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First Macedonian War 215-205 BC
Phase One: Rome vs Philip
Phase Two: Rome and Aetolia vs Philip
Phase Three: Aetolia vs Philip
The First Macedonian War (215-205 BC) was caused by the decision of Philip V of Macedonia to form an alliance with Hannibal in the aftermath of his series of great victories against Rome in Italy. It was the first war in which Roman troops fought on the mainland of Greece, although neither Rome nor Carthage put any great effort into the war. Most of the fighting was between Philip V of Macedon and the Aetolian League and their respective allies.
Philip V had ascended to the throne of Macedonia in 221, and had soon become involved in the Social War, between the Hellenic (or Greek) League and the Aetolian League, but even at this early stage in his reign Philip was clearly worried by the rising power of Rome. Macedonia and Rome were not direct neighbours, but they were coming into more regular contact on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. The two main powers in this area – Epirus and the Illyrians – were normally friendly to Macedonia, while the Romans were increasingly involved in the area. In 230-228 they had intervened to prevent the Illyrians from gaining too much power on the coast (First Illyrian War), and in 219 had returned (Second Illyrian War), this time to prevent their former ally Demetrius of Pharos from upsetting the balance of power. In the aftermath of his defeat Demetrius had fled to Philip’s court, where he soon became one of his chief advisors.
Soon after this Hannibal launched his famous invasion of Italy, starting the Second Punic War. A series of victories followed, culminating in 217 was the battle of Lake Trasimene. The moment the news reached Philip, he began negotiations to end the Social War. In September 217 the peace of Naupactus ended that war, leaving Philip free to attempt to take advantage of the Roman weakness. At this time Rome had no actual possessions east of the Adriatic, but did have a series of friends and allies along the coast, and these would be Philip’s first target.
In 216 Philip made an attempt to capture Apollonia, on the Illyrian coast, by surprise. Constructing a fleet of 100 light lembi, he sailed around the southern tip of Greece and up the Adriatic, eventually reaching the bay of Aulon, only 14 miles from his target. His biggest fear was that the Romans might despatch their fleet from Sicily to stop him, for their heavy quinqueremes would have easily overpowered his lembi. The Romans soon learnt what Philip was doing from their ally Scerdilaidas, and dispatched a force of ten quinqueremes to the Adriatic. Learning of their approach, Philip panicked, perhaps unaware of the small size of the Roman fleet, and ordered his fleet back to Macedonian waters.
At this point Philip was still acting independently of the Carthaginians, who under Hannibal had achieved a series of stunning victories over the Romans during the previous year (217). While Philip was failing in the Adriatic, Hannibal was winning his great victory at Cannae. Over the winter of 216-215 it must have looked as if Philip had missed his chance to benefit from the apparent defeat of Rome, for Hannibal did not look like he needed any allies, but by the spring of 215 it was clear that the Romans were going to continue the fight.
Phase One: Rome vs Philip
In the summer of 215 BC an embassy from Philip, lead by the Athenian Xenophanes, reached Hannibal’s camp to negotiate a treaty. The terms that were agreed were surprisingly vague, perhaps reflecting Hannibal’s continued confidence in a quick victory. Philip and Hannibal were to act as allies against Rome, although neither was required to send any direct help to the other. Once the Romans had been defeated, a defensive alliance would exist between Carthage and Macedonia. The only really concrete part of the alliance covered the potential peace treaty between Rome and Hannibal. The Romans were to agree never to attack Philip, to abandon all of their “possessions” on the Illyrian mainland (at this stage this referred to their official friends and allies), and were to return the households of Demetrius of Pharos, captured by the Romans during the Second Illyrian War.
The Romans very quickly discovered the terms of this treaty. The ship carrying Xenophanes and a Carthaginian delegation back to Macedonia was captured off the coast of Calabria, and a draft copy of the treaty was found. The muted Roman response is often seen as a sign of how little they were worried by the alliance, but in the aftermath of the disaster at Cannae may have been all the Republic could manage. The twenty five warships already in Apulia were reinforced with another thirty, all under the command of the praetor M. Valerius Laevinus. He had orders to investigate Philip’s intentions. If the treaty proved to be genuine, then he was to cross to Macedonia and make sure Philip wasn’t free to leave.
