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Daniel A. Joy
Daniel Albert Joy, born 11 October 1918 in Waltham, Mass., enlisted in the Naval Reserve 8 February 1937 For his heroism and courage in braving Japanese fire to remove the wounded to safety on Guadalcanal until killed by enemy gunfire on 5 October 1942, Pharmacist's Mate Second Class Joy was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.
(DE-585: dp. 1 450; 1. 306', b. 37', dr. 13'9"; B. 24 k.;
cpl. 186; a. 2 6" 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct;
Daniel A. Joy(DE-585) was launched 16 January 1944 by Bethlehem Hingham Shipyards, Hingham, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. D. A. Joy; and commissioned 28 April 1944, Lieutenant F. E. Lawton. USNR, in command.
Following a voyage on convoy escort duty to Bizerte, Tunisia between 2 August and 19 September 1944, Daniel A. Joy sailed from Boston 1 October and arrived at Humboldt Bay 20 November. Next day she got underway to screen reinforcements for the landings on Leyte. She remained on escort and patrol duty in the Philippines, convoying ships from New Guinea and Manus, and covering the landings at Lingayen Gulf, Mangarin Bay, and Mindoro. From 23 April to 10 August 1946 she was in the Manila Bay area engaged in local escort and antisubmarine patrol duty. From 10 August to 21 September she made two voyages to Okinawa, returning to conduct mine disposal patrols in the waters off Mindoro and standing by during the minesweeping operations in Liange Bay.
Daniel A. Joy sailed from Samar 1 December 1945 for the west coast, arriving at San Pedro 22 December On 12 August 1946 she was assigned to the 12th Naval district for duty as a Naval Reserve training
vessel, and she sailed the next day for San Francisco. She remained on this duty until decommissioned 7 February 1949. Recommissioned 11 December of that year, she sailed from Mare Island Naval Shipyard 4
March 1950 for New Orleans where her screws were removed and her mast stepped down. Pontoons were secured to her sides and she was towed up the Mississippi, Illinois, and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan
were her screws and mast were replaced. On 5 May 1950 she was placed in commission, in reserve to serve as the flagship for six patrol vessels of the 9th Naval District engaged in the training of naval reservists on the Great Lakes.
Daniel A. Joy received two battle stars for World War II service
Daniel A Joy DE-585 - History
From: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
Daniel Albert Joy, born 11 October 1918 in Waltham, Mass., enlisted in the Naval Reserve 8 February 1937 For his heroism and courage in braving Japanese fire to remove the wounded to safety on Guadaleanal until killed by enemy gunfire on 5 October 1942, Pharmacist's Mate Second Class Joy was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. DE - 585: dp. 1 450 l. 306' b. 37'
dr. 13'9" s. 24 k. cpl. 186 a. 2 x 5", 3 x 21" tt., 8 dcp.,
1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct cl. Rudderow
Daniel A. Joy (DE-585) was launched 15 January 1944 by Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyards, Hingham, Mass. sponsored by Mrs. D. A. Joy and commissioned 28 April 1944, Lieutenant F. E. Lawton, USNR, in command.
Following a voyage on convoy escort duty to Bizerte, Tunisia, between 2 August and 19 September 1944, Daniel A. Joy sailed from Boston 1 October and arrived at Humboldt Bay 20 November. Next day she got underway to screen reinforcements for the landings on Leyte. She remained on escort and patrol duty in the Philippines, convoying ships from New Guinea and Manus, and covering the landings at Lingayen Gulf, Mangarin Bay, and Mindoro. From 23 April to 10 August 1945 she was in the Manila Bay area engaged in local escort and antisubmarine patrol duty. From 10 August to 21 September she made two voyages to Okinawa, returning to conduct mine disposal patrols in the waters off Mindoro and standing by during the minesweeping operations in Liange Bay.
Daniel A. Joy sailed from Samar 1 December 1945 for the west coast, arriving at San Pedro 22 December. On 12 August 1946 she was assigned to the 12th Naval district for duty as a Naval Reserve training vessel, and she sailed the next day for San Francisco. She remained on this duty until decommissioned 7 February 1949. Recommissioned 11 December of that year, she sailed from Mare Island Naval Shipyard 4 March 1950 for New Orleans where her screws were removed and her mast stepped down. Pontoons were secured to her sides and she was towed up the Mississippi, Illinois, and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan were her screws and mast were replaced. On 5 May1950 she was placed in commission, in reserve to serve as the flagship for six patrol vessels of the 9th Naval District engaged in the training of naval reservists on the Great Lakes.
