner, Jr.
Emmaus PA 18049 USA
(a descendant)

Research Started: 1975
Webpage Created: 2 Feb 2002
Last Updated: 26 Jul 2020

Copyright �-2020
Charles F. Kerchner, Jr.
All Rights Reserved

If you are a direct-male-line male Frantz descendant (or phonetic spelling equivalent) of this immigrant, please consider
volunteering and having your YDNA Y-Chromosome Markers Profile added to the Frantz Surname YDNA Study Project.
If you are a not a direct male line descendant you can participate by sponsoring a Frantz male cousin who is to join this project.

Note: This is a work in process. Some dates shown are estimates. The below chart was generated using the Ancestral Quest computer program. Some dates and locations in this report is indicated as "about" "near" or "circa" or "probably" or "possibly", etc. Therefore, do not quote dates and locations off this report as precise unless you have independently verified it with yourself with primary source evidence. Comments and corrections are welcome. Please provide contemporaneous source evidence for corrections. If you use any information from this website, please be sure to give proper credit to this source and writer.

Please feel free to contact me if you would like to share information
on this line.

Copyright �-2020
Charles F. Kerchner, Jr.
All Rights Reserved
Created - 02 Feb 2002
Revised - 26 Jul 2020


Habsburg-Lorraine Line Emperors and Rulers

Following the failure of Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's yet unborn daughter, Maria Theresa. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (as well as Duchy of Teschen from the Emperor).

At Charles's death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was later elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I.

The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession. Francis and Maria Theresa's daughters Marie Antoinette and Maria Carolina became Queens of France and Naples-Sicily, respectively while their sons Joseph II and Leopold II succeeded to the imperial title.

Apart from the core Habsburg dominions, including the triple crowns of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia, several junior branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine reigned in the Italian duchies of Tuscany (until 1860), Parma (until 1847) and Modena (until 1859). Another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico (1863–67).

In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (then heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne) contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austrian-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed.

Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinand's younger brother, was universally regarded as the current head of the house. It was at Nancy, the former capital of the House of Vaudemont, that the crown prince married Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen in 1951.


Charles of Lorraine (d.1780) - History

Another name for Charles was Lord Courci.

General Notes:

No authoritative record exists of this son of Charles III, yet much circumstance supports this and his existence as grandfather to Baldric the Teuton. Some sources argue that this Charles descended from Louis IV and Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine, but generations do not appear to align.

Some sources put birthplace as Courcy, Ardennes, France, but these may just be lands he inherited. His father was in prison at Peronne at his birth - so the question is where was Eadgifu. Laon is a possible location as it was seat of royalty at the time. Courcy, near Reims, is also a possible location of birth which could account for origin of the name.

Birth date by many sources is 925, however his mother Eadgifu is generally believed to have fled to England in 923 with young Louis (eventually Louis IV). This was prompted by imprisonment of Charles III in 922. Could she have returned to France? We do know that Louis was left in the care of her father Edward the Elder, king of the English, and subsequently his uncle, Aethelstan.

The Cambridge Medieval History Vol Iii Germany And The Western Empire

http://dinosaur-act.ath.cx/GenoPro/default.htm?page=Carolingian-Charles-ind19363.htm
(This source strongly suggested Laon as birthplace)

Research Notes:

Noted events in his life were:

Charles married Heiress Archarda of Bar-sur-Aube., daughter of Archard de la Ferte Sur Aube and Unknown, ? . . (Heiress Archarda of Bar-sur-Aube. was born in 925 in La Ferte sur Aube.)

This Web Site was Created 10 Aug 2018 with Legacy 8.0 from Millennia


Biography

Charles Alexander was born on 12 December 1712 in Luneville, Duchy of Lorraine, the son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Elisabeth Charlotte d'Orleans, and in 1737 he entered the service of the Holy Roman Empire when his brother (the future Francis I of Austria) married Archduchess Maria Theresa. Prince Charles Alexander was one of the top Austrian commanders during the War of the Austrian Succession in the 1740s, being decisively defeated at the Battle of Hohenfriedburg in 1745 and the Battle of Rocoux in 1746. When he married Empress Maria Theresa's sister Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, Charles Alexander became the double brother-in-law of the empress, and his popularity and lack of replacement led to him being appointed Governor of the Austrian Netherlands in 1744.

Despite having a poor military record, Prince Charles Alexander was once more given command of Austrian troops during the Seven Years' War of 1756-63. At the Siege of Prague in 1757, he inflicted heavy losses on Frederick the Great's Prussian army and won at Breslau, but his defeat at the Battle of Leuthen on 5 December 1757 led to a complete rout and his replacement by Leopold Joseph von Daun. Charles was popular as Governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post which he held until his death in 1780 he was also the head of the Teutonic Order, a German knightly order, from 1761 until his death.