Philip had included his allies in the Achaean League in the treaty with Hannibal, but when he arrived in the Peloponnese he found Aratus, the leader of the league, hostile to any involvement in the west. The situation was made worse by the affair of Messene. Like many Greek city states, Messene (in the south west of the Peloponnese) suffered from conflict between the populace on one side and the magistrates and the optimates on the other. Philip was invited in as an arbitrator, and seems to have incited the populace to take over. A massacre followed, in which 200 of the optimates were killed. The new rules of the city then offered Philip the fortress of Ithome, but Aratus protested against Philip holding both Ithome and Acrocorinth, at the other corner of the Peloponnese. Philip was forced to abandon Ithome, but he would make a second attempt to occupy the area in the next year.
In the spring of 214 BC Philip made a second attempt to capture Apollonia from the sea. Once again his fleet was made up of the light lembi, this time 120 of them, and once again this fleet reached the bay of Aulon, capturing the port of Oricum. Philip then began a siege of Apollonia, but as in 216 the Romans were quick to respond. Laevinus quickly recaptured Oricum, and then threw reinforcements into Apollonia. The Romans and Apollonians then launched a successful attack on Philip’s camp. Philip was forced to burn his boats and retreat across the Pindus Mountains into Macedonia.
In the autumn of 214 Philip sent Demetrius of Pharos to attack Messene. The attack failed, and Demetrius was probably killed. In revenge Philip ravaged the territory of Messene. The factions within the city were united against Philip, left the Greek League, and moved closer to the Aetolians. The Achaean League was further weakened in the following year by the death of Aratus.
In 213 Philip made an overland attack on Illyria. This was far more successful than either of his naval expeditions had been. Although Apollonia and Dyrrhachium were too strongly garrisoned for him to attack, he was able to subdue the Atintanes and Parthini tribes and capture Dimallum and the fortress of Lissus, driving a wedge between the Romans at Oricum and their ally Scerdilaidas. He also gained a foothold on the Adriatic coast, but the Carthaginians would never take advantage of this.
Phase Two: Rome and Aetolia vs Philip
By 212 BC the situation on the Illyrian coast was so serious that the Romans finally began to look for a Greek ally. Hannibal had captured Tarentum, while a large Carthaginian fleet was engaged in an attempt to break the siege of Syracuse. Part of this fleet could easily have been sent around the Italian coast to Philip’s new coastal possessions, renewing the danger that Philip might bring the Macedonia army to Italy.
The only useful ally available to the Romans was the Aetolian League (based on the northern side of the Corinthian Gulf). By 212 the leading figures in the league were Dorimachus and Scopas of Trichonium, and they were both hostile to Philip. The time seemed right to renew the war. Achaea was weak and leaderless, while Philips’ intervention in Messene had turned the rest of the Peloponnese against him. Further east Attalus of Pergamum, a long standing friend of the Aetolian League, had been tied down in Asia Minor by Achaeus’ revolt, but that had now been put down, freeing him to agree to come to the aid of the League.
Either late in 212 or during 211 Laevinus visited Aetolia with his fleet, the first time that a Roman war fleet had visited Greek harbours. He met with the federal assembly of Aetolia, and agreed a treaty of alliance. The terms of this treaty show that the Romans were still not interested in expanding east of the Adriatic. Any cities south of Corcyra (Corfu) captured by either the Romans alone or the Romans and Aetolians acting together would be granted to the League. The movable goods (including the population) would be taken by the Romans if they acted alone, or split between the allies if they had cooperated. The Romans agreed to provide 25 quinqueremes, while the Aetolians provided the majority of the soldiers. Elis, Messene, Sparta, Attalus, Pleuratus and Scerdilaidas were all free to join the alliance if they so wished. The two parties also agreed not to make a separate peace.