PORTAGE PCE 902
This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.
- PCE-842 Class Patrol Craft Escort
Keel Laid January 29 1943 - Launched August 28 1943
This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).
Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.
This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each name and/or commissioning period. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.
A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.
Jack Weinstein, legal maverick on federal bench, dead at 99
NEW YORK (AP) - Jack B. Weinstein, a former federal judge who earned a reputation as a tireless legal maverick while overseeing a series of landmark class-action lawsuits and sensational mob cases in New York City like that of the "Mafia Cops," has died. He was 99.
A federal courthouse official, Eugene Corcoran, confirmed Weinstein's death on Tuesday. The judiciary "has lost a national treasure," Corcoran said in a statement.
Weinstein, a World War II veteran appointed by President Lyndon Johnson, had spent more than five decades on the bench in Brooklyn before retiring last year. In a 2012 interview with The Associated Press, he said his longevity had its advantages.
"You don't care really what people think of you," the judge said. "You're not going anyplace. You're doing it for the joy. And as a public service."
FILE - This March 4, 2011 file photo shows Judge Jack Weinstein during a visit to the Louis Armstrong housing projects in Bedford-Stuyvesant section of the Brooklyn borough of New York. Weinstein, a federal judge who earned a reputation as a tireless legal maverick while overseeing a series of landmark class-action lawsuits and sensational mob cases, has died. Weinstein's wife confirmed his death at 99 on Tuesday, June 15, 2021. (AP Photo/Bebeto Matthews, File)
Weinstein was known for championing class-action litigation as the little guy's remedy for alleged injustices by big industry.
He made headlines in 1984 by approving a settlement requiring herbicide makers to pay $180 million to Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange. He also presided over a 1999 trial ending in an unprecedented verdict finding handgun makers liable in shootings and negligent in their marketing practices. And in 2006, he gave the green light to a class-action suit brought by tens of millions of smokers seeking up to $200 billion from tobacco companies for allegedly duping them into buying light cigarettes.
His rulings often upset conservatives, who accused him of sacrificing judicial restraint to promote liberal causes. In many cases, appellate courts found that his decisions had overreached.
In a book about mass tort litigation, Weinstein espoused a belief in "humankind's obligation to create a just society."
Weinstein was born in Wichita, Kansas, but grew up in Harlem and Brooklyn. As a teenager in the 1930s, he played bit parts in Broadway shows and worked on the docks to put himself through school.
He later served in World War II before launching his legal career at Columbia Law School, where he graduated in 1948. He briefly went into private practice before serving as Nassau County Attorney from 1963 to 1965. He had returned to Columbia to teach when President Johnson named him to the federal bench in 1967.
The 6-foot-2 Weinstein was a stately presence in court, where he favored business suits over robes and sometimes ventured off the bench in the middle of trials to get a juror's-eye view of the proceedings. He was impatient with long-winded lawyers, critical of sentencing guidelines he felt were too harsh on low-level criminals and concerned about judges falling prey to hubris.
"One danger that every judge must guard against is ego," he wrote in his book. "The court must control its own sense of importance - sometimes a very difficult chore."
He also expressed a faith in juries' ability to tackle complex and contentious civil cases.
Should a jury "be permitted to decide a vexing private litigation . when the decision has so many important overtones, or should the judges themselves decide by holding that the matter is beyond the ken of a reasonable jury?" he wrote in the light cigarette case.
In 1997, Weinstein added his scholarly touch to a ruling affirming a 12-year prison term for Vincent "Chin" Gigante, the Mafia "Oddfather." The boss of the Genovese organized crime family had escaped prosecution for years by wandering the streets in a ratty bathrobe like a madman.
Quoting Shakespeare's "As You Like It," the judge wrote: "And one man in his time plays many parts. . Last scene of all, that ends this strange eventful history, is second childishness."
Weinstein also put his unique stamp on perhaps the most stunning police corruption case in city history: the trial of two detectives accused of moonlighting as hitmen for the mob. After defendants Louis Eppolito and Steven Caracappa were convicted in 2006, the judge declared that they deserved life sentences for "the most heinous series of killings ever tried in this courthouse."
