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BORN: 1816 in Franklin City, VA.
DIED: 1894 in Lynchburg, VA.
CAMPAIGNS: Blackburn's Ford, First Bull Run, Williamsburg, Malvern Hill, Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Mine Run, Wilderness, Gettysburg, Cold Harbor, Monocacy, Chambersburg, Fisher's Hill, Winchester, Cedar Creek and Waynesborough.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Lieutenant General.
Jubal Anderson Early was born on November 3, 1816, in Franklin County, Virginia. Part of a prominent family, he attended local schools. His mother died in 1832, and he was sent to the US Military Academy a year later. Graduating in 1837, he fought in the Seminole War, then resigned from the service to become a lawyer in Rocky Mount, Virginia. While he voted against secession in the state convention of 1861, he chose to join the state forces in Lynchburg when Virginia seceded. After Virginia's official secession, Early joined his regiment in Manassas Junction. He commanded troops at Blackburn's Ford, then served under Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard at the First Battle of Bull Run. His service at Bull Run impressed his superiors so much that he was appointed a brigadier general. Early fought under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the Army of Northern Virginia , and was shot in the shoulder at Williamsburg. He remained on the field, however, until he was removed and taken to a hospital. After his quick recovery, he returned to the field, commanding a brigade in the Battle of Malvern Hill. He later served at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, the Second Battle of Bull Run, Antietam and Fredericksburg. Promoted to major general to rank from January 17, 1863, he was placed in charge of a division. At Chancellorsville, however, Early failed to reconnoiter sufficiently, endangering but not jeopardizing a Confederate victory. This same problem occurred at Mine Run in 1863, and in the Wilderness in 1864. Nevertheless, Early's work in the Gettysburg Campaign kept him high in General Lee's estimation, and Early was appointed lieutenant general as of may 31, 1864. After taking part in the Battle of Cold Harbor, he led his troops across the Potomac River and score a victory, probably the most important of his career, at Monocacy. Nevertheless, Early's operation there alerted Union forces in the Washington area, forcing Early to abandon his plans to attack the capital. Along his retreat, he took part in the burning of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in revenge for the Union's destruction of the Shenandoah Valley. Early went on to lead troops against Maj. Philip H. Sheridan at Fisher's Hill, Winchester, Cedar Creek and Waynesborough. After the Confederacy surrendered, Early traveled to Texas in disguise, then went to Havana, Cuba and Toronto, Canada. While in Canada, he wrote "A Memoir of the Last Year of the War" (1867), then returned to Lynchburg in 1869 and resumed his law practice. He refused to accept the Confederate defeat graciously, unlike many of his Confederate colleagues. Later in life, he supervised the Louisiana State Lottery, and was the first president of the Southern Historical Society. He revised his memoir and published it as "Autobiographical Sketches" (1912), exhibiting his defiance toward reconstruction. Early died on March 2, 1894, in Lynchburg, Virginia.

Jubal Anderson Early

Jubal Anderson Early (born November 3, 1816 in Franklin County , Virginia , † March 2, 1894 in Lynchburg , Virginia) was an officer in the US Army , lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the War of Civilizations and an attorney after the war. He was the most prominent representative of the Lost Cause .


George Reeser Prowell was a well-known 19th-century chronicler of historical events in York County, Pennsylvania. While not always accurate or reliable, Prowell work nevertheless is important for the sheer volume of material he generated. Much of it came from personal interviews with York Countians, who shared their own experiences as well as oral traditions and written documentation. Not only did Prowell consult local citizens, at times he traveled to meet with outsiders who had knowledge of events in York County.

The latter included an attorney in Lynchburg, Virginia, a man who had spent three nights in York County back in the early summer of 1863. Those three nights, however, were among the most controversial in the county’s history.

Jubal Anderson Early, a former Confederate major general whose 6,600 troops had invaded York County during the Gettysburg Campaign.

Prowell traveled with another ex-Rebel, John W. Daniel, one of Early’s staff officers and most-trusted aides during the late war. Daniel, like Early, was a lawyer living in Lynchburg. Daniel was also a U. S. Senator for several terms. It was the second, and most compelling, meeting between Prowell and the crusty old general. They met at Early’s house on a hill overlooking Lynchburg and the Southern Railway.

Here are some highlights of George Prowell’s October 1892 interview with Jubal Early, adapted from the July 14, 1916, issue of the York Dispatch.

Prowell found the nearly 80-year-old Early to be in “splendid condition” and “in the best of health” despite his advanced age. After some light banter about Prowell’s boyhood belief that Jubal Early’s name reminded him of the Biblical character Tubal Cain, Prowell asked the general to read the passages in his diary about his encampment nine miles northwest of York on June 27, 1863 (in Big Mount).

Early informed Prowell that “before retiring for the night, I rode four miles down to [Brig. Gen. John B.] Gordon’s headquarters [on the Altland Farm at Farmers], in order to give directions how to enter York on the following day. We had orders from the commander-in-chief [Robert E. Lee], and from General [R. S.] Ewell, in whose corps my division served, to enforce the strictest discipline among our soldiers. We were not permitted to pillage or destroy any private property. Gordon had already held a conference with a deputation of citizens who had returned to York, before my conference with him.

“I returned to my quarters at the residence of Mrs. Zinn, and slept soundly that night, believing that within 24 hours I would have crossed the Susquehanna with my command, sent Gordon on a raid toward Lancaster and Philadelphia, and with my three [other] brigades joined Ewell with Rodes’ and Barnes’ division in the vicinity of Harrisburg. These were my expectations when I arose from my bed on that beautiful Sunday morning.

“On June 28, 1863, just as the sun was rising in the East, the bugle was sounded and we took up the march toward York, passing a short distance south of Davidsburg over a wide road to Weiglestown, leaving Dover to my left. Some of my troops scoured the country and gathered in many horses needed for our cavalry and our officers, for our own horses were tired and many of them nearly worn out.

“At Weiglestown I dispatched Colonel [William H.] French with a portion of his troops, about 200 men of the Seventeenth Virginia cavalry, to the mouth of Conewago creek. French was instructed to burh the railroad bridges which span the two branches of that stream near its mouth. They accomplished this purpose in the afternoon. A detachment of the Pennsylvania militia, (the Twentieth Emergency regiment), then guarding the bridges, skedaddled across the Susquehanna just as French’s troops arrived. The cavalry late in the afternoon reported to me at York.”

Cannon Turned on York

“Soon after leaving Weiglestown, I dispatched [Brig. Gen. Harry T.] Hays’ and [William “Extra Billy” Smith’s brigades across the country north of York to the Harrisburg turnpike [North George Street]. They pitched their tents around the Codorus mulls, (Loucks’), about two miles northeast of York. They planted their cannon east of the mill along the hill sides, overlooking the town, and threw up some earth works.

“I moved in York at the head of [Col. Isaac E.[ Avery’s brigade of North Carolina troops, and with them took possession of the public common [now Penn Park], where the hospital buildings were stationed, and the fairgrounds, southeast of the town [at King and Queen streets]. A few cannon were planted on an eminence (Shunk’s hill) southeast of York. My object in placing the troops in these positions was for the purpose of being ready for a sudden attack on the enemy.”

Prowell went on to give some background information, mentioning Early’s 2:00 p.m. entrance into York created a great deal of excitement among the residents. He noted that “Early was a soldier by nature, somewhat rash in his methods, and at that time as well as in later years, was a picturesque personality. He was tall of stature, but not erect in form. He wore a suit of gray, faded and somewhat discolored from a continuous march of two weeks. His long shaggy beard was untrimmed and his broad-brimmed felt hat showed evidences of long use. He rode a black horse, which is supposed to have been captured after he crossed the Pennsylvania line. On the left side of the animal was branded ‘C. S. A.,’ meaning Confederate States army.”