The first target of the new allies was Acarnania, an ally of Philips located on the coast west of the Aetolian heartland. In the autumn of 212 Philip was campaigning on the northern borders of Macedonia, where he took Sintia from the Dardanians, and Iamphorynna from the Tracian Maedi. Encouraged by his absence the Aetolians invaded Acarnania. The Acarnanians swore an oath to conquer or die, sent their women and children to safety in Epirus, and held off the Aetolians until Philip was able to return from the north.
The Romans were more successful. Laevinus used his fleet to capture Oeniadae and Nasus from the Acarnanians and all of Zacynthus apart from the acropolis from Philip. All three cities were then handed to the Aetolians.
The main event of 211 was the capture of Anticyra by Laevinus and the Aetolian general Scopas. In accord with their alliance the Romans enslaved the population, while the town was handed over the Aetolians, who soon lost it to Philip. Late in the summer of 211 Laevinus was replaced by the proconsul P. Sulpicius Galba, who would command the Roman fleet for most of the rest of the war.
The campaign of 210 saw Philip take the initiative, attempting to expel the Aetolians from Phthiotic Achaea (Thessaly), to give him access to central Greece. The main event was the siege of the coastal city of Echinus. The Aetolian general Dorimachus and Sulpicius with the Roman fleet attempted to raise the siege, without success, and the city fell to Philip. The only Roman success of this first expedition into the Aegean was the capture of the island of Aegina. The island was then handed over the Aetolians, but they had no fleet, and so sold the island to Attalus of Pergamum for 30 talents. This finally brought Attalus’ fleet into the war. In response Philip made an alliance with Prusias of Bithynia, who promised to bring his own fleet into the Aegean. 210 also saw Sparta join the war, this time on the side of Rome and the Aetolians. At this time Sparta was ruled by Machanidas, as guardian of Pelops, the son of Lycurgus. The entry of Sparta into the war greatly complicated Philip’s tasks, for his allies in Achaea were now under attack from three sides. In 209 and 208 Philip would be forced to come to their aid.
In 209 the Achaeans were under pressure from Sparta and from an Aetolian army attacking from the north. Philip responded by with a successful campaign in the Peloponnese, inflict two defeats on an Aetolian army that was operating with the support of Roman and Pergamene auxiliaries. These defeats came at about the same time as a group of peace envoys from Rhodes, Chios and Egypt arrived in Greece, in the first attempt to end the war (alongside the Athenians). Their defeats at least temporarily convinced the Aetolians to seek peace. An armistice was agreed, and peace negotiations began, but they broke down when both Sulpicius and Attalus arrived with reinforcements. Philip resumed his campaign in Achaea, inflicting a defeat on the Romans at Sicyon. An attempt to capture Elis failed, and then Philip was forced to return to Macedonia to deal with a Dardanian invasion.
At the start of the campaign of 208 BC Philip seemed to be in trouble. Sulpicius, Attalus and their fleets were operating the Aegean, the Aetolians had fortified Thermopylae in an attempt to keep Philip in the north, and it was rumoured that the Illyrians and Maedi were planning to invade Macedonia. In fact the events of the year demonstrated the limits of Roman power in Greece at this time. They were reliant on the Aetolians in any campaign on land, and lacked the troops to take advantage of their command of the sea. The combined fleet made unsuccessful attacks on Lemnos, Peparethus and Chalcis. On land Philip was able to force his way through the pass of Thermopylae, and came very close to capturing Attalus at Opus in Locris. This marked the end of Attalus’ involvement in the war in Greece, for Prusias of Bithynia finally entered the war on Philip’s side, invading Pergamum. Attalus was forced to return home to defend his kingdom.
With Attalus out of the war, Sulpicius retired to Aegina with the Roman fleet, leaving Philip free to campaign in Locris, where he captued Thronium, and in Phocis, where he captured and Tithronium and Drymaea. He was then forced back into the Peloponnese, to repel a Spartan attack on the Achaeans.