A month later, he stunned prosecutors by throwing out the convictions based on defense arguments that the statute of limitations for the eight murders had expired. An appeals court overturned the decision.
Weinstein made news as late as 2019 by sentencing an American woman who admitted supporting the Islamic State group to four years in prison over the objection of prosecutors who wanted her locked up for decades.
True to form, he said the lenient sentence had the potential to "save her as a human being."
The psychology behind Israel's status quo
Psychological obstacles to peace in Israel
Everybody lies, especially to themselves
The subject of his initial research was not sexy and quite distant from the happiness debate. The study documented, in real time, patients’ degree of suffering during a colonoscopy (it was a painful procedure at the time, unlike today).
It turned out there was no connection between the length of the procedure and level of pain a patient experienced and described at the time, and the extent of trauma he recalled afterward. The memory was based primarily on whether the pain increased or decreased toward the end of the procedure. The stronger the pain in the final stage of the procedure, the more traumatic it became in the patient’s memory – with no connection to the question of how much pain he actually experienced during it.
Positive experiences are processed similarly. In a 2010 lecture, Kahneman related the story of a man who told him about listening to a symphony he loved, “absolutely glorious music.” But at the end there was a “dreadful screeching sound” that, the man said, ruined the whole experience for him.
But as Kahneman pointed out, it hadn’t actually destroyed the experience, because the man enjoyed the music at the time. Rather, it ruined his memory of the experience, which is something completely different.
“We live and experience many moments, but most of them are not preserved,” Kahneman said. “They are lost forever. Our memory collects certain parts of what happened to us and processes them into a story. We make most of our decisions based on the story told by our memory.
“For example, a vacation – we don’t remember, or experience, the entire time we spent on vacation, but only the impressions preserved in our memory, the photographs and the documentation. Moreover, we usually choose the next vacation not as an experience but as a future memory. If prior to the decision about our next vacation we assume that at the end all the photos will be erased, and we’ll be given a drug that will also erase our memory, it’s quite possible that we’ll choose a different vacation from the one that we actually choose.”
A very vague concept
Kahneman’s studies of “What I experience” versus “What I remember” are what led him to get involved in the study of happiness.
“I put together a group of researchers, including an economist whom I viewed as both a partner in the group and its principal client,” he told me when we met earlier this year. “We wanted to figure out what factors affect happiness and to try to work to change conditions and policies accordingly. Economists have more influence on policy.
“The group developed a model known as DRM, or Day Reconstruction Method – a fairly successful method of reconstructing experiences throughout the day. It gives results similar to those of ‘What I experience’ and is easier to do.”
It turns out there are significant differences between the narrative that we remember and tell, and the feelings of day-to-day happiness we experience at the time – to the point that Kahneman believes the general term “happiness” is too vague and can’t be applied to both.
He views “happiness” as the feeling of enjoyment a person experiences here and now – for instance, two weeks of relaxation on the beach, or an enjoyable conversation with an interesting person. What is described as happiness in the “What I remember” is something Kahneman prefers to call – as he did more than once in his series of studies – “satisfaction” or “life satisfaction.”
Amir Mandel speaking with Daniel Kahneman, March 2018. What did I consider more important about our meeting? My enjoyment of the meeting or the photo? Moti Milrod
“Life satisfaction is connected to a large degree to social yardsticks – achieving goals, meeting expectations,” he explained. “It’s based on comparisons with other people.
“For instance, with regard to money, life satisfaction rises in direct proportion to how much you have. In contrast, happiness is affected by money only when it’s lacking. Poverty can buy a lot of suffering, but above the level of income that satisfies basic needs, happiness, as I define it, doesn’t increase with wealth. The graph is surprisingly flat.
“Economist Angus Deaton, the Nobel Prize laureate for 2015, was also involved in these conclusions. Happiness in this sense depends, to a large extent, on genetics – on a natural ability to be happy. It’s also connected to a genetic disposition to optimism. They are apparently the same genes.
“To the degree that outside factors affect this aspect of happiness,” he continued, “they’re related solely to people: We’re happy in the company of people we like, especially friends – more so than with partners. Children can cause great happiness, at certain moments.”