Early and his staff entered the Center Square and asked for the chief burgess, David Small. He requisitioned York for food and provisions for his soldiers. Early and his adjutant, the 21-year-old John Daniel, then entered the nearby courthouse on E. Market Street and commandeered the sheriff’s office as his headquarters. That room was the next-to-last room on the west side of the building. Daniel sat on a tall chair behind the sheriff’s desk and wrote out the formal requisition that other staff officers [W. W. Thornton and Charles E. Snodgrass] delivered to the city fathers. Early’s provost marshal, in charge of the security of the town, occupied the register’s office on the east side of the courthouse near the street.

Without notifying the town’s committee of safety or Chief Burgess Small, Early ordered a soldier to ring the courthouse bell. A crowd soon gathered inside the courtroom gallery. After a while, the leading citizens arrived and occupied seats withing the railing near the judge’s bench and the two rows of chairs used as a jury box. Judge Robert Fisher was one of the last Yorkers to arrive for this unusual conference in his courtroom. He walked up the aisle and took a seat within the bar. According to Prowell, “The room was now filled to its utmost seating capacity and many persons stood in the aisles of the room. Without any signal the tall form of General Early, accompanied by his provost marshal [Col. Clement A. Evans], entered the front door and passed down the aisle. He proceeded to the rear of the court room with his sword and field glass dangling at his left side. Assuming an air of dignity, he ascended the three or four steps and took a seat for a few minutes behind the judge’s desk.”

Early claimed that under the rules of war, he had supreme authority within York. There was no need to declare martial law, he stated, because he had not encountered any resistance when his troops entered the town. He notified the citizens that he had placed a cordon of defense entirely around their town. He announced his requisition of $100,000 in cash and a large supply of clothing and provisions. Door-to-door collections only yielded a little more than $28,000.

As Prowell and Early rose to conclude their interview, Early informed him, “if you will collect the $100,000 which the city of York never paid me, you shall have a large commission.”

York, of course, never gave Early the rest of “his” money.

Two years later, Jubal Early had just left the Lynchburg post office when he slipped on the icy pavement and fell. He received internal injuries from which he never recovered. He died on March 2, 1894, an unrepentant Rebel who had never voted since 1865 and never took the oath of allegiance to the U. S. He likely still believed that York owed him $72,000, plus interest, as he several times told reporters and interviewers.

First Campaigns

Ordered to Lynchburg, Early worked to raise three regiments for the cause. Given command of one, the 24th Virginia Infantry, he was transferred to the Confederate Army with the rank of colonel. In this role, he took part in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Performing well, his actions were noted by army commander Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard. As a result, Early soon received a promotion to brigadier general. The following spring, Early and his brigade took part in actions against Major General George B. McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign.

At the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, 1862, Early was wounded while leading a charge. Taken from the field, he recovered at his home in Rocky Mount, VA before returning to the army. Assigned to command a brigade under Major General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Early took part in the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Malvern Hill. His role in this action proved minimal as he became lost while leading his men forward. With McClellan no longer a threat, Early's brigade moved north with Jackson and fought in the victory at Cedar Mountain on August 9.

Jubal Anderson Early--(November 3, 1816-March 2, 1894)
Early Life
Jubal Anderson Early was born in Franklin County, Virginia on November 3, 1816 to parents Joab and Ruth. His father "enjoyed the esteem of his fellow-citizens and held several prominent public positions" while his mother and her family were "among the most respected citizens" of the County of Franklin (Early xvii). His mother died in 1832 leaving ten children behind--young Jubal was the third born and the second son.

Early was well educated, receiving "the benefit of the best schools in [his] region of country and. the usual instruction in the dead languages and elementary mathematics" (Early xvii). In 1833, at sixteen, he attained an appointment at the United States Military Academy at West Point, graduating in 1837 eighteenth in his class of fifty--and sixth in civil and military engineering. Regardless of his respectable placement, Early felt that he was "never a very good student, and was sometimes quite remiss" in this studies (Early xvii). He graduated at the same time as Braxton Bragg, John C. Pemberton, Arnold, Elzey, William H.T. Walker, John Sedgewick, Joseph Hooker, and William H. French.

Pre-Civil War
Due to the occurrence of the Second Seminole War in Florida (1835-1842), Early's entire graduating class were commissioned into the Army. He was made a 2nd lieutenant and posted with the 3rd U.S. Artillery, Company E (serving with future generals of the Civil War Braxton Bragg and George Gordon Meade).

In August of 1837, Early was posted at Fort Monroe to train recruits on their way to serving in Florida. After serving for less than a year, seeing battle and temporarily commanding his company, he was stationed in Chattanooga under General Scott and, on July 4, 1838, Early resigned and made his way home to study and practice law. He learned of his promotion to first lieutenant after deciding to resign.

Early was licensed to practice law in 1840 and, in early 1841 he was elected to the Virginia Legislature and was the youngest serving at the time. He returned to practicing law until January 7, 1847 when he was appointed by the governor of Virginia as a major in a regiment of Virginian volunteers at the start of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). They arrived in Mexico a month after the Battle of Buena Vista (February 1847), and they made their way to Monterey, with Early in command of half of his regiment. It was while Early and his troops were encamped at Walnut Spring that Early first met Jefferson Davis, a colonel of the First Mississippi Regiment at the time and the future president of the Confederate States of America. Early remembers being "struck with [Davis'] soldierly bearing, and he did [Early] the honor of complimenting the order and regularity of [Early's] camp" (Early xxii). Upon his arrival at Monterey, Early served as the military governor of the city for two months, and was well liked and praised for his administration.

Early left Mexico for a short time due to illness, which continued to afflict him with rheumatism for the rest of his life. While making his return to Mexico he was nearly killed while sailing back on the Ohio River. The steamboat which carried him exploded on January 8, 1848, escaping with small cuts and burns. By April of that year Early left the service again as the war came to a close, and practiced law.

In 1861 Early was elected as part of Virginia's representation in the Convention discussing secession from the United States. He "voted against the ordinance of secession. with the hope that even then, the collision of arms might be avoided and some satisfactory adjustment arrived at. The adoption of that ordinance wrung from me bitter tears of grief" (Early vii). However, his grievances, convictions, and loyalty to his state were so great that he felt it was his duty to fight for what he believed. He even went so far as to compare it to "the right of resistance and revolution as exercised by our fathers in 1776" (Early vii). He felt it was not only their right, but their duty to rebel against a government which, in their view, held too much power. It was then time to take up arms.

Just after Lee had been appointed as the commander of the Army of Virginia, Early reported to the Governor and then to Lee himself, receiving a commission as a Colonel and given the task of organizing the Virginia volunteers in Lynchburg, taking personal command of the 24 th Virginia Regiment. He then led his regiment to Manassas Junction, reporting to General Beauregard on June 19.

A month later, on July 18, Early earned the attention of Beauregard due to his brigade's bravery during a skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, just outside Manassas. Early and his troops swept in to support Brigadier General Longstreet's troops. Only 3 days later came the first Battle of Manassas, also called the first Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. He successfully defeated a Union flank, winning the day for the Confederacy.

Early was promoted the Brigadier General directly following the battle at Manassas, and was placed in command of a brigade comprising many units from both Virginia and North Carolina. Early stood out through many battles as the commander who entered at the right moment to turn the tide.

Having remained in and around Manassas for the remainder of 1861 and through the first few months of 1862, Early departed in March. In the beginning of April, General McClellan led his Union forces through the Virginia Peninsula in an attempt to capture Richmond, Virginia. The next major conflict in which Early found himself was the Battle of Williamsburg (also called the Battle of Fort Magruder, taking place on May 5, 1862), under the command of Generals Hill and Longstreet. Early was severely wounded in the shoulder-and his horse lost an eye-while leading another charge against a significant enemy force. Due to his wounds, Early was out of action for about a month, returning home to recuperate.