Phase Three: Philip vs Aetolia
The final stage of the war saw the Romans withdraw from the Aegean. Sulpicius may have sacked Dyme, the most westerly of the Achaean cities, but after that the Roman concentrated on patrolling the Illyrian coast. From their point of the view the war had achieved its aim, keeping Philip away from the Illyrian coast while the danger from Hannibal was at its most extreme. In addition 208-207 saw Hasdrubal’s invasion of Italy, and it is possible that Sulpicius’s legion was withdrawn to help deal with this threat. It was also clear after ten years that Carthage was not going help Philip.
This left the Aetolians in a vulnerable position, made worse by an unexpected revival of Achaean strength. This was triggered by the appointment of Philopoemen son of Craugis of Megalopolis as commander of the Achaean cavalry in 210-09. He was an experienced mercenary captain, who returned to Achaea after spending ten years on Crete. After the cavalry he reformed the infantry in 208-7, and then during 207 inflicted a heavy defeat on the Spartans. This came at one of many battles of Mantinea. Having captured Tegea, the Spartan Machanidas approached Mantinaea. In the battle that followed Philopoemen defeated the Spartan phalanx. Machanidas was killed in the battle, possibly by Philopoemen.
With no distraction in the south Philip was able to concentrate on defeating the Aetolians. He was able to drive them from Thessaley and recapture Zacynthos (Ionian Islands). He then invaded Aetolia from the north, sacking the Aetolian federal sanctuary at Thermum.
The defeats of 207 and the lack of Roman support convinced the Aetolians that it was time to make peace. In the autumn of 206, and in violation of their alliance with Rome, the Aetolian League made peace with Philip. Most of the areas lost to Philip during the fighting remained lost, including most of Phocia. The Aetolians also earned the hostility of Rome.
The Romans made one more attempt to renew the war, sending the proconsul P. Sempronius Tuditanus to Illyria at the head of a force of 10,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. This army was too small to face Philip alone, and was clearly meant to encourage the Aetolians to resume the war, but without success.
Both sides now had little reason to continue the war. It was becoming clear to Philip that Carthage was going to lose its war with Rome – in 205 Scipio Africanus was preparing for his invasion of Africa of the following year. If Philip was willing to make peace on good terms, then Rome had no need to continue to fighting. When the magistrates of the Epirote confederacy offered to organise peace negotiations, the Romans agreed.
The negotiations took place at Phoenice. The resulting Peace of Phoenice, agreed in the autumn of 205, generally favoured Philip, allowing him to keep control of the Atintanes, one of Rome’s allies conquered earlier in the war. The peace was ratified by the Roman Senate and People at the end of 205, while Sempronius was elected consul.
Rome and Philip both had reason to be satisfied with the outcome of the war. Philip had expanded his influence in inland Illyria and in mainland Greece, while the Romans had prevented him from threatening the Illyrian coast or even Italy. The peace would be shortlived, and the Second Macedonian War would break out only five years later.
Macedonian Wars (215-146 B. C. E.)
A series of wars during which the Romans gained control over Greece and destroyed the Macedonian kingdom.
The First Macedonian War (215-205 B. C. E.)
In 215 B. C. E. the Macedonian king Philip V signed a treaty with the Carthaginian general Hannibal, who had invaded Italy. Thereupon Philip invaded Rome’s possessions in Illyria (Albania). Although the Romans succeeded in keeping the important city of Apollonia out of Philip’s hands, the war effort in Italy prevented them from intervening until 211 B. C. E., when the Romans allied with the Greek confederacy of Aetolia.
The Romans left land warfare to the Greeks, confining themselves largely to naval support. In the following years, Rome’s successes were mainly diplomatic. Several Greek states chose Rome’s side. Philip was driven out of Greece by diplomatic means. Then, during a lightning campaign, Philip defeated the Greeks and their Balkan tribal allies, recovered his position in Greece, and attacked Aetolia. The Aeolians sued for peace (206 B. C. E.) after their Spartan allies were defeated by the Achaeans. After an unsuccessful campaign in Illyria, the Romans did so as well. The Peace of Phoenice (205 B. C. E.) left Philip in possession of his conquests in Illyria.