‘I was miserable’
At about the same time as these studies were being conducted, the Gallup polling company (which has a relationship with Princeton) began surveying various indicators among the global population. Kahneman was appointed as a consultant to the project.
“I suggested including measures of happiness, as I understand it – happiness in real time. To these were added data from Bhutan, a country that measures its citizens’ happiness as an indicator of the government’s success. And gradually, what we know today as Gallup’s World Happiness Report developed. It has also been adopted by the UN and OECD countries, and is published as an annual report on the state of global happiness.
“A third development, which is very important in my view, was a series of lectures I gave at the London School of Economics in which I presented my findings about happiness. The audience included Prof. Richard Layard – a teacher at the school, a British economist and a member of the House of Lords – who was interested in the subject. Eventually, he wrote a book about the factors that influence happiness, which became a hit in Britain,” Kahneman said, referring to “Happiness: Lessons from a New Science.”
“Layard did important work on community issues, on improving mental health services – and his driving motivation was promoting happiness. He instilled the idea of happiness as a factor in the British government’s economic considerations.
“The involvement of economists like Layard and Deaton made this issue more respectable,” Kahneman added with a smile. “Psychologists aren’t listened to so much. But when economists get involved, everything becomes more serious, and research on happiness gradually caught the attention of policy-making organizations.
“At the same time,” said Kahneman, “a movement has also developed in psychology – positive psychology – that focuses on happiness and attributes great importance to internal questions like meaning. I’m less certain of that.
Tourists in New York posing near a homeless man. "In general, if you want to reduce suffering, mental health is a good place to start," says Kahneman. Reuters
“People connect happiness primarily to the company of others. I recall a conversation with Martin Seligman, the founder of positive psychology, in which he tried to convince me I had a meaningful life. I insisted – and I still think this today – that I had an interesting life. ‘Meaningful’ isn’t something I understand. I’m a lucky person and also fairly happy – mainly because, for most of my life, I’ve worked with people whose company I enjoyed.”
Then, referring to his 2011 best-seller “Thinking, Fast and Slow,” he added, “There were four years when I worked alone on a book. That was terrible, and I was miserable.”
Despite Kahneman’s reservations, trends in positive psychology have come to dominate the science of happiness. One of the field’s most prominent representatives is Prof. Tal Ben-Shahar, who taught the most popular course in Harvard’s history (in spring 2006), on happiness and leadership.
Following in his footsteps, lecturers at Yale developed a course on happiness that attracted masses of students and overshadowed every other course offered at the prestigious university.
“In positive psychology, it seems to me they’re trying to convince people to be happy without making any changes in their situation,” said Kahneman, skeptically. “To learn to be happy. That fits well with political conservatism.”
I pointed out to Kahneman that Buddhism – including Tibetan Buddhism’s spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, which whom he is in contact – also places great emphasis on changing a person’s inner spiritual state. “That’s true to a large extent,” he agreed, “but in a different way, in my opinion. Buddhism has a different social worldview.
“But in any case, I confess that I participated in a meeting with the Dalai Lama at MIT, and some of his people were there – including one of his senior people, who lives in Paris and serves as his contact person and translator in France. I couldn’t tear my eyes away from this man. He radiated. He had such inner peace and such a sense of happiness, and I’m absolutely not cynical enough to overlook it.”
Tending to mental health
Kahneman studied happiness for over two decades, gave rousing lectures and, thanks to his status, contributed to putting the issue on the agenda of both countries and organizations, principally the UN and the OECD. Five years ago, though, he abandoned this line of research.
Two French women laughing at a cafe in Paris, April 2017. "We’re happy in the company of people we like, especially friends," says Kahneman. Bloomberg
“I gradually became convinced that people don’t want to be happy,” he explained. “They want to be satisfied with their life.”
A bit stunned, I asked him to repeat that statement. “People don’t want to be happy the way I’ve defined the term – what I experience here and now. In my view, it’s much more important for them to be satisfied, to experience life satisfaction, from the perspective of ‘What I remember,’ of the story they tell about their lives. I furthered the development of tools for understanding and advancing an asset that I think is important but most people aren’t interested in.
“Meanwhile, awareness of happiness has progressed in the world, including annual happiness indexes. It seems to me that on this basis, what can confidently be advanced is a reduction of suffering. The question of whether society should intervene so that people will be happier is very controversial, but whether society should strive for people to suffer less – that’s widely accepted.