Upon his return, Early was assigned to Major General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's command. He participated, but did not distinguish himself in, the Battle of Malvern Hill on July 1, 1862. He continued his tradition of brazenly charging overwhelming lines, and his relentless fighting. He courageously led his troops through the Battles of Antietam (September 17, 1862) and Fredericksburg (December 11-15, 1862), earning a promotion to Major General in January of 1863. During the campaign at Chancellorsville (April 30-May 6, 1863) Early held the Confederate rear at Fredericksburg. They then moved to Gettysburg.

Early, under command of Lieutenant General Ewell, occupied Gettysburg on June 26, and then York two days later. He held both towns and did what he could to clothe and feed his troops, short of pillaging the town. He then returned to Gettysburg in preparation for the arrival of the Union army. On July 1, he successfully repelled the forces of General Howard of the Federals, though could not properly maintain hold and furthering his attack to take advantage of the situation. He continued to fight hard, though suffered great losses and retreated on July 4.

On November 7, Early failed to hold the bridge at Rappahannock Station, Virginia, losing approximately 1,600 of his 2,000 troops. On November 27-December 2, 1863 there were a series of skirmishes at Mine Run in Virginia Early held his lines there, lending to the inconclusive result of the battle. During the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-6, 1864), Early took over the command of the Third Corps when A.P. Hill took ill, though General Grant's army continued to push their offensive after the inconclusive encounter.

Soon afterward, "Lee arranged Early's promotion to lieutenant general and assigned him to take charge of II Corps, and independent command" (Heidler 628). Early was meant to defend the Shenandoah Valley, drawing parts of the Union army away from Lee in Richmond. He then went on the offensive against General David S. Hunter with 14,000 men. Hunter rapidly retreated and Early gave chase in the direction of Washington D.C. and winning a battle at Monocacy, Maryland on July 9, 1864. This effectively forced Grant to redirect two corps to Washington to stop Early's advance within sight of the capital of the United States. Due to the tremendous Union defense of their capital, Early withdrew, and was pursued by the Federal cavalry commanded by General George Crook, though Early changed tact and engaged Crook at Kernstown (also called the Second Battle of Winchester on July 24, 1864). The arrival of Confederate Cavalry and Early's brazenness led to Crook's defeat and retreat.

Early and his "Army of the Valley" effectively controlled the Shenandoah Valley, raiding and skirmishing into the fall of 1864. He battled Union Major General Sheridan and his 40,000 men, suffering initial defeats. Early put up a valiant fight at the Battle of Cedar Creek on October 19, 1864, routing the bulk of Sheridan's troops. However, Early's troops, tired from the long march and relentless fighting, were unable to withstand Sheridan's final, famous charge. Down to nearly 1,000 troops, after a long winter in the valley, Early was soundly defeated by the combined forces of Sheridan and Custer at Waynesboro (March 2, 1865)-Early barely escaped capture.

Soon after, suffering the shame of his defeat, Early was relieved of command, though Lee did this mainly to appease an outraged public. The Confederacy surrendered to the Union Forces at Appomattox not long afterward.

Post-Civil War

Following the Civil War Early fled to Mexico and Canada in a self-imposed exile where he began to compose his memoirs, though he returned in 1868 upon learning of his pardon from President Johnson. He practiced law in Virginia and wrote prolifically about the war, chronicling his experiences. He became quite bitter, unable to reconcile himself back into the United States, and dwelled upon the missteps which led to the Confederate defeat. "Old Jube" died in Lynchburg, Virginia on March 2, 1894.

He was appointed Second Lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery, and was assigned to Company "E," which afterward became celebrated as Sherman's battery. In Aug 1837 he was ordered to Fortress Monroe to drill recruits which were being sent to Florida, where the Seminole War was in progress. From Fortress Monroe he sailed for Florida and landed at Tampa Bay in Oct 1837. He was assigned to the command of the company and went through the campaign of 1837-8 under General Jessup. In 1838 he resigned his commission to practice law in Virginia and dabble in politics.

At the beginning of the Mexican War, 7 Jan 1847, Early was appointed by the Governor of Virginia as a Major in the Virgina Volunteers. The regiment was ordered to Fortress Monroe and they embarked for Mexico on 1 Mar 1847. They arrived at Brazos Santiago on the 17th of March where they were greeted with the news of General Taylor's victory at Buena Vista. Early contracted, in the fall of 1847, a cold and fever, which resulted in chronic rheumatism. He received a leave of absence in November, and returned to Virginia to recuperate. On his return to his unit in Mexico, the steamboat on which he was traveling blew up. Surviving this close call he rejoined his unit in Feb 1848. At the conclusion of the war he was mustered out, Apr 1848 and returned to his law practice.


Jubal Anderson Early
( 1816-1894)
(From the Confederate Military History)

Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early was born in Franklin county, Virginia, November 3, 1816. He was graduated from the United States military academy in 1837, and was promoted first-lieutenant of artillery in 1838, but resigned and began the practice of law in Virginia. He satin the State legislature in 1841-2 and was commonwealth attorney from 1842 to 1852, except during 1847-8, when he served in the Mexican war in the rank of major of the Virginia volunteers. In 1861 he was a member of the Virginia convention called to determine the true position of the State in the impending conflict, and at first earnestly opposed secession, but was soon aroused by the aggressive movements of the Federal government to draw his sword for the defense of his native State and the Confederate cause. He was commissioned colonel of the Twenty-fourth regiment of Virginia infantry, and with this rank commanded a brigade at Blackburn's Ford and Manassas, in the latter battle making a successful onslaught upon the Federal right in flank which aided in precipitating the rout which immediately followed. He was promoted brigadier-general to date from that battle. At Williamsburg he led the charge of his brigade upon the Federal position, and was wounded. In the Manassas campaign of 1862 he commanded a brigade of Ewell's division of Jackson's corps, participating in Jackson's raid around Pope and the defeat of the Federal army in the final engagement. In the Maryland campaign and at Sharpsburg after the wounding of General Lawton, he took command of Ewell's division, and also skillfully directed it at a critical moment against the Federal attack at Fredericksburg. In January, 1863, he was promoted major-general, and during the Chancellorsville campaign was left with his division and Barksdale's brigade, about ten thousand men, to hold the heights of Fredericksburg, where he made a gallant fight against Sedgwick's corps. At the opening of the Pennsylvania campaign he was entrusted by Ewell with the attack upon Winchester, which resulted in the rout of Milroy and the capture of 4,000 prisoners, and thence he marched via York, toward Harrisburg, Pa., until recalled from the Susquehanna river which he had reached, to the field of Gettysburg, where he actively participated in the successes of the first day's fighting and on the second day made a desperate assault on the Federals, gaining vantage ground which he was unable to hold single-handed. At the opening fight in the Wilderness, in temporary command of Hill's corps, he successfully resisted the Federal attempt to flank the army of Lee, and at Spottsylvania Court House in the same command he met and defeated Burnside. Again he struck that commander an effective blow at Bethesda church in the movement to Cold Harbor, and after the battle of the latter name he made two attacks upon Grant's right flank. Early was then commissioned lieutenant-general, May 31st, and soon afterward detached upon the important duty of defending the Confederate rear threatened by Hunter at Lynchburg. He promptly drove Hunter into the mountains and then marched rapidly down the Shenandoah valley, crossed into Maryland, defeated Wallace at Monocacy, and with a force reduced to about 8,000 men, was about to assault the defenses at Washington when the city was reinforced by two corps of Federal troops. Retiring safely into Virginia, he was on active duty in the valley in order to injure the Federal communications and keep as large a force as possible from Grant's army. Finally Sheridan was sent against him with an overwhelming force, against which Early made a heroic and brilliant resistance at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. He then established his army at New Market, and after Sheridan had retired from the valley he fell back to Staunton. When the army was surrendered he rode horseback to Texas, hoping to find a Confederate force still holding out, thence proceeded to Mexico, and from there sailed to Canada Subsequently returning to Virginia he resumed his law practice for a time, but in his later years lived mostly at New Orleans. He died at Lynchburg, Va., March 2, 1894.

Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early

Sketch of General Early ransoming Frederick, MD, July 9, 1864 - Artist Charles W. Reed

Lieutenant General Jubal Early - Library of Congress

Jubal Anderson Early
Jubal Early was born in Franklin County, Virginia on November 3, 1816, the third of ten children. In 1832, when Early was 16, his mother passed away. The following year he received an appointment as a cadet to the Military Academy at West Point. Early later admitted “there was nothing worthy of particular note” during his time at West Point and that he was not an exemplary soldier. In 1837, he graduated 18th out of a class of 50. [1]

Upon graduation, Jubal Early was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in Company E of the 3rd United States Artillery and sent to Fortress Monroe, on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula, to train recruits. From there, Early and those he had just trained, were sent to Florida to participate in the Second Seminole War. Lieutenant Early was actually the senior officer in his company who was either present or capable of taking the field at this time and served under the command of Brigadier General Thomas Sidney Jesup from 1837-1838. Following a skirmish near Jupiter Inlet, Florida in January, 1838, Early’s company was ordered to the coast and eventually to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Seeing no further action, Jubal Early resigned his commission in the summer of 1838 and returned to Virginia to study law. Obtaining his law license in 1840, Early was elected to the Virginia Legislature from Franklin County the following year. He served in the legislature during the 1841 - 1842 sessions and was the youngest member of that governing body. Though he lost reelection the following year, he received an appointment as prosecuting attorney, which he held until 1851. [2]

On January 7, 1847, Early mustered back into the army as a major of the 1st Virginia Volunteers, for service in the Mexican-American War. During this service, Early performed garrison duties, including a two month stint as the military governor of Monterrey, Mexico. Though he saw no fighting during the war, Early was still crippled by it. In the fall of 1847 he contracted the chronic rheumatism that plagued him for the rest of his life. Relieved of duty, he was allowed to return to the United States to recuperate for several months. While attempting to return to duty in Mexico, in January, 1848, Jubal Early was aboard the steamer Blue Ridge on the Ohio River. During the night of January 8, the Blue Ridge suffered a boiler explosion that killed 14 people and injured Early slightly. He made it back to his regiment by February and commanded it until mustering out of service at Fortress Monroe in April, 1848. Once more out of the army, Jubal Early returned to his law practice. [3]

The Civil War
Although Early voted against secession during the Virginia Convention in April 1861, once his state seceded he remained loyal to Virginia and was commissioned a colonel in the 24th Virginia Infantry. Early participated in numerous battles and campaigns including the Battle of First Bull Run (21 July 1861) where he distinguished himself and was promoted to brigadier general. He also fought in the Peninsula Campaign, Malvern Hill (1 July 1862), Cedar Mountain (9 August 1862), Second Bull Run (28-30 August 1862), and Antietam (17 September 1862). At Antietam, Confederate Brigadier General Jubal Early led a brigade under General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson in the terrible fighting in the West Woods near the Dunker Church.

At Fredericksburg (13 December 1862), General Early distinguished himself once again and was promoted to the rank of major general. He went on to take part in Chancellorsville (1-4 May 1863), Gettysburg (1-3 July 1863), Mine Run operations, the Wilderness (5-7 May 1864), Spotsylvania (7-19 May 1864) after which he was promoted to lieutenant general, and Cold Harbor (1-3 June 1864). Given command of the Confederate II Corps, Early was sent into the Shenandoah Valley to drive the Union forces of Major General David Hunter away from the crucial supply depot of Lynchburg (17-18 June 1864). Following the Lynchburg Campaign, Early turned his forces north, moving down the Shenandoah Valley towards Harpers Ferry and the Potomac River. During this period Early renamed his command as the Army of the Valley District.

Jubal Early at Monocacy
When the Army of the Valley District crossed the Potomac River into Maryland on July 5 – 6, 1864, the Third Confederate Invasion of the north began. Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early commanded this force of 12,000 to 15,000 men. Confederate General Robert E. Lee had ordered Early to clear the Shenandoah Valley of Union forces and advance into Maryland if possible. From there Early was to move towards Washington, DC, approaching the national capital from the northwest. The hope was that by threatening Washington, they could force General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant to break off or weaken the ongoing siege of Richmond and Petersburg by sending Union troops back north. [4]

Ransom demand for Frederick, Maryland - Frederick County Historical Society Once in Maryland, Confederates captured a series of towns and cities on the way to Washington. These included Hagerstown on July 6th, Middletown on July 8th and Frederick, Maryland on July 9th. Each community was threatened with destruction unless it could pay a ransom of money as well as supplies. Hagerstown had to pay $20,000 dollars, which it did by borrowing from three separate banks, it also provided what clothing and cloth it could. [5] Middletown provided food to the Confederates and was also ordered to come up with $5,000 dollars, an amount it did not have. The town was only able to come up with $1,500 dollars. Fortunately for Middletown Confederate forces moved on without the rest of the money. [6]

Following two days of sporadic skirmishing near the Catoctin Mountains, Frederick was occupied by Confederate forces in the early morning hours of July 9, 1864. The lead Confederate infantry brigades had already passed through town by 6am on their way to attempt to secure the Jug Bridge over the Monocacy River along the Baltimore Turnpike. Lieutenant General Jubal Early soon arrived in Frederick and around 8am made his headquarters in the home of Dr. Richard Hammond at the northwest corner of 2nd and Market Street. [7] There he wrote out the ransom demand for the city, $200,000 dollars, telling the Hammond's, “you need not fear, as timely warning will be given you to leave with your family,” in the event Frederick was burned. [8]

Mayor William Cole, Frederick Maryland - Mt. Olivet Cemetery The ransom demand was delivered to Mayor William Cole at the Town Hall and Market House on Market Street. Soon a second demand arrived, this from Early's Chief of Commissary, Major Wells J. Hawks, for large quantities of flour, sugar, coffee, and bacon. Shocked at the amount called for, Mayor Cole, backed by a committee of leading Frederick citizens, felt the financial impact on a city of only 8,000 people was unfair and asked that General Early reconsider. This may very well have been a deliberate stall on the part of the Fredericktonians, as Mayor Cole was well aware of the Union reinforcements that had been arriving at Monocacy Junction throughout the previous night. Perhaps if the Union won the day, the city would not have to pay. Early was having none of these delaying tactics and reiterated his original demand of $200,000 or $50,000 in supplies for each of the four departments in his army. After laying down his demands once more, he turned the negotiations over to Lieutenant Colonel William Allan and proceeded towards the fighting south of Frederick near Monocacy Junction. [9]

General Jubal Early likely arrived on the battlefield sometime after 11am. In his memoirs Early stated that upon arriving he was struck by the difficulty his forces would have in crossing the Monocacy River under fire with the strong Federal position on the opposite side. He therefore began looking for other crossing points that would allow him to flank the Union troops. He wrote that the advance of Brigadier General John McCausland 's cavalry brigade over the Worthington-McKinney Ford, “solved the problem for me,” as it gained the left flank of the Federal line south of the river at the Worthington Farm. [10] At this point Early was unaware that veteran reinforcements from the VI Corps had arrived the previous evening.