Palace of Charles of Lorraine

Did you know that in 1839 the Royal Library of Belgium was housed in the Palace of Charles of Lorraine? The Palace now hosts KBR’s temporary exhibitions. You can only enter the palace during these exhibitions or at special events.

The palace is entirely wheelchair accessible.

Venue hire

Are you interested in hiring this space? Please contact us on +32 (0)2 519 53 11 or [email protected] .

Rotunda

An impressive staircase, adorned with a statue of Hercules sculpted by Laurent Delvaux, leads up to the first-floor rotunda. The rotunda’s paving includes a central rosette made up of 28 types of Belgian marble, a sample of the Prince’s collection of 5,000 minerals.

The beautiful 18th century interior will ensure your event of a unique atmosphere.

Capacity *

The maximum capacity for combined use (rotunda + appartments) is 50 pax.

Theatre Classroom Boardroom U-shape Double U-shape Cabaret Cocktail
30 pax 25 pax 20 pax 18 pax 22 pax 20 pax 30 pax

(*in accordance with the COVID-19 regulations)

Dimensions

Surface Width Length
122,7 m 2 11 m 12,5 m

Pricing

The apartements

The rotunda’s wonderful floor art leads to five rooms decorated with stuccos and silk, where the governor would entertain his guests and take care of state affairs. The beautiful parquet floors, majestic chandeliers and curtains, these rooms provide a stylish backdrop for your event.

Capacity*

The maximum capacity for combined use (rotunda + appartments) is 50 pax.

Theatre Classroom Boardroom U-shape Double U-shape Cabaret Cocktail
50 pax 30 pax 50 pax

(*in accordance with the COVID-19 regulations)

Dimensions

Surface Length Width
286 m 2 42,7 m 6,7 m

Pricing

History

Charles of Lorraine was the governor of the Austrian Netherlands from 1744 to 1780. He was an avid art and science enthusiast and collector. His palace, the construction of which started in 1757, later housed the Royal Library’s reading rooms and is now used for events and exhibitions.


Charles of Lorraine (d.1780) - History

Many sources (including former versions of this webpage) say Charles Messier grew up in humble conditions, a rumor probably going back to incomplete remarks in Delambre's short biography (Delambre 1827). Actually, his family lived in considerable wealth (Philbert 2000): Nicolas Messier served in the administration of the Princes of Salm, including services in court, and resided in a beautiful home in Badonviller. Six of his brothers and sisters died at young age, not unusual at that time: the twins Nicolas and Anne (Marie), b. 1716 Anne (b. 1719), Barbe (1723-1724), Nicolas (b. 1725) and Joseph (1728.1729). Charles Messier knew only 5 of his brothers and sisters: Three brothers were older than he was, namely Hyacinthe (1717-1791), Claude (b. 1725) and Nicolas-François (b. 1726), while brother Joseph (1732-1804) and sister Barbe (1734-1787) were younger.

In 1741, when Charles was 11, the Messier family suffered from the untimely death of his father. At that time, the oldest brother, Hyacinthe, then at age 24, took over the role of the man in the house. Hyacinthe had worked with a curator in Nancy and had returned to Badonviller in 1740, to take a position in the administration of the Princes of Salm. Also about that time, the young Charles suffered from an accident: While playing turbulently, he was falling out of a window of the Messiers' house and breaking a leg on the level of the thigh, but he was found and taken care by a farmer of his hometown, who looked after him and assured complete recovery. Charles was taken from school, and Hyacinthe took care of his education, and trained him for eight years for administrative and methodic work. During that time, he developed a sense for precise observing and a feeling for fine details, which would become important in his later career.

Charles got interested in astronomy in younger years, and seems to have liked observing the stars and the phenomena in the night sky in very early years. When he was 14 years old, a great 6-tailed comet appeared (discovered by Klinkenberg and closer studied by De Chéseaux). His interest was further stimulated by an annular Solar eclipse which was visible (as partial eclipse) from his hometown on July 25, 1748.

In 1751, that part of present-day France was reorganized, and the Princes of Salm retracted from the control of Badonviller. Hyacinthe Messier decided to stay loyal to the Princes of Salm, and therefore to leave Badonviller and establish himself at Senones. For Charles, now at 21 years of age, time had come to look for work. Therefore, a friend of the family, the Abbé Thélosen, found two opportunities for him to take up a job in Paris: one with the curator of a palace, the other with an astronomer. After some consultations with friends, Hyacinthe accepted for him the second position, that with the astronomer, because it promised more advantages and prospects.

Charles Messier left Badonviller on September 23, 1751, and went to Paris, where he arrived on October 2. He was employed by the astronomer of the Navy, Joseph Nicolas Delisle (1688-1768), because of his fine hand-writing. Delisle and his wife, a couple in their sixties without own childs, gave Messier a new home within their appartment, situated in the Collége Royal de France (Royal College of France). Messier's first job was copying a large map of China for that purpose, large space was needed, which Delisle assigned him in a long, unheated hall in the Royal College Delambre (1827) commented that this was just appropriate for a future observational astronomer.