“Much of Layard’s activity on behalf of happiness in England related to bolstering the mental health system. In general, if you want to reduce suffering, mental health is a good place to start – because the extent of illness is enormous and the intensity of the distress doesn’t allow for any talk of happiness. We also need to talk about poverty and about improving the workplace environment, where many people are abused.”
My interview with Kahneman took place as I started working on the Haaretz series of articles “The Secret of Happiness,” and was initially meant to conclude it. It was the key to the entire series. It’s interesting that Kahneman, one of the leading symbols of happiness research, eventually became dubious and quit, while proposing that we primarily address causes of suffering.
The “secret of happiness” hasn’t been deciphered. Even the term’s definition remains vague. Genetics and luck play an important role in it.
Nevertheless, a few insights that emerged from the series have stayed with me: I’m amazed by Layard’s activity. I was impressed by the tranquility of the Buddhist worldview and the practices that accompany it. Personally, I’ve chosen to practice meditation with a technique adapted to people from Western cultures.
I learned to collect experiences and not necessarily memories, which can be disputed. I don’t mind sitting for three hours in a Paris café or spending a day wandering through the streets of Berlin, without noting a single monument or having a single incident that I could recount. I gave up on income to do what I enjoy – like, for instance, writing about happiness and music.
Above all, it has become clear that our best hours are spent in the company of people we like. With this resource, it pays to be generous.
Daniel A Joy DE-585 - History
The USN afloat in WWII was comprised of fleets. A fleet was an organization of vessels and aircraft under the command of a commander in chief. It normally comprised all types of vessels and aircraft in sufficient numbers to carry on major operations in a given theatre of war.
The major subdivision of a fleet was known as a force. From these forces, task forces were organized to accomplish special tasks. The fleet and force organizations were prepared and issued by the Chief of Naval Operations.
The basic unit of fleet vessels was the division, which was composed of two or more vessels of the same type. Destroyer Escort divisions were known as escort divisions - CortDiv. During WWII, CortDivs were almost exclusively comprised of DEs, consisting of 6 ships of the same class, usually with sequential hull numbers. However, this was not always the case. While most DEs served with their original assigned division, it was common for a DE to be moved from division to division. The move may have been due to changing needs of the division, reclassification of the DE or the DEs availability for service.
One role of the CortDiv was to protect convoys from enemy attack, whether air, surface or underwater attack. Ships in the convoy were of many types and included cargo ships, tankers, troop transports and specialty vessels such as repair ships and barges.
The other roles of CortDivs were a s "hunter-killer" (HUK) teams in task forces that went to sea for the specific purpose of locating and destroying submarines antisubmarine and antiaircraft screening of capital ships as they bombarded enemy shore installations prior to amphibious assaults and mann ing "picket" stations on the outer perimeter of fleet and landing operations to engage kamikazes and to warn inner perimeter vessels of their approach. This was very hazardous duty and DEs suffered personnel and material casualties.
The following is a list of known DE divisions. This is a work in progress. If you have additional information, please contact the webmaster.
130 JACOB JONES *
132 ROBERT E. PEARY
133 PILLSBURY *
136 FREDERICK C. DAVIS
258 WALTER S. BROWN
53 CHARLES LAWRENCE
54 DANIEL T. GRIFFIN (APD-38)
154 SIMS (APD-50)
155 HOPPING (APD-51)
156 REEVES (APD-52)
240 MOORE *
243 J. RICHARD WARD
7 GRISWOLD *
138 DOUGLAS L.HOWARD *
137 HERBERT C.JONES
140 J.R.Y. BLAKELY
143 FISKE (sunk)
1 9 BURDEN R.HASTINGS *
21 HAROLD C.THOMAS
23 CHARLES R.GREER
162 LEVY *
57 FOGG *
60 GANTNER (APD 42)
62 GEORGE W. INGRAM (APD 43)
63 IRA JEFFERY (APD 44)
65 LEE FOX (APD 45)
144 FROST *
161 BARBER (APD 57)
14 DOHERTY *
17 EDWARD C. DALY
168 AMICK *
259 WILLIAM C. MILLER *
Division 17 Atlantic/Pacific
215 BURKE (APD 65)
216 ENRIGHT (APD 66)
675 WEBER (APD 75)
676 SCHMITT (APD 76)
677 FRAMENT (APD 77)
66 AMESBURY * (APD 46)
68 BATES (APD 47)
69 BLESSMAN (APD 48)
236 WILLIAM M. HOBBY (APD 95)
695 RICH (sunk)
249 MARCHAND *
252 HOWARD D. CROW
70 JOSEPH E. CAMPBELL
157 FECHTELER (sunk)
158 CHASE (APD 54)
159 LANING (APD 55)
160 LOY (APD 56)
161 BARBER (APD 57)
151 POOLE *
After the loss of Leopold,
replaced by Gandy
255 SELLSTROM *
181 STRAUB *
25 WINTLE *
37 GREINER *
31 SEDERSTROM *
739 BANGUST *
Division 35 Atlantic/Pacific
763 CATES *
765 EARL K. OLSEN
217 COOLBAUGH *
219 J. DOUGLAS BLACKWOOD
199 MANNING *
201 JAMES E CRAIG
696 SPANGLER *
633 FOREMAN *
637 BOWERS (APD 40)
183 SAMUEL S. MILES *
387 VANCE *
Division 47 Atlantic/Pacific
792 HAINES (APD-84)
793 RUNELS (APD 85)
794 HOLLIS (APD-86)
? If this info is correct.