McCausland's Confederate cavaliers, threw themselves at what they believed were inexperienced militia around noon and were quickly swatted back by the strong Federal picket line behind a post and rail fence. A second cavalry attack occurred at 2pm, by which point McCausland had discovered the left flank of the Union skirmish line and succeeded in driving it back through the neighboring Thomas Farm. The Federal veterans did not let him keep this position long however, as they rallied and counter attacked, driving the cavalrymen back a second time. With the repulse of this second attack Jubal Early had had enough, he ordered his second in command, Major General John Breckinridge to advance a division over the Monocacy and strike the Federal left. Breckinridge ordered up the division of Major General John B. Gordon , who crossed the Monocacy around 3pm and deployed in a long line of battle over Brooks Hill. General Breckinridge followed this portion of his command onto the field, establishing his headquarters at the Worthington Farm. At 3:30pm Gordon's attack rolled forward. Intense see-sawing action occurred through the fields of the Thomas Farm for the next hour and a half. During that time the Federal line was driven back to the Georgetown Pike and at 5pm Major General Lew Wallace ordered the Union line to break off and retreat. [11]

General Jubal Early had won the day, but at great cost of both men and time. Initially both sides tried to downplay their casualties, Early claimed his losses would not be much over 600. However, the casualties in General Gordon's division alone were nearly 700 men killed, wounded and missing. In actuality Early had lost a day’s march and just about 900 men. [12]

Knowing that time was of the essence Jubal Early ordered those men who did not fight at Monocacy up at dawn on July 10th. Early's troops marched 20 miles towards Washington under a broiling sun. Those that had fought at Monocacy were given the task of destroying the facilities of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, as well as the limited Federal fortifications near the railroad bridge before pushing on. Early had little time left and pushed his men hard over the next day and a half to reach the defenses of Washington. [13] Early's troops marched toward Washington, D.C., but the delay forced by the Battle of Monocacy allowed the fortifications around the Capital to be strengthened, and Early's attempt to capture the city was thwarted. On July 12th, he began the retreat back to Virginia. Although he failed to capture the National Capital, the campaign apparently pleased him, as recounted by Major Henry Kyd Douglas . On the evening of July 12, 1864, after deciding to withdraw from Washington, General
Early called his staff together and declared: "Major we haven't taken Washington, but we scared Abe Lincoln like hell!" [14]

After this final incursion into the North failed, Early continued to engage Union forces in a series of battles until March 1865 when he was relieved of command. With the defeat of the Confederacy, Jubal Early fled to Mexico and from there went to Cuba and later Canada. Following the amnesty proclaimed by President Andrew Johnson , Early returned to Lynchburg, Virginia where he resumed his law practice. In the later years of his life he became extensively involved with the Southern Historical Society, the Confederate veterans community and crafting the narrative of the Lost Cause. After a bad fall, Jubal Early died in Lynchburg on March 2, 1894 and is buried at Springhill Cemetery.


Confederate American Pride website has been created for that unique class of people, native to the Southeastern states, who define themselves as being, firstly, Confederates and, secondly, as Americans, and who are proud of bearing those distinctions. It is to this particular mindset of cultural awareness that this site is dedicated.

With the above in mind it has been my purpose to design Confederate American Pride as a virtual online resource for the Confederate Nationalist in need of the tools and information that is necessary to defend himself and his heritage in the war that is constantly being waged against that heritage. On its pages you will find selected articles and emails that not only define who we are and where we have come from, but how we got there numerous links to other Southern heritage organizations and websites and much, much more.

I sincerely hope that you enjoy your visit to my site and will bookmark it for future reference.

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The version of Dixie that you hear playing in the background of this page is sung by Lee Greenwood. It is included on his album “American Patriot,” which is available from through the link below.

Nathan Bedford Forrest:
A Biography

A review by Jeffrey R. White

Overall, a first-rate biography, both from a military and from psychological and spiritual sense.

Though it indeed lacks maps, the knowledgeable student of the War for Southern Independence will find those included to be sufficient. The work is not, as some have intimated in these reviews, unfair or essentially negative in its presentation of the man, Forrest. On the contary, Forrest fans will find it delightfully free of the anti-Forrest rancor which politically correct historical revisionsists are so famous for. Hurst understands that the so-called "distasteful activities" were 100% legal at the time, and presents them without undue bias. Forrest is in no way presented as any more racist than his contemporaries, and shown as he was, significantly more compassionate toward African Ameicans than many in these reviews would suggest (Did they even read the book? -- one wonders).

His celebrated ruthlessness in a fight is balanced by a historically well-established backwoods chivalry which markedly contrasts this uneducated but brilliant man (6 mo. total formal schooling), with some of his contemporaries such as the war-criminal-by-his-own-admission, Sherman. The admiration which he earned from his troops is also well-documented, though he accurately is depicted in this work as having shot both deserters and cowards in battle.

Forrest's amazing ability to size up situations at a glance, to see the unseen part of the field, and to comprehend distances and the geometry of operational and tactical logistics is well- covered.

Several longstanding misconceptions are properly laid to rest in this work, among them, that Forrest founded the Kuklos Klan - He did not. He was asked and accepted to be its first Grand Wizard (a title developed in his honor, since he was well-known as the "wizard of the saddle"). Forrest's subsequent Congressional testimony against the Klan is detailed, as is his (successful) effort to disband the Klan (the present-day Ku Klux Klan is dominated by midwesterners and northerners, is the third such organisation in history, and is descended from the first Klan in name only). Forrest's signal bravery and inimitable style comes through in this work better than in any other I have read. He stands up off the pages, whether in his manner of chasing away other beaus in competition for his bride (yes, there is even romance in this story), in his regrettable knife-killing of a subordinate who shot him in a violent dispute over lost cannon (No damn man kills me and lives!), or in his pragmatic treatment of the slaves he unflinchingly bought and sold. He was a poor scrabbler, an ambitious climber, but an exemplary fighter of unique integrity and fearless grit. The Fort Pillow battle is well-documented, presenting a dispassionate and careful discussion of the facts as ascertained from study of the collected records of all involved as well as both the Yankee propaganda against him, and his own "Keep up the Skeer" propaganda. The dispassionate discussion sheds new light on this shattering defeat which resulted in such heavy losses for the all-black regiments involved. This controversial engagement is very well-treated by Hurst.

Forrest was a one-of-a-kind man from a very different time, and an unrecognizable place to modern Americans -- even westerners. That is borne out in this very exciting book. This work is not to be read by those seeking a cartoon caricature of this towering man among men -- the finest cavalryman yet produced by the English-speaking world.

Rebel Yell: The Violence, Passion, and Redemption of Stonewall Jackson

From the author of the prizewinning New York Times bestseller Empire of the Summer Moon comes a thrilling account of how Civil War general Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson became a great and tragic American hero.

Stonewall Jackson has long been a figure of legend and romance. As much as any person in the Confederate pantheon, even Robert E. Lee, he embodies the romantic Southern notion of the virtuous lost cause. Jackson is also considered, without argument, one of our country’s greatest military figures. His brilliance at the art of war tied Abraham Lincoln and the Union high command in knots and threatened the ultimate success of the Union armies. Jackson’s strategic innovations shattered the conventional wisdom of how war was waged he was so far ahead of his time that his techniques would be studied generations into the future.

In April 1862 Jackson was merely another Confederate general in an army fighting what seemed to be a losing cause. By June he had engineered perhaps the greatest military campaign in American history and was one of the most famous men in the Western world. He had, moreover, given the Confederate cause what it had recently lacked—hope—and struck fear into the hearts of the Union.

Rebel Yell is written with the swiftly vivid narrative that is Gwynne’s hallmark and is rich with battle lore, biographical detail, and intense conflict between historical figures. Gwynne delves deep into Jackson’s private life, including the loss of his young beloved first wife and his regimented personal habits. It traces Jackson’s brilliant twenty-four-month career in the Civil War, the period that encompasses his rise from obscurity to fame and legend his stunning effect on the course of the war itself and his tragic death, which caused both North and South to grieve the loss of a remarkable American hero.

Lee's Maverick General: Daniel Harvey Hill

Among the high-ranking gray uniforms Daniel Harvey Hill caused a stir as a sash of red in a bullpen would. Hot-tempered, outspoken, he stormed his way through the Civil War, leading his soldiers at Malvern Hill and Antietam, and sometimes stepping on the toes of superiors. But he was much more than a seemingly impervious shield against Union bullets: a devout Christian, a family man, a gloomy fatalist, an intellectual. Lee’s Maverick General makes clear that he was often caught in the crossfire of military politics and ultimately made a scapegoat for the costly, barren victory at Chickamauga. Hal Bridges, drawing on Hill’s unpublished papers, offers an outsider’s inside views of Lee, Jefferson Davis, Braxton Bragg, James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and others up and down the embattled line.