The Second Macedonian War (200-197 B. C. E.)
In 200 B. C. E., war broke out again. The Romans landed in Illyria with two legions and marched inland. They failed to push through into Macedonia but did succeed in coercing several states to join the many Greek states that had already joined them.
In 199 B. C. E., an army of Greek allies raided Thessaly and southern Macedonia, but during a lightning campaign, Philip succeeded in fighting off both these invaders and Rome’s tribal allies on the Balkan frontier. In the following year, Philip took the initiative and moved his army into a strategic position, where he threatened the lines of communication of the Roman army in Illyria. The Romans assaulted Philip’s position, a costly but eventually successful campaign. Thereupon Philip retreated into Macedonia. In the meantime, the allies of Rome were successful at sea, and even more Greek states joined the Romans.
Philip advanced into Thessaly but was engaged by the Roman army before he had reached his objective. He was forced to do battle at Cynoscephalae and was defeated. He had to abandon all territories outside Macedonia and respect the independence of all Greek cities. The Romans assumed Macedonia’s role of dominant power in Greece.
The Third Macedonian War (171-168 B. C. E.)
The Romans felt threatened in their hegemony when King Perseus, the son of Philip V, again started to acquire influence in Greece. Unscrupulously taking advantage of Perseus’s diplomatic advances to avoid hostilities, they brought an army into Illyria and Greece. Perseus reacted with speed and outmaneuvered the Romans in Thessaly, cutting off their line of supplies.
In the meantime, the Romans alienated themselves from the Greeks by their brutality, heavy-handedness, and greed. Perseus, on the contrary, became increasingly popular. Moreover, he was successful, while the Romans suffered from bad discipline and command. Two invasions of Macedonia failed, and Perseus counterattacked, regaining territory and defeating Rome’s Balkan tribal allies. During the following winter (169 B. C. E.), he campaigned successfully against the Romans on Macedonia’s northwestern frontier and in Greece and Epirus.
In 168 B. C. E., the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus assumed command of the Roman army. The Romans decided to attack on three fronts: a naval offensive in the Aegean Sea, an offensive from the west from Illyria, and an offensive from Thessaly. After initial Macedonian success, Perseus met the Romans at Pydna. The well-deployed Macedonian phalanx attacked the unprepared Romans, but the Macedonian line became disrupted. The Romans counterattacked and broke the Macedonians. Perseus was captured and brought to Italy. Macedonia was divided into four republics, tributary to Rome.
The Fourth Macedonian War (146 B. C. E.)
The so-called Fourth Macedonian War was in fact an insurrection. The Macedonians had always been very loyal to their royal house, and in 152 B. C. E., a pretender to the throne named Andriscus aroused the Macedonians into a rebellion to reinstate the royal dynasty. The insurgents initially succeeded in defeating an army consisting of a Roman legion and local militia, though another Roman army soon crushed the revolt.
References and further reading: Errington, Robert Malcom. A History of Macedonia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lem Priere, and F. W. Walbank. A History of Macedonia. Vol. 3, 336-167 B. C. E. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. Walbank, Frank William. Philip V of Macedon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1940. Reprint, Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1967.
In 205 BC, the First Macedonian War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Phoenice, under the terms of which the Macedonians were not allowed to expand westwards. Rome, meanwhile, was preoccupied with Carthage, and Philip hoped to take advantage of this to seize control of the Greek world. He knew that his ambitions would be aided by an alliance with Crete and began pressing the Cretans to attack Rhodian assets.  Having crushed Pergamum, the dominant Greek state in Asia Minor, and formed an alliance with Aetolia, Philip was now opposed by no major Greek power other than Rhodes. Rhodes, an island state that dominated the south-eastern Mediterranean economically and militarily, was formally allied to Philip, but was also allied to his enemy Rome.  Furthermore, Philip worked towards consolidating his position as the major power in the Balkans. Marching his forces to Macedon's northern frontier, he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Illyrians, who lost 10,000 men in battle.  With his northern frontier secured, Philip was able to turn his attention towards the Aegean Sea.