Besides these activities, he got introduced into Delisle's observatory and instructed in using its instruments by Delisle's secretary and assistant, Libour. This man also instructed him to keep careful records of all his observations.

Delisle's observatory had been established in 1748, after Delisle's return from Russia a year before, on a tower of Hôtel de Clugny (later Hôtel de Cluny), a residence constructed in 1480, on the ruins of Roman thermes from the 4th century, as the temporary Paris residence for the abbots of the Clugny order and their guests. In the 18th century, it was rented to the administration of the Royal Navy.

Charles Messier's first documented observation was that of the Mercury transit of May 6, 1753. Delisle himself introduced him into elementary astronomy and convinced him of the usefulness of measuring exact positions of all observations -- without doubt one of the most important preliminaries for the success of his catalog. In 1754, he was regularly employed as a Depot Clerk of the Navy.

Somewhen in 1757, Charles Messier started looking for comet Halley. His first reported observation of M32, a companion of the Andromeda Galaxy, took place in the same year 1757 he must also have seen the "Great Nebula" M31 latest on this occasion. Comet Halley was expected to return in 1758, which, at that time, was no more than a scientific hypothesis. Delisle himself had calculated an apparent path where he expected comet Halley to appear, and Messier created a fine star chart of this path. Unfortunately, there was a mistake in Delisle's calculations, so that Messier always looked at the wrong positions. However, he discovered another comet on August 14, 1758, which he followed and carefully observed with telescopes to November 2, 1758 this comet (C/1758 K1 De la Nux) had been discovered earlier, on May 26, 1758, by De la Nux. During these observations, he discovered another comet-like patch in Taurus on August 28, 1758. Evidently, it turned out that this patch was not moving, and was thus indeed not a comet, but a nebula. He measured its position on September 12, 1758, and it later became the first entry in his famous catalog, Messier 1 or M1, -- this object later turned out to be one of the most interesting objects in the sky, the remnant of the supernova 1054, now commonly called the Crab Nebula. It was also this first discovery of a comet-like nebula which triggered Messier to both looking for comets with telescopes, thus "inventing" comet hunting, a new discipline of astronomy in these days, and to compile his catalog of nebulous objects which might be taken for comets.

Comet Halley was finally discovered by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch (1723-1788) in the Chrismas night (December 25-26) of 1758. Messier independently found it on January 21, 1759, about 4 weeks later, when he finally doubted the correctness of Delisle's path. Delisle however did not believe in this fault, advised him to continue observing, and refused to announce his discovery. Messier as loyal employee stated: "I was a loyal servant of M. Delisle, I lived with him in his house, and I conformed with his command." When Delisle finally announced the discovery on April 1, 1759, it was not believed by the other French astronomers (perhaps they took it as an April Fool's joke).

Perhaps this disappointment and frustration was even more stimulating to the 28-year old observer, so that he devoted his professional life to comet hunting. This devotion suffered from a further frustration (and perhaps got further emphasized) when Delisle refused to publish a further comet discovery by Messier in early 1760.

In the following, Delisle changed attitude, supported Messier, and let him do his own observational work also, it seems that because of his age, he more and more retracted from astronomical work. Messier recorded his second "nebula," M2, previously discovered by Jean-Dominique Maraldi (1709-1788), and plotted it on a chart showing Comet Halley's track. He observed the transit of Venus of June 6, 1761, and the appearance Saturn's rings. He observed Comet 1762 Klinkenberg from May to July, 1762, and on September 28, 1763, he discovered Comet 1763 (Messier), and the next one, Comet 1764 Messier, on January 3, 1764 (this one was as bright as 3.0 mag when discovered, according to Don Machholz). A first hope to enter the French Académie Royale des Sciences [Royal Academy of Sciences] in 1763 did not come true, a considerable disappointment for Charles Messier.

With the discovery of a further "nebula", his third object (globular cluster M3) and his first original discovery, it seems that he undertook a serious scan of the skies for these objects, as they could frequently fool comet discoverers. Alternatively, it may be that he decided to undertake this endeavor due to other reasons, and M3 was his first discovery in the course of doing so: It was at that time that Le Gentil's memoir on nebulae was going to be printed (finally, in 1765), and it may well be that Messier had knowlegde and was perhaps influenced by this. Within his search for nebulae, Charles Messier both undertook own scans, leading to 19 original Messier discoveries during that year, and used all the catalogs compiled previously by other astronomers he had access to: Edmond Halley's list of 6 objects, the catalog of William Derham, who chiefly had extracted from Hevelius' star catalog, Prodomus Astronomiae, which was available in a French translation by Pierre de Maupertuis, and Nicolas Lacaille's Catalog of Southern "Nebulae" of 1755, as well as lists of Maraldi and Le Gentil, with some references to (but very probably not the list of) De Chéseaux, probably from Le Gentil. He cataloged the objects M3--M40 this year, and looked for several non-existent nebulae from the older catalogs (certainly without success, but this explains why the double star M40 entered his catalog).