In his introduction, Gary W. Gallagher rounds out the portrait of the controversial Hill, whose reading of military affairs was always perceptive.

John Brown Gordon: Soldier Southerner American

A review by Cameron Wright

John Brown Gordon entered the war with little to no military experience. That didn't stop him, however, from rising to the rank of Lt. General and in command of the famed Second Corps of the AONV when they surrendered at Appomattox. This biography is full of details of Gordon's life from beginning until end. I purchased this book not knowing much about except for what was mentioned about him briefly in biographies of other generals that he served under. After reading this book I came away with a full understanding and appreciation for this man of great skill.

Gordon was truly a renaissance man of his times. Even if you aren't that interested about the Civil War or his role in it you should get this book to learn about the Reconstruction period and beyond in the South and Georgia specifically. His business and political involvements could almost make their own book. This is by far the definitive biography of John Brown Gordon.

"We feel that our cause is just and holy we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated all we ask is to be let alone that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms."
--- President Jefferson Davis - 29 April 1861

"All that the South has ever desired was the Union as established by our forefathers should be preserved and that the government as originally organized should be administered in purity and truth."
--- General Robert E. Lee, CSA

"Governor, if I had foreseen the use these people desired to make of their victory, there would have been no surrender at Appomattox, no, sir, not by me. Had I seen these results of subjugation, I would have preferred to die at Appomattox with my brave men, my sword in this right hand."
--- General Robert E. Lee, CSA - as told to Texas ex-governor F. W. Stockdale

“Remember the precious stake involved remember the dependence of your mothers, your wives, your sisters, and your children on the result remember the fair, broad, abounding land, the happy homes and the ties that would be desolated by your defeat."
--- Albert Sidney Johnston

“I am inclined to think that General Joe Johnston was the ablest and most accomplished man that the Confederate armies ever produced. He never had the opportunity accorded to others, but he showed wonderful power as a tactician and a commander. I do not think that we had his equal for handling an army and conducting a campaign"
--- James Longstreet, 2 August 1879

“I can assure you, that the gallant hearts that throb beneath its sacred folds, will only be content, when this glorious banner is planted first and foremost in the coming struggle for our independence."
--- John Bell Hood

"General, unless he offers us honorable terms, come back and let us fight it out!"
--- James Longstreet, to Robert E. Lee as he rode off to discuss terms for surrender with General Grant at Appomattox.

"Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time for my death. I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me. That is the way all men should live, and then all would be equally brave."
--- Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson

“The Army of Northern Virginia was never defeated. It merely wore itself out whipping the enemy."
--- Jubal A. Early

“Major, we haven't taken Washington, but we scared Abe Lincoln like hell."
--- Jubal A. Early to one of his officers after withdrawing from the outskirts of Washington, D.C., near Fort Stevens.

“Honest and outspoken, honorable and uncompromising, Jubal A. Early epitomized much that was the Southern Confederacy. His self-reliance, courage, sagacity, and devotion to the cause brought confidence then just as it inspires reverence now."
--- James I. Robertson, Jr., Alumni Distinguished Professor of History, Virginia Tech Member of the Board, Jubal A. Early Preservation Trust.

As Richard S. Ewell rode into Gettysburg with John B. Gordon at his side in 1863, Ewell reeled in his saddle immediately after the ominous sound of a bullet hitting home. Anxiously, Gordon asked, “Are you hurt, sir?" General Ewell replied unconcernedly, “No, no, it doesn’t hurt a bit to be shot in a wooden leg!"
--- R. S. Ewell to John B. Gordon at Gettysburg.

“Damn you, if you will not follow me, I’ll die alone!"
--- A. P. Hill, Fraysers Farm, Seven Days.

"Next to these two officers, [Longstreet and Jackson] I consider General A.P. Hill the best commander with me. He fights his troops well and takes good care of them."
--- Robert E. Lee, Nov 1862, when President Davis asked Lee for recommendations for corps command.

"I have never, on the field of battle, sent you where I was unwilling to go myself nor would I now advise you to a course which I felt myself unwilling to pursue. You have been good soldiers, you can be good citizens."
--- Nathan Bedford Forrest, in his farewell address to his troops at Gainesville, Alabama, May 9, 1865.

"I loved the old government in 1861. I loved the old Constitution yet. I think it is the best government in the world, if administered as it was before the war. I do not hate it I am opposing now only the radical revolutionists who are trying to destroy it. I believe that party to be composed, as I know it is in Tennessee, of the worst men on Gods earth-men who would not hesitate at no crime, and who have only one object in view-to enrich themselves."
--- Nathan Bedford Forrest, in an interview shortly after the war.

"To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier's good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations."
--- Lt. General Stephen Dill Lee, Commander General, United Confederate Veterans, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1906.

"The field had been completely swept, and the foe driven back to the river under shelter of the fire from his gunboats. It needed only the inspiring presence and skillful hand of the master-spirit that had raised and guided the storm of battle to press the enemy to a surrender, and thus put the finishing stroke to one of the most brilliant victories of which the annals of war contain a record. But alas! that master-spirit was no more of earth. In the very moment of victory, the battle, and with it seemingly the Confederate cause, was lost."
--- Brigadier General Alexander P. Stewart, remarking upon the death of General Albert Sidney Johnston at the Battle of Shiloh.

"You have no right to ask, or expect that she will at once profess unbounded love to that Union from which for four years she tried to escape at the cost of her best blood and all her treasure. Nor can you believe her to be so unutterably hypocritical, so base, as to declare that the flag of the Union has already surpassed in her heart the place which has so long been sacred to the 'Southern Cross.' "
--- General Wade Hampton

"I desire my children to be educated south of the Mason Dixon line and always to retain right of domicile in the Confederate States."
--- General J.E.B. Stuart, CSA

"Every man should endeavor to understand the meaning of subjugation before it is too late. It means the history of this heroic struggle will be written by the enemy that our youth will be trained by Northern schoolteachers will learn from Northern school books their version of the war will be impressed by the influences of history and education to regard our gallant dead as traitors, and our maimed veterans as fit objects for derision. It is said slavery is all we are fighting for, and if we give it up we give up all. Even if this were true, which we deny, slavery is not all our enemies are fighting for. It is merely the pretense to establish sectional superiority and a more centralized form of government, and to deprive us of our rights and liberties."
--- Maj. General Patrick R. Cleburne, CSA, January 1864, writing on what would happen if the Confederacy were to be defeated.

"If this cause, that is dear to my heart, is doomed to fail, I pray heaven may let me fall with it, while my face is toward the enemy and my arm battling for that which I know is right."
--- Major General Patrick R. Cleburne before his fatal wound at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee.

A relative of many prominent South Carolinians, States Rights Gist, named for his father's political beliefs, was a lawyer, a militia general in South Carolina, and a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He rose rapidly to fame during the War for Southern Independence, having participated in battles at Chickamauga, Chattanooga and in the Atlanta Campaign. He was killed in the Battle of Franklin on 30 November 1864 while serving in the Army of Tennessee under John Bell Hood. States Rights Gist is buried in Trinity Episcopal churchyard, Columbia, South Carolina.

"I call upon my God to judge me, he knows that I love my friends and above all others my wife and children, the, oppinion of the world to contrary notwithstanding."
--- Brigadier General Stand Watie

“Our poor country has fallen a prey to the conqueror. The noblest cause ever defended by the sword is lost. The noble dead that sleep in their shallow though honored graves are far more fortunate than their survivors. I thought I had sounded the profoundest depth of human feeling, but this is the bitterest hour of my life."
--- Col. John Singleton Mosby, the Gray Ghost of the Confederacy

"I want by body taken up and laid in the dust around old Sweetwater and I want a tombstone put at my head with my name and my company and regiment, the day I enlisted and the name and date of the battles I have ever been in."
--- Sergeant Eli P. Landers, in a letter to home.