42 REYNOLDS *
393 HAVERFIELD *
397 WILHOITE ( Also 5 & 59)
745 SNYDER *
220 FRANCIS M. ROBINSON *
192 EISNER *
193 GARFIELD THOMAS
682 UNDERHILL (sunk)
683 HENRY R. KENYON
326 THOMAS J. GARY *
401 HOLDER (sunk)
129 EDSALL *
336 ROY O. HALE
337 DALE W. PETERSON
338 MARTIN H. RAY
397 WILHOITE (Pacific)
240 MOORE (Pacific)
576 BARR (APD 39)
578 ROBERT I. PAINE
686 EUGENE E. ELMORE
702 EARL V. JOHNSON
304 RALL *
210 OTTER *
211 HUBBARD (APD-53)
212 HAYTER (APD-80)
789 TATUM (APD 81)
800 JACK W. WILKE
402 RICHARD S. BULL *
403 RICHARD M. ROWELL
404 EVERSOLE (sunk)
407 SHELTON (sunk)
339 JOHN C. BUTLER *
533 HOWARD F. CLARK
408 STRAUS *
409 LA PRADE
410 JACK MILLER
440 McCOY REYNOLDS
213 WILLIAM T POWELL
153 REUBEN JAMES
577 ALEXANDER J. LUKE
578 ROBERT I. PAINE
580 LESLIE L. B. KNOX
583 GEORGE A. JOHNSON
686 EUGENE E. ELMORE
342 RICHARD W. SUESENS *
412 WALTER C. WANN
413 SAMUEL B. ROBERTS
441 WILLIAM SEIVERLING *
442 ULVERT M. MOORE
443 KENDALL C. CAMPBELL
584 CHARLES J. KIMMEL *
585 DANIEL A. JOY
587 THOMAS F. NICKEL
414 LERAY WILSON
415 LAWRENCE C. TAYLOR*
416 MELVIN R. NAWMAN
417 OLIVER MITCHELL
419 ROBERT F. KELLER
639 GENDREAU *
641 WILLIAM C. COLE
642 PAUL G. BAKER
643 DAMON M. CUMMINGS
345 ROBERT BRAZIER
346 EDWIN A. HOWARD
347 JESSE RUTHERFORD
420 LELAND E. THOMAS
421 CHESTER T. O'BRIEN
422 DOUGLAS A. MUNRO *
446 CHARLES E. BRANNON
447 ALBERT T. HARRIS
351 MAURICE J. MANUEL
769 NEAL A. SCOTT
16 EDGAR G. CHASE
528 JOHN J. POWERS
530 JOHN M. BERMINGHAM
353 DOYLE C. BARNES *
354 KENNETH M. WILLETT
356 LLOYD E. ACREE
357 GEORGE E. DAVIS
359 WOODSON *
360 JOHNNIE HUTCHINS
365 McGINTY *
366 ALVIN C. COCKRELL
368 CECIL J. DOYLE
369 THADDEUS PARKER
370 JOHN L. WILLIAMSON
450 JOSEPH E. CONNOLLY
DEs - Unknown Divisions
APDs - 66 Unknown, Except a Few TransDIV Numbers.