At that time, Messier was in vivid correspondence with astronomers and other academicians in Britain, Germany, and Russia. His Russian correspondent, Frederick La Harpe, was exile from Swiss and member of the Academy of sciences. Moreover, on May 21, 1764, Charles Messier was selected as a member of the Academy of Harlem (The Netherlands), and on December 6, 1764, was made a foreign member of the Royal Society in London. In 1765, memberships in the Academy of Auxerre and the Institute of Bologne followed.

Early in 1765, he found the star cluster M41. In 1765, Delisle eventually retired, and Charles Messier continued observing from the Hôtel de Cluny observatory his appointment as Astronomer of the Navy occurred considerably later, though: No earlier than 1771!

On March 8, 1766, he discovered a new comet, and co-discovered one more on April 8 of that year.

In 1767, Messier, the long-term Depot Clerk and later Astronomer of the Navy, took part in the only naval journey in his life, in order to test and regulate some new marine chronometers, constructed by J. Le Roy. Therefore, he went on the ship L'Aurore for a 3 and a half-month voyage in the Baltic, together with his colleague Alexander-Guy Pingré (1711-1796). Messier did the astronomical observations and Pingré the necessary calculations. During his absense from May 12 to September 1, 1767, Lalande continued the observing program at Cluny.

In early 1769, Messier must have decided to publish a first version of his catalog, and to enlarge the number of objects, cataloged the well known objects M42--M45 (Orion Nebula, Praesepe, and the Pleiades) on March 4, 1769.

On August 8, 1769, Messier discovered a new comet (1769 Messier, the Great Comet of that year). He sent a description and a map of this comet's discovery to the King of Prussia, who was so impressed that under his influence, Messier was made a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences on September 14, 1769 in April of the same year, he had already been selected as a member of the Royal Academy of Sweden in Stockholm.

Finally, in 1770, he was elected into the Paris Académie Royale des Sciences, which he entered on June 30. This occurred about 2 weeks after he had discovered another comet, on June 14, which became known as Comet Lexell unusually, this comet was not named for its discoverer, Charles Messier, but for the calculator of its orbit, Anders Lexell, a Finnish astronomer and mathematician working at St. Petersburg Observatory.

The same year, on November 26, 1770, Charles Messier, aged 40, married Marie-Françoise de Vermauchampt (37). They had known each other from viewing for at least about 15 years, when Charles Messier had to do in the College de France.

On January 10, 1771, Messier independently co-discovered the Great Comet of that year. On February 16, 1771 he presented the first version of his Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, with the first 45 objects, to the Paris Academy of Sciences. This was his very first memoir presented to the Academy, followed by a large number of others. Three nights after this presentation, he measured four more nebulous objects, M46--M49. For two of them, however, M47 and M48, he didn't proceed with the usual care, and did mistakes in the reduction of positional data, so that they were missed until their 20th century identification. M49 was moreover the first Virgo Cluster galaxy discovered. On April 1, he discovered Comet 1771 Messier, his 13th comet in his own counting, his 12th independent and his 7th original discovery. Later this year, on June 7, Messier discovered M62, but only measured an approximate position, so he included this "Very Fine Nebula" not before 1779. In the same year of 1771, on September 30, Charles Messier was finally officially made the "Astronomer of the Navy" by the Minister of the Navy, de Boines, and granted a regular salary of 1700 francs annually (this was raised again in 1774 to 2000 francs). Also this year. in March, 1771, the portrait of Charles Messier displayed at the top of this page has been created by Desportes, together with a portrait of Madame Messier.

On October 31, 1771, Messier and his wife moved from his and formerly Delisle's appartment in the Collége de France into a lodging within the Hôtel de Clugny, where the Observatory of the Navy was situated.

On March 15, 1772, Madame Messier gave birth to a son, who was christened Antoine-Charles. Following the birth, both Madame Messier and the small boy died within 11 days, Madame Messier on March 23, and Antoine-Charles on March 26, 1772.

A slightly malicious legend is reported by Jean-François de Laharpe, written in 1801, that the death of Messier's wife had prevented the discovery of another comet which would have been his thirteenth, and Messier was more desperate because of the lost discovery than of the death of his wife (especially as this comet was discovered by Montaigne, whom he didn't like). However, this legend doesn't stand serious criticism: Montaigne had already discovered this one on March 8, a week before Messier's son had been born, and whatever counting is appointed, this was not Messier's thirteenth comet (according to Messier's own counting, as well as a published memoir, and mentioned above, his 13th comet had already appeared in 1771).