Forget, hell!
If you don't like my Rebel Flag, you can click here!

"Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness."

The Virginia Flaggers

Restoring the Honor to Our Confederate Flags and Ancestors

The League of the South

The League of the South is not a “neo-Confederate” or “Southern heritage” organization, although we certainly do honor our ancestors and our largely Christian historic inheritance as Southerners. The League is a present- and future-oriented Southern Nationalist organization that seeks the survival, well being, and independence of the Southern people. We stand for our Faith, Family, and Folk living in freedom and prosperity on the lands of our forefathers.

If this vision of a free, prosperous, and independent South appeals to you, please join us in our struggle.

War Crimes Against Southern Civilians

This is the untold story of the Union's "hard war" against the people of the Confederacy. Styled the "Black Flag" campaign, it was agreed to by Lincoln in a council with his generals in 1864. Cisco reveals the shelling and burning of cities, systematic destruction of entire districts, mass arrests, forced expulsions, wholesale plundering of personal property, and even murder of civilians. Carefully researched largely from primary sources, this examination also gives full attention to the suffering of Black victims of Federal brutality.

The Founders' Second Amendment:
Origins of the Right to Bear Arms

After the War for Southern Independence, many Confederate soldiers headed to the vast wilderness of the American West to escape the ravages of Reconstruction and to carve out new futures and fortunes for themselves and their families. Now you can step back into those roaring days of yesteryear in the Old Wild West. There is lots of historical info, photos and graphics of this most colorful era in American history at this site.

Fight like Forrest. NOT Sherman!

Over the weekend, one of the Anti-Confederate Bloggers took his campaign of hate against the Va Flaggers to a new low, when he made my private employment information public by posting it on the world wide web, then tweeting the information, along with false accusations, to my employer, anti-Confederate agitators in the Richmond area, and our local press.

Almost immediately, I was overwhelmed by the incredible show of support from friends, Flaggers, and folks I have never met, from both North and South of the Mason-Dixon Line. I cannot adequately express my appreciation for the encouragement, offers of assistance, and willingness to help.

Some of the offers came by way of wanting to repay him and other Anti-Confederate Bloggers in like kind, by posting their information and encouraging others to do the same. I want to take this opportunity to express that I am adamant in not wanting ANYONE in our movement to ever do such a thing. Disagreeing with someone is one thing, and we have every right (a duty, even) to defend our honor, but publishing information that could very possibly affect one’s livelihood, and therefore their ability to care for their families and fulfill their obligations, is not something I want to EVER be a part of.

Unlike our enemies, WE have truth, honor, and right on our side, and do not need to sink to unethical and immoral tactics in order to gain victory.

In my humble opinion, the best thing we can do to neutralize those who attack us with no provocation is to stay focused on our Cause and continue the good work that has been started. With every flag that is raised, returned to its rightful place of honor, or added to the landscape, we win a victory for the Confederate Veterans who fought and died under them…and when THEY are not the focus of our efforts, such efforts truly are in vain.

Our heritage is under attack in ways that even our parents and Grandparents could have never imagined. The time has come for Southerners to stand in defense of our Confederate ancestors and against those who would desecrate their honor and memory.

I have no doubt that victory will be ours, even in the midst of this latest assault. I may not know what lies ahead, and I am certain there will be many more such attempts to stop us, but I know one thing is for sure…I’m determined to stand, fight, and never back down. but I'm gonna fight like Forrest…NOT Sherman.

"You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done. " Genesis 50:20

I have recently returned to the UK from a holiday in Charleston and as a tourist to your country was interested in an article by Leah Rhyne in the Charleston City Paper on ‘Who is a Patriot?’ The opening statement stated that ‘It’s a loaded word, patriotism. A patriot to one county is often a terrorist to another.’

Leah states that she was ‘shocked’ at the selling of Confederate flags at USS Yorktown and the article articulates that the Confederate flag is a ‘symbol of lynch mobs and Jim Crow’. Would she not consider that if this is the case, it is because as a country you have this perception and you have lost, or ignored, the historical reason for the flag. It is a fact that many, if not all of the soldiers who fought under this flag counted themselves as patriots, as did their families.

Conversely, during this war it is a fact that many Northern soldiers were racist and in several cases ‘free states’ would not allow slaves that escaped their bonds to settle in Northern states. This was carried out under the ‘Stars and Stripes’ but I would assume that Leah still believes that the Union soldiers were patriots.

I am sure that Leah, like most Americans, are immensely proud of their history and proudly fly your national flag or wear its design on t-shirts. Does she feel that the selling of this flag at USS Yorktown is ok and patriotic when the same flag was flown by soldiers when driving Native Americans from their homes and corralling them in to reservations? Were these soldiers patriots and if not are you still happy to wear the flag that the soldiers fought under?

All countries have periods in their history where in hindsight actions they have taken have not been the correct one. My own country, England, has had its fair share of history where we have conquered other countries and forced our way of living on to the local population. I am still, however, proud of the flag that flies over my country but I understand that I have to learn from the mistakes we have made and not hide from them or allow racist organisations to ‘hijack’ my flag.

History you can’t change but what you can do is learn from it. If a large part of your country is proud of its history and wishes to fly a flag that represents to them pride in the men and women who gave their lives to what they believed to be a patriotic cause then they should be allowed to do so. This should be without it being automatically associated with racist organisations. If Leah sees the flag only as a racist symbol she is looking at it out of context and is stereotyping it instead of what it was intended for - to differentiate between two opposing forces on a battlefield for men and women who believed themselves to be patriots.

From a Yank with love

I know this is a bit out of the blue, but I happened upon the Confederate American Pride website while doing some Civil War related research, and I just wanted to let you know how much I liked it. I live in Up-State New York and have been a living historian for four years now, ever since I was fourteen. At first, I was always just attracted to the confederates for the look, the 'underdog factor,' etc.

Soon however, I began to get involved in progressive or 'hardcore' re-enacting, and the more I learend about the confederates and the more I portrayed rebel soldiers in the field, the more interested I became in the South in general, beyond the war years. My interest in the conflict and material culture of the Southern armies lead to an interest in the South before and after the war, and eventually, the South in general.

Anyhow, I just wanted to let you know how much I enjoyed the website, and the numerous and sponsored links along with it. My interest in the war has lead me to love the South, its culture, people, and cause. Sites like yours keep the spirit of the rebel soldier alive, and help keep the rich history and heritage of the South from disappearing. Without groups like Confederate American Pride, America would be that much worse off. Thank you for taking a stand in a world so hostile to the truth and for giving us all an example to follow. Let it be known that the South has friends in the North and that you are not alone! Although we are Yankee by birth, the South's message of freedom still rings true with us. Even in my few years on Earth, I can see that Confederate Nationalism has more support in the North than one may think. Not the majority of folks, but more than it may appear. Keep up the good fight!

With love from yer Northern friends,

A Brief Bibliography of the
War for Southern Independence

Hits to this site
since 10 March 2001


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From 1861 until 1865, the Southern states of what we today call the United States of America existed as a sovereign nation known as the Confederate States of America. Because of differences in culture, economics and religion which the South felt were irreconsilable, they had seceded from their alliance with the Northern states. This was an act which, under the terms which they had ratified the Constitution, they had the right to do (they had in fact entered that union as sovereign states under contract with the other sovereign states and a federal entity known as the United States or federal government).

All would have been well and good had the federal government simply let the Southern states go their way. We had no hatred for the Northern people, we simply wanted to be left alone. But empires are not built through pacifism and so federal forces acting under the dictatorial authority of Abraham Lincoln invaded our homeland with a vehemance that was unprecedented in the history of mankind. In the single most costly war in American history brother was often times pitted against brother in a conflict that took more American lives than have all the wars that she has ever fought in combined.