Most were commissioned as APDs
The Joy of Food
Food is more than survival. With it we make friends, court lovers, and count our blessings. The sharing of food has always been part of the human story. From Qesem Cave near Tel Aviv comes evidence of ancient meals prepared at a 300,000-year-old hearth, the oldest ever found, where diners gathered to eat together. Retrieved from the ashes of Vesuvius: a circular loaf of bread with scoring marks, baked to be divided. “To break bread together,” a phrase as old as the Bible, captures the power of a meal to forge relationships, bury anger, provoke laughter. Children make mud pies, have tea parties, trade snacks to make friends, and mimic the rituals of adults. They celebrate with sweets from the time of their first birthday, and the association of food with love will continue throughout life𠅊nd in some belief systems, into the afterlife. Consider the cultures that leave delicacies graveside to let the departed know they are not forgotten. And even when times are tough, the urge to celebrate endures. In the Antarctic in 1902, during Robert Falcon Scott’s Discovery expedition, the men prepared a fancy meal for Midwinter Day, the shortest day and longest night of the year. Hefty provisions had been brought on board. Forty-five live sheep were slaughtered and hung from the rigging, frozen by the elements until it was time to feast. The cold, the darkness, and the isolation were forgotten for a while. “With such a dinner,” Scott wrote, “we agreed that life in the Antarctic Regions was worth living.” — Victoria Pope
This wartime photograph was published in a 1916 issue of National Geographic with a caption referring to Adam, Eve, and the apple. But more germane is how the image evokes an idyllic British landscape and the childhood pleasure of a snack after play.
A. W. Cutler, National Geographic Creative
Afghan women share a meal of flatbread, goat, lamb, and fruit in the Women’s Garden, a refuge for conversation and confidences outside the city of Bamian. The garden and surrounding park were created to promote leisure activities for women and families. For this group it includes the chance to bond over food.
Lynsey Addario, Reportage by Getty Images
“I got to thinking … about all those women on the Titanic who passed up dessert.” — Erma Bombeck
Click here to launch gallery.
After World War I, roadside eateries like the California snack bar at right became popular. At left, from top: In Portugal a truck sells German comfort food in Washington, D.C., a PETA protester offers meatless hot dogs in England a beachgoer eats a packed lunch.
In this 1894 photograph of an outing in the Maine woods, watermelon slices resemble oversize grins. Medieval hunting feasts and Renaissance outdoor banquets were precursors of the picnic, but the activity gained currency after the industrial revolution as a short, economical excursion.
“With good friends𠉪nd good food on the board…we may well ask, When shall we live if not now?” — M.F.K. Fisher, The Art of Eating
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A shared meal binds people together, whether they’re a family saying grace (left), patients in a Croatian clinic (above, top), young men tucking into fried chicken in Accra, Ghana, or Buddhist priests near Shanghai supping on noodles in 1931.
The Sisters of the Visitation near Beirut, Lebanon, use a paste of almonds and sugar to make marzipan sweets, typically eaten around Easter. Foodstuffs are often a source of income for holy orders the Trappists, for example, sell beer and cheese. These Maronite nuns make candy shaped like birds and flowers.
Ivor Prickett, Panos pictures
“I will marry you if you promise not to make me eat eggplant.” — Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera
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Meals as milestones, from top left: A cake marks a birthday in 1934. At the wedding feast of an Armenian couple in Nagorno-Karabakh, the meat dish khorovats is served along with song and dance. Foods are laid out in honor of the deceased in Belarus. At right: A joyful catch is made in Bristol Bay, Alaska.
Four-year-old Seraphin Eskildsen is immersed in a bowl of porridge at his home in Denmark. For many, a favorite childhood food summons fond memories. Chef Jacques Pépin’s was a baguette with a square of dark chocolate. For Julia Child, it was a vanilla-and-chocolate ice-cream sandwich.
The magazine thanks The Rockefeller Foundation and members of the National Geographic Society for their generous support of this series of articles.
What is the Church Age?
An “age” is an historical period of time or an era. Some historians divide human history into many epochs and name them according to their defining characteristics: Middle Ages, Modern Age, Postmodern Age, etc. Biblical history, too, can be divided into different eras. When those divisions emphasize God’s interaction with His creation, we call them dispensations. More broadly, biblical history can be divided into two periods, roughly following the division of Old and New Testaments: the Age of the Law and the Church Age.