The Treaty of Phoenice prohibited Philip from expanding westward into Illyria or the Adriatic Sea, so the king turned his attentions eastwards to the Aegean Sea, where he started to build a large fleet. 
Philip saw two ways of shaking Rhodes' dominance of the sea: piracy and war. Deciding to use both methods, he encouraged his allies to begin pirate attacks against Rhodian ships. Having already a foothold in Crete since the Lyttian War, Philip convinced the Cretans, who had been involved in piracy for a long time. He also persuaded the Aetolians, and the Spartans to take part in the piracy. The lure for these nations was the promise of vast loot from captured Rhodian vessels.  He sent the Aetolian freebooter Dicaearchus on a large razzia through the Aegean, during the course of which he plundered the Cyclades and Rhodian territories.  Additionally, Philip sought to weaken the Rhodians' naval capacity through subterfuge. He achieved this by sending his agent Heracleides to Rhodes where he succeeded in burning 13 boat-sheds. 
By the end of 205 BC, Rhodes had been significantly weakened by these raids, and Philip saw his chance to go forward with the second part of his plan, direct military confrontation. He convinced the cities of Hierapytna and Olous and other cities in Eastern Crete to declare war against Rhodes. 
Rhodes' initial response to the declaration of war was diplomatic they asked the Roman Republic for help against Philip. The Romans, however, were wary of another war, the Second Punic War having just ended. The Roman Senate attempted to persuade the populace to enter the war, even after Pergamum, Cyzicus and Byzantium had joined the war on the Rhodians side, but was unable to sway the city's war-weary population. 
At this point Philip further provoked Rhodes by attacking Cius, which was an Aetolian-allied city on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.  Despite attempts by Rhodes and other states to mediate a settlement, Philip captured and razed Cius as well as its neighbour Myrleia.  Philip then handed these cities over to his brother-in-law, the King of Bithynia, Prusias I who rebuilt and renamed the cities Prusa after himself and Apameia after his wife, respectively. In return for these cities Prusias promised that he would continue on expanding his kingdom at the expense of Pergamum (his latest war with Pergamum had ended in 205). The seizure of these cities also enraged the Aetolians, as both were members of the Aetolian League. The alliance between Aetolia and Macedon was held together only by the Aetolians' fear of Philip, and this incident worsened the already tenuous relationship.  Philip next compelled the cities of Lysimachia and Chalcedon, which were also members of the Aetolian League, to break off their alliance with Aetolia probably through the threatened use of violence. 
On the way home, Philip's fleet stopped at the island of Thasos off the coast of Thrace. Philip's general Metrodorus, went to the island's eponymous capital to meet emissaries from the city. The envoys said they would surrender the city to the Macedonians on the conditions that they not receive a garrison, that they not have to pay tribute or contribute soldiers to the Macedonian army and that they continue to use their own laws.  Metrodorus replied that the king accepted the terms, and the Thasians opened their gates to the Macedonians. Once within the walls, however, Philip ordered his soldiers to enslave all the citizens, who were then sold away, and to loot the city.  Philip's action during this campaign had a drastic impact on his reputation amongst the Greek states, where his actions were considered to be no better than the savage raids of the Aetolians and the Romans during the First Macedonian War. 
In 204 BC or the spring of 203 BC, Philip was approached by Sosibius and Agathocles of Egypt, the ministers of the young pharaoh Ptolemy V.  The ministers sought to arrange a marriage between Ptolemy and Philip's daughter in order to form an alliance against Antiochus III the Great, emperor of the Seleucid Empire, who was seeking to expand his empire at Egypt's expense. Philip, however, declined the proposal and in the winter of 203–202 BC, he formed an alliance with Antiochus and organised the partition of the Ptolemaic Empire.  Philip agreed to help Antiochus to seize Egypt and Cyprus, while Antiochus promised to help Philip take control of Cyrene, the Cyclades and Ionia. 