Anyway, Messier observed this comet March 26 - April 3, 1772. On April 5, 1772, he added another cluster to his list, M50. Later that year, he took a 3-months vacations in Lorraine, from September to November 1772. That year, he was also elected a member of the Academy of Brussels (Belgium) and the Royal Academy of Hungary.

Perhaps partly because of these private experiences, "Nebula" observation was apparently reduced by Charles Messier in the years following: On August 10, 1773, he discovered the second bright companion of the Andromeda "Nebula", M110, but due to unknown reason did not catalog it. He discovered one more comet on October 13, 1773 this one was found when it was "just visible to the naked eye" (Glyn Jones), or at 4.5 mag (Machholz). He found two more objects (M51 and M52) in 1774, and observed Comet 1774 Montaigne. Also in the year 1774, Pierre Méchain was introduced to Messier by Jerôme de Lalande, the leading French astronomer at that time it may well be (according to a conjecture of Owen Gingerich) that he had met Messier before this time.

Until 1777, Messier did not discover another nebula, nor another comet. In February that year, Messier cataloged M53 (this globular had been discovered two years earlier by Johann Elert Bode). He also contributed to the dubious hypothesis of a planet inside Mercury's orbit, when he reported several small bodies crossing the Sun's disk on June 17, 1777. He added that the objects observed might be atmospheric phenomena, but "more probably small meteorites". On La Harpe's recommendation, Messier was named to the Academy of St. Petersburg in Russia on January 9, 1777.

In 1778 Messier found two more nebulae, the original discovery M54, as well as M55 which had been reported by Lacaille, and which Messier had looked for in vain in 1764.

In 1779, Messier co-discovered Comet 1779 Bode on January 19, 13 days after its original sighting by Bode on January 6. Following this comet, until May 19, he observed six objects (M56--M61). Messier discovered M56 and M57 in Janary 1779. There was a modest discovery "outburst" when the comet passed Virgo and the Virgo cluster of Galaxies, and was observed by Messier, Johann Gottfried Koehler from Dresden, and Barnabus Oriani in Milan. Thus Koehler discovered M59 and M60 on April 11, 1779, but overlooked M58 which was discovered by Messier when he independently also found the other two on April 15. On May 5, Koehler also found "three othersomewhat nebulous stars in the area of the northern shoulder of Virgo", but because of lack of more detail, these cannot be identified with certainty Wolfgang Steinicke speculates these may be M84, M86, and M87. Oriani was the first to identify M61 on May 5, 1779 Messier found it the same day but took it for the comet on May 5, 6, and 11 -- he realized its nature as a nebula finally on May 11.

When measuring the stars along the comet's track, Messier made an accidental prediscovery observation of asteroid (2) Pallas, the first known record of an asteroid obeservation! This fact was brought to light only in 2012 by Belgian astronomer and historian René Bourtembourg (Bourtembourg 2012).

Messier eventually got a good position for M62 which he had longly discovered in 1771. M63 was the first discovery of Méchain (on June 14, 1779), who had definitely started observing about that time, and like Messier focussed on comet searching and observing. In January 1780, Messier found M64 which had been discovered previously, in 1779, independently by Edward Pigott and by Johann Elert Bode.

Owen Gingerich reports that Messier, by chance, found M65 and M66, in March 1780. Admiral Smyth, and later some other authors probably following him, has assigned these two objects to Pierre Méchain, most probably in error, as Messier didn't acknowledge an earlier discovery, unlike his practise on all such occasions that actually occurred. Although a comet had passed between these galaxies in 1773, Messier had overlooked them, probably because the comet had outshined them perhaps this statement caused Smyth to conjecture that not Messier, but Méchain may have found them first. Also, Messier did not find a 3rd galaxy, NGC 3628, of visual magnitude 9.5 (but less surface brightness than the other two), which forms a conspicuous triangular group with them: This gives a hint on the modest power of his telescopes. In April 1780, he discovered two further objects, M67 and M68, and thus completed his observations for a second version of the catalog. This version was containing the objects up to M68, published 1780 in the French almanac, Connoissance des Temps, for 1783. M67 had been discovered earlier by Köhler, before 1779, while M68 was again subject to a misassignment to Méchain by Admiral Smyth.

In May, 1780, Messier became a member of the Literary Society of Upsala, Sweden.