The Church Age is the period of time from Pentecost (Acts 2) to the rapture (foretold in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18). It is called the Church Age because it covers the period in which the Church is on earth. It corresponds with the dispensation of Grace. In prophetic history, it falls between the 69th and 70th weeks of Daniel (Daniel 9:24-27 Romans 11). Jesus predicted the Church Age in Matthew 16:18 when He said, “I will build my church.” Jesus has kept His promise, and His Church has now been growing for almost 2,000 years.
The Church is composed of those individuals who have by faith accepted Christ Jesus as their Savior and Lord (John 1:12 Acts 9:31). Therefore, the Church is people rather than denominations or buildings. It is the Body of Christ of which He is the head (Ephesians 1:22-23). The Greek word ecclesia, translated “church,” means “a called-out assembly.” The Church is universal in scope but meets locally in smaller bodies.
The Church Age comprises the entire dispensation of Grace. “The law was given through Moses grace and truth came through Jesus Christ” (John 1:17). For the first time in history, God actually indwells His creatures, permanently and eternally. In other dispensations the Holy Spirit was always present and always at work, but He would come upon people temporarily (e.g., 1 Samuel 16:14). The Church Age is marked by the Holy Spirit’s permanent indwelling of His people (John 14:16).
Scripture makes a distinction between the nation of Israel and the Church (1 Corinthians 10:32). There is some overlap because, individually, many Jews believe in Jesus as their Messiah and are therefore part of the Church. But God’s covenants with the nation of Israel have not yet been fulfilled. Those promises await fulfillment during the Millennial Kingdom, after the Church Age ends (Ezekiel 34 37 45 Jeremiah 30 33 Matthew 19:28 Revelation 19).
The Church Age will end when God’s people are raptured out of the world and taken to be with the Lord (1 Corinthians 15:51-57). The rapture will be followed in heaven by the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (Revelation 19:6-9) as the Church, the Bride of Christ, receives her heavenly reward. Until then, the Church carries on in hope, exhorted to “stand firm. Let nothing move you. Always give yourselves fully to the work of the Lord, because you know that your labor in the Lord is not in vain” (1 Corinthians 15:58).
What Does the Bible Say About Angels?
What do angels look like? Why were they created? And what do angels do? Humans have always held a fascination for angels and angelic beings. For centuries artists have tried to capture images of angels on canvas.
It may surprise you to know that the Bible describes angels nothing at all like they are typically depicted in paintings. (You know, those cute little chubby babies with wings?) A passage in Ezekiel 1:1-28 gives a brilliant description of angels as four-winged creatures. In Ezekiel 10:20, we are told these angels are called cherubim.
Most angels in the Bible have the appearance and form of a man. Many of them have wings, but not all. Some are larger than life. Others have multiple faces that appear like a man from one angle, and a lion, ox, or eagle from another angle. Some angels are bright, shining, and fiery, while others look like ordinary humans. Some angels are invisible, yet their presence is felt, and their voice is heard.
History of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence as a term didn't come into our vernacular until around 1990. Despite being a relatively new term, interest in the concept has grown tremendously since then.
As early as the 1930s, the psychologist Edward Thorndike described the concept of "social intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people. During the 1940s, psychologist David Wechsler proposed that different effective components of intelligence could play an important role in how successful people are in life.
The 1950s saw the rise of the school of thought known as humanistic psychology, and thinkers such as Abraham Maslow focused greater attention on the different ways that people could build emotional strength.
Another important concept to emerge in the development of emotional intelligence was the notion of multiple intelligences. This concept was put forth in the mid-1970s by Howard Gardner, introducing the idea that intelligence was more than just a single, general ability.
The Emergence of Emotional Intelligence
It was not until 1985 that the term "emotional intelligence" was first used by in a doctoral dissertation by Wayne Payne. In 1987, an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term "emotional quotient."
In 1990, psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer published their landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. They defined emotional intelligence as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions."
In 1995, the concept of emotional intelligence was popularized after the publication of Daniel Goleman’s book "Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ."
The topic of emotional intelligence has continued to capture the public interest since and has become important in fields outside of psychology including education and business.