Although we lost the War for Southern Independence, the cause for which we fought still lives on in the hearts of our fellow Southern patriots, or Southrons, as they are more properly termed. It will always live on so long as men desire to be free -- free to live their lives in the way they see fit without the constraints and infringments of government. Government without the consent of the people is tyranny and, as such, has no legitamacy (please refer to the quote at the top of this page entitled "Why We Fought the Civil War"). Patriots fought against tyranny in 1776 and they fought against it again in 1861. Man's desire to be free does not sleep nor will it die. It is an inalienable right granted by God and not by any governmental institution created by men.

The war ended in 1865 with the peace to which Robert E. Lee agreed, but the hostilities continue. It has been 138 years since the last shots of the War for Southern Independence were fired, but still, Yankee troops remain on our soil and their Washington based government continues to rule us with an iron hand. We are living under an occupational government. The Yankee Empire has replaced our constitutional form of government with a bureaucracy, backed by a non-elected judiciary of unprecedented power. Its open-door policy on illegal aliens is daily destroying our unique Southern culture with government-enforced multiculturism and "political correctness." This same wave of politcal correctness has incited the removal of many of our monuments and memorials from public display. The removal of still others is a constant threat. Even our cherished banners--symbols of Southern Pride--have been banned from public display and from schools in many areas of our beloved Southland. I can remember a time when the playing of "Dixie" at a school football game would bring the crowd to its feet with wildly exuberant cheers and Rebel Yells. Now it too has been banned from school grounds and alumni events, right along with prayer.

Even though we lost the War for Southern Independence, the cause for which we fought has not been lost. It still lives on in the spirit of the Southern people. This spirit, undaunted by reconstruction and guided by the hand of God, like the phoenix which rose from the ashes, will lead Southrons to build a new South that will rise in prominence among the nations of the world.

More than 120,000 copies in print! The South Was Right! By James Ronald Kennedy and Walter Donald Kennedy. History is written by the victor, and that of the American Civil War is no different. The idea that Southerners would die in order for only 6 percent of the population to own slaves just does not pass the "sniff" test. The myth of a freedom-loving North and an evil, slave-holding South is just one that is exposed in The South Was Right! The idea of big government not only was politicized through the issue of slavery but also was made inevitable in the South's defeat. Because of the surrender, "we the people" of the United States are no longer sovereign. Today, a supreme federal government dictates what rights the states can exercise. After the Union victory, a campaign of ongoing cultural cleansing has been waged to keep the South in its assigned place in American history. While many ethnic, religious, and cultural groups are celebrated, Southern heritage often is viewed with a wary eye. Predicted to be "one of the most controversial books of the decade" when first published, The South Was Right! lives up to that forecast. This book is filled with documented evidence supporting all of the authors' claims and paints a frighteningly realistic picture of a captured people, their struggle to preserve their heritage, and their right to exist as a distinct culture and an independent country.

This is a must have book for every Southern patriot's library.

What Did the Rebel Yell Sound Like?
In this exclusive clip from the 1930s, Confederate veterans step up to the mic and let out their version of the fearsome rallying cry.

150th Confederate States Of America Commemoration, 2/19/11
NOTE: If you can overlook the NAACP bias of the coverage, this video has a lot of good footage from the event.


For three days in late June 1863, the phrase “General Early” was quite familiar to many of the 60,000+ residents of York County, Pennsylvania. Confederate Major General Jubal Anderson Early, a vitriolic commander noted as much for his profane temper as for his considerable fighting ability, marched into the heart of the county with more than 6,600 enemy troops.

They burned railroad bridges and turntables, took down telegraph wires, procured or stole more than 400 horses and dozens of mules from terrified or angry farmers, and seized control of the major roadways. They also indirectly led to the destruction of the region’s only bridge across the mile-wide Susquehanna River, disrupting commerce. Early to make matters worse laid a tribute on the town for $100,000 borough leaders went door to door and collected $28,610 of the requested levy. That money would help finance the Confederate war effort. [It must be noted that the Union army and state militia also took horses and personal property from the citizens, as did JEB Stuart’s Rebel cavalrymen, but it was Early who elicited most of the reaction from the populace.]

This portrait of Jubal Early hangs in the vestibule of the office for the Spring Hill Cemetery at 3000 Fort Avenue in Lynchburg, Virginia. Scores of former Confederate soldiers are buried here, including the controversial Early and two other generals, Thomas T. Munford and James Dearing (the last CSA general to die in the War Between the States).

The graves of Munford, Early, and Dearing all lie in the same general area of Spring Hill Cemetery and are a short walk uphill from the office. This Virginia Civil War Trails marker recounts the history of the cemetery and its three most famous residents.

Another notable burial is Major John Warwick Daniel, who was chief of staff to Lt. Gen. Richard S.Ewell during the Gettysburg Campaign. Colonel Kirkwood Otey is also buried here he commanded the 11th Virginia in Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg where he suffered a painful wound to his shoulder.

Near the sales office is this impressive memorial. Spring Hill Cemetery was established in 1852 and notable architect John Notman developed the design and final plans. Notman also laid out Richmond’s Hollywood Cemetery and Laurel Hill Cemetery in his hometown of Philadelphia. The first interment took place in 1855, and the cemetery remains in active use today.

Army of Northern Virginia commander Robert E. Lee deemed General Early as “my bad old man.” Early’s temper became legendary. As a division commander, he was aggressive, hard-hitting, and often successful. During the Gettysburg Campaign he and his men performed brilliantly at the Second Battle of Winchester from June 13-15, 1863, and then marched relatively unopposed through Maryland into Pennsylvania.

Early’s forces were the first Confederate troops to enter Gettysburg when they chased off what early deemed as “utterly inefficient” state militiamen in brief skirmishes on Friday, June 26, 1863. After resting overnight, on Saturday morning they marched eastward into York County.

York County author Scott L. Mingus, Sr. recounts the story of Jubal Early’s march through south-central Pennsylvania in his acclaimed and oft-reprinted book, Flames Beyond Gettysburg: The Confederate Expedition to the Susquehanna River, June 1863 (Savas Beatie, 2009).

Early and his men camped in three locations in York County on Saturday night, June 27. The general placed most of his men around Big Mount and took his evening dinner at the Widow Elizabeth Zinn’s home, where he and his staff enjoyed a hearty, home-cooked Pennsylvania German meal. Early’s remaining infantrymen, a Georgia brigade under Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon, camped at Farmers, Pennsylvania, while the 35th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry quartered between Spring Forge (now Spring Grove) and Nashville.

After emissaries from York negotiated with General Gordon for the peaceful occupation of their borough, Early marched into downtown York on Sunday, June 28, 1863. He surrounded the town with infantry and artillery and set up his headquarters in the sheriff’s office in the county courthouse. Sampling York County cigars (the veteran Early was a heavy smoker), he discussed matters with local Judge Robert Fisher, who refused to play along with the general’s demands for keys to locked offices full of important county paperwork. Fisher’s wife Mary, however, feared that Early might “unleash the dogs of war” on the helpless populace.

Early did burn a few railroad cars, but left the town intact (despite some fears that he might apply the torch to York’s private and public buildings). He marched his men away on Tuesday, June 30, upon receiving orders from Ewell that Lee was concentrating his widely scattered army near Heidlersburg and Cashtown. Years later Early would joke that York had shorted him he wanted the rest of his $100,000 ransom, with interest, else he (then a Lynchburg attorney) would turn the matter over to a collection agency.

In the next installment, we will look at James Dearing’s and Thomas Munford’s lives and their graves.

Watch the video: American Faces: Jubal Early (July 2022).


  1. Eban

    gee chipmunk =)

  2. Lancelot

    You are wrong. We need to discuss.

  3. Jediah

    I apologise, but I suggest to go another by.

  4. Zulull

    take ...

  5. Goltiran

    I apologise, there is an offer to go on other way.

  6. Evinrude

    Not in this essence.

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