Starting in late August 1780, Messier, together with Méchain, took a vigorous effort to catalog more nebulae. Messier's first two new discoveries, M69 and M70, just made it to an appendix to the Connoissance des Temps for 1783. By the end of the year 1780, Messier had collected the entries up to M79, and discovered a new comet (1780 I Messier, on October 27), shortly after having missed another one, 1780II Montaigne-Olbers. By April 1781, the list of nebulae and star cluster had increased to 100 objects. Hastily, three more objects observed by Pierre Méchain (M101--M103) were added without personal validation, to get the catalog ready for its final publication in the Connoissance des Temps for 1784 (published 1781). Very shortly after publication, on May 11, 1781, Messier added M104 to his personal copy of the catalog, as well as positions for the hitherto undetermined objects M102 and M103. A look to Messier's personal matters shows that he had listed two more nebulae, discovered by Méchain and mentioned in the catalog with M97, which are now known as M108 and M109. M109 deserves a closer look, as its identification is somewhat ambigous: Messier's coordinates point to two closely neighbored objects: The Declination coincides with NGC 3992 which had been identified as M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1953, its Right Ascension with that of NGC 3953 - the object originally discovered by Pierre Méchain and here referred to as M109B, a fact uncovered only in 2006 by Henk Bril see our discussion on this topic. One of Méchain's discoveries of March 1781, M105, had been overlooked and missed the final catalog. Méchain discovered a further nebulous object, now M106, in July. Méchain also discovered his first two comets in 1781, on June 28 and October 9.

Meanwhile, Friedrich Wilhelm (William) Herschel, who was at that time astronomer (observer and telescope maker) and organist at Bath, England, had discovered planet Uranus on March 13. Messier got the note on April 14, 1781, one day after his last observing session for compiling his catalog, and immediately started observing it. He wrote to Herschel: "It does you the more honor as nothing could be more difficult than to recognize it and I cannot concieve how you were able to return several times to this star or comet as it was necessary to observe it several days in succession to perceive that it had motion, since it had none of the usual characters of a comet." He passed his observations to the French president de Saron, who was a good mathematician, and was among the first to calculate that Uranus was a planet and not a comet, since its perihelion was too great (this result was obtained on May 8, 1781). Others, namely Boscovich, Lexell, Lalande and Méchain, obtained the same result, and confirmed that Uranus was orbiting the sun beyond Saturn's orbit. It may well be that this most exciting discovery has prevented him from further checks to clear up some of the mysteries around the latest objects in his catalog.

Later this year, on November 6, Messier's work was unfortunately interrupted by an awful accident, when he fell into the ice cellar about 25 feet deep. He was severely injured, and it took more than a year for him to recover he was up not until November 9, 1782.

In the meantime, in April 1782, Méchain had discovered another "nebula", which finally became the latest discovered Messier object, M107.

Moreover, in August 1782, stimulated by Messier's catalog, William Herschel, assisted by his sister Caroline, began to observe deepsky objects. Herschel had received a copy on December 7, 1781, from his friend, Dr. William Watson, which had been sent to them by Alexander Aubert. On September 7, 1782, William Herschel did his first original discovery of a deepsky object, the Saturn Nebula (NGC 7009), and in October 1783, after some research of efficient observing techniques, he began his extensive deep-sky survey of the sky visible from England (i.e., the Northern sky), and cataloged 1000 deep-sky objects until 1786, and a total of over 2500 until 1802 (however, some of them don't exist, and some others had been discovered earlier).

Three days after his recovery on November 9, 1782, Charles Messier observed a Mercury transit on November 12, 1782.

On May 6, 1783, Pierre Méchain wrote an important letter to Bernoulli of the Berlin academy, which was published by Bode in the Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1786, together with a translation of the Messier catalog. In this letter, among others, he communicated the last three objects discovered by him (now M105-M107), as well as his above-mentioned discoveries of M104, M108, and M109B. He also disclaimed the discovery of M102, thereby initiating a still open controversy on the identification of this object (i.e., if it duplicates M101 as Méchain claims, or may be identified with NGC 5866 which matches his description and - up to a reconstructable error in data reduction - Messier's handwritten position).

Messier resumed his assiduous observing activities as before, again concentrating on comets. He seems to have used his personal copy of his catalog also for a number of years, but apparently did not invest great effort in further attempts to find new nebulous objects, and not much work to improve the catalog further. This is perhaps because he knew of Herschel's survey, and as he couldn't compete in instrumentation, he may have lost interest: He probably was aware that future comet hunters could use Herschel's compilation also. However, there are a number of notable exceptions: His measurements of stars in the open star clusters Praesepe (M44) and the Pleiades (M45) in 1785, 1790, and 1796, a number of observations of about 1790 of nebulae and clusters marked by hand in his personal copy of the catalog, his corrected positions of 1790 for the Andromeda "Nebula" (M31) and its companion M32, as well as his 1795 investigations and drawing of the Andromeda "Nebula" (M31) and both its satellites M32 and M110.

Messier himself puts it on the large number of comets that appeared since about 1785 that did not permit much time for other observational activities.

The Messier catalog was finally corrected by identifying the 4 missing objects (or at least three of them), and brought into its current state by adding the late discoveries of Méchain, M104--M109, plus the uncataloged discovery M110, only in the 20th century.

Messier's comet search led to a further success on January 7, 1785, when he discovered comet 1785 I Messier-Méchain, when it was about 6.5 magnitudes bright this one was visible for about 5 weeks. Méchain discovered another comet on March 11, 1785, and a further one on January 17, 1786 this was the first apparition of comet Encke, the comet with the shortest known orbital period of only about 3.3 years.

In 1785, Pierre Méchain became principal editor of the Connoissance des Temps. He served on this post until 1792, and was responsible for the publication of the Connoissance des Temps for 1788 to that for 1794. Some sources say that Messier was also appointed as associate editor of this publication in the same year, and hold this post for five years until 1790, but the present author could not yet find evidence to confirm this statement.

Both astronomers continued their successful comet search: Messier discovered a new one on November 26, 1788, while Méchain found a further comet on April 10, 1787, and discovered comet Tuttle when it appeared in 1790, on January 9. Further academic memberships came for the Academy of Sciences of Dublin (1784), the Académy de Stanislav, Nancy, Lorraine (1785), and the Academy of Vergara, Spain (1788).

Meanwhile, the French Revolution had begun with the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. These events may have intercepted attempts by Charles Messier to publish an updated version of his catalog: In his personal copy, he added notes on observaitons of nebulae and clusters in about 1790.

Four years later, this culminated in the "Year of Terror" in France, 1793-1794. That year, the French King Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, and Messier's friend, ex-president de Saron, on April 20, 1794, shortly after he had calculated the orbit of Messier's comet discovered on September 27, 1793, and Messier could notify him secretly that he had found the comet on the calculated path. The terrorism ended when finally Robbespierre himself was guillotined on July 27, 1794. During that time, Messier lost his salaries and pension, and had to loan oil for his lamp from Lalande. Méchain was in Spain, employed in surveying the meridian, where he discovered another comet in January, 1793, but his family lost their estate during this year. He left to Italy, and returned to Paris in 1795. Together with Messier, he entered the new National Institute of Sciences and Arts, successor of the Academy of Sciences. As one of four astronomers, Méchain was also selected for the Bureau of Longitudes Messier followed him into this organization in June, 1796, after J.D. Cassini (Cassini IV) decided to leave.

Messier discovered another comet on April 12, 1798.

At that time, he apparently felt the need to comment on his intention for compiling his catalog. In the Connaissance des Tems for the year IX (of the French republic, i.e., 1800/1801), which was published 1998, he lined out:

"What caused me to undertake the catalog was the nebula I discovered above the southern horn of Taurus on September 12, 1758, whilst observing the comet of that year. This nebula had such a resemblance to a comet in its form and brightness that I endeavored to find others, so that astronomers would no more confuse these same nebulae with comets just beginning to appear. I observed further with suitable refractors for the discovery of comets, and this is the purpose I had in mind in compiling the catalog.

After me, the celebrated Herschel published a catalog of 2000 which he has observed. This unveiling the heavens, made with instruments of great aperture, does not help in the perusal of the sky for faint comets. Thus my object is different from his, and I need only nebulae visible in a telescope of two feet [focal length]. Since the publication of my catalog, I have observed still others: I will publish them in the future in the order of right ascension for the purpose of making them more easy to recognise and for those searching for comets to have less uncertainty."

In 1801, when the first asteroid, Ceres, had just been discovered by Piazzi on January 1, Charles Messier, now at an age of 71 (shown at about this time in this image), took part in an observing project of occultations of the mag 1 star Spica (Alpha Virginis) by the Moon, on March 30 and May 24. Charles Messier did his last score in comet discovery on July 12, 1801, when he independently co-discovered Comet 1801 Pons this brought the number of his comet discoveries to 20, 13 being original and 7 independent co-discoveries. He did some observations of the newly discovered "planets" (asteroids) of Piazzi (Ceres) and of Olbers (Pallas).

Pierre Méchain lately became director of the Paris Observatory, a post he had for several years. But as he had been worrying about some latitude determinations in his longitude survey, he finally got Napoleon's permission to extend this survey to the Balearic Islands. He left Paris in 1803. After completing parts of this work, he caught yellow fever and died in Castillion de Plaza, Spain, on September 20, 1804.

In his older days, Charles Messier finally came to a certain portion of honor when Napoleon himself, in 1806, presented him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In turn, the old man Messier ruined much of his scientific reputation by an elaborated memoir, devoting the great comet of 1769 to Napoleon, who had been born that year thus he became probably the last serious scientist who claimed that comets announce events on earth, or as Admiral Smyth put it: 'The last comet put astrologically before the public by an orthodox astronomer'.

In the time following, Messier did less and less observing, although he didn't completely cease, mainly because he suffered from decreasing eyesight. Thus he was unable to determine positions for the two comets of 1805 and that of 1806. His observatory grew into worse and worse state, with no funds to repair. The last comet Messier reports to have seen and observed, the positions measured with the help of other observers, was the "Great Comet" of 1807. His last memoir, presented to the National Institute of France, similar to his first of 1771, the first version of the Catalog of Nebulae and Star Clusters, was again a considerably important memoir on "nebulae:" his presentation of his 1795 observations and a drawing of the Andromeda "Nebula" M31, together with its companions M32 and M110.

In 1815, Messier suffered a stroke which left him partially paralyzed. After partial recovery, he attended one or two more academy meetings, but his everyday life became more and more difficult. In the night of April 11-12, 1817, Charles Messier passed away in his 87th year, in his home in Paris. He was buried on April 14 on the cemetry of Père Lachaise in Paris.

Charles Messier has been honored lately by the astronomical community by naming a Moon Crater (or even two) after him, situated on Mare Fecunditatis. Asteroid 7359, discovered on January 16, 1996 by M. Tichy at Klet Observatory, and provisionally designated 1996 BH, was named "Messier" it had already been observed previously, and designated 1978 WR14 and 1989 WT1.

Already during his lifetime, in 1775, Messier's French fellow astronomer Jerôme de Lalande had proposed to name a constellation after him: Custos Messium. This constellation was formed from bordering stars of Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis. However, it was very short-lived and is longly extinct now.


Charles of Lorraine (d.1780) - History

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day (Friday, February 30) Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year (from Saturday, March 1) was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.


A Compendium of the Charles S. Grant Publications


Two of the Charles S. Grant books from his most recent series, "Refighting History."

A Grant battle always features big battalions of 53 figures and cavalry regiments of 27 figures. The above picture depicts one of our "Batailles de l'Ancien Regime" (or BAR for short) battles last year. Our 60 figure battalions and the rules are inspired by The Wargame Rules, in part.

Battle Games Issues with Grant's Table Top Teasers

Issue 1 (March/April 2006) - Pontoon - using pontoons in river crossing scenarios.
Issue 2 (May/June 2006) - Can you demolish "The Bridge at Kronstadt"?
Issue 3 (July/August 2006) - The Tactical Use of Forests in Your Wargames
Issue 4 (September/October 2006) - Plunder and Pillage - a raid scenario to fetch supplies
[NOTE: this issue also contains a marvelous article about a refight of the Peter Young "Battle of Sittangbad" from his "Charge"book, that accurately recreates all of the forces and terrain featured in the Charge book.]

Issue 5 (November/December 2006) - Trouble on Treasure Island - a lighter Beer & Pretzels game.
Issue 6 (January/February 2007) - Napoleon's troops rob Egypt of Ancient Antiquities
Issue 7 (March/April 2007) - River Convoy, or "Messing About on the River".
Issue 8 (June/July 2007) - Seize the Pass, "The Battle of Soggy Bottom".
[NOTE: this issue also has an article about a recreation of the Grant "Mollwitz" scenario at Partizan. Grant himself participates in the game and brought all of the original plastic Spencer Smith figures that featured prominently in the book, "The Wargame".]

Issue 9 (August/September 2007) - Turning the Flank, or "Losing Two Fords".
Issue 10 (November/December 2007) - Siege Train, or "Caught on the Move".
Issue 11 (January/February 2008) - Insurgency, or "All's Well That Ends Well".
Issue 12 (March/April 2008) - Fighting rearguard actions.
Issue 13 (May/June 2008) - Fighting withdrawal, or "Over the hills and far away".
Issue 14 (July/August 2008) - Reconnaissance in Force
Issue 15 (September/October 2008) - Visitors with Intent. 3 different sides, each with own agenda.
Issue 16 (January/February 2009) - Confrontation on the Islands. Crossing 2 islands in a major river.
Issue 17 (March/April 2009) - A Dashing Rescue. A small skirmish raid style of game.
Issue 18 (July/August 2009) - Breakout! or "Tonight there's going to be a jailbreak".
Issue 19 (September/October 2009) - Gaining the Initiative (by Charlie Grant) - a battle that carries over to a second day's new action.

Issue 20 (November/December 2009) - An Affair of Outposts - an introduction to map moving.
Issue 21 (January/February 2010) - Night Moves. Preliminary action leading to main action.
Issue 22 (March/April 2010) - The Defense of Twin Peaks. A desperate rear-guard action.
Issue 23 (September/October 2010) - Cavalry Encounter. An exciting all-cavalry scenario.

Going forward, Battle Games were only numbered by issue number, without the month dating.


Watch the video: Οι δηλώσεις του Πρίγκιπα Κάρολου και της Προέδρου της Δημοκρατίας στο Προεδρικό Μέγαρο (May 2022).


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