In late 202 BC, the Aetolians sent ambassadors to Rome in order to form an alliance against Philip. Macedonian aggression had convinced the Aetolian League that they needed additional protectors in order to maintain their current position. However, the Romans rebuffed the Aetolian envoys as they were still seething about the fact that the Aetolians had come to terms with Philip to end the First Macedonian War.  The unsupportive attitude of Rome encouraged Philip to continue with his Aegean campaign. Philip considered control of the Aegean to be paramount in maintaining his regional dominance. By ruling the Aegean he would be able to isolate Pergamum as well as restrict Roman attempts to interfere in the Eastern Mediterranean. 
With the Seleucid treaty concluded, Philip's army attacked Ptolemy's territories in Thrace. Upon hearing that the King of Pergamum, Attalus I, had joined the Rhodian alliance, Philip became enraged and invaded Pergamese territory.  However, before having set out to campaign against Philip's navy in the Aegean Sea, Attalus had strengthened the city walls of his capital. By taking this and other precautions, he hoped to prevent Philip from a seizing a large amount of booty from his territory. Seeing that the city was undermanned, he sent his skirmishers against it, but they were easily repelled.  Judging that the city walls were too strong, Philip retreated after destroying a few temples, including the temple of Aphrodite and the sanctuary of Athena Nicephorus.  After the Macedonians captured Thyatira, they advanced to plunder the plain of Thebe, but the booty proved less fruitful than anticipated. Once he arrived at Thebe, he demanded supplies from the Seleucid governor of the region, Zeuxis. Zeuxis, however, never planned to give Philip substantial supplies. 
After withdrawing from Pergamese land, Philip with the Macedonian fleet headed south and after subduing the Cyclades, took the island of Samos from Ptolemy V, capturing the Egyptian fleet stationed there.  The fleet then turned north and laid siege to the island of Chios. Philip was planning to use the northern Aegean islands as stepping-stones as he worked his way down to Rhodes. The siege was not going well for Philip and the situation worsened as the combined fleets of Pergamum, Rhodes and their new allies, Kos, Cyzicus and Byzantium approached from both the north and south.  Philip, comprehending that the allies were attempting to seal his line of retreat, lifted the siege and began to sail for a friendly harbour.  However, he was confronted by the allied fleet, precipitating the Battle of Chios.
The Macedonian fleet of around 200 ships, manned by 30,000 men, significantly outnumbered the coalition's fleet of sixty-five large warships, nine medium vessels and three triremes.  The battle began with Attalus, who was commanding the allied left wing, advancing against the Macedonian right wing, while the allied right flank under the command of the Rhodian admiral Theophiliscus attacked the Macedonian's left wing. The allies gained the upper hand on their left flank and captured Philip's flagship Philip's admiral, Democrates, was slain in the fighting.  Meanwhile, on the allied right flank, the Macedonians were initially successful in pushing the Rhodians back. Theophiliscus, fighting on his flagship, received three fatal wounds but managed to rally his men and defeat the Macedonian boarders. The Rhodians were able to use their superior navigational skills to incapacitate large numbers of Macedonian ships, swinging the battle back into their favour. 
On the allied left flank, Attalus saw one of his ships being sunk by the enemy and the one next to it in danger.  He decided to sail to the rescue with two quadriremes and his flagship. Philip, however, whose ship had not been involved in the fighting to this point, saw that Attalus had strayed some distance from his fleet and sailed to attack him with four quinqueremes and three hemioliae.  Attalus, seeing Philip approaching, fled in terror and was forced to run his ships aground. Upon landing he spread coins, purple robes and other splendid articles on the deck of his ship and fled to the city of Erythrae. When the Macedonians arrived at the shore, they stopped to collect the plunder. Philip, thinking that Attalus had perished in the chase, started towing away the Pergamese flagship. 
Following the flight of their monarch, the Pergamese fleet withdrew north. However, having been bested by the Rhodians on the allied right wing, the Macedonian left wing disengaged and retreated to join its victorious right flank. The withdrawal of the Macedonian left permitted the Rhodians to sail unmolested back into Chios' harbour. 
While the battle was not decisive, it was a significant setback for Philip, who lost 92 ships destroyed and 7 captured.  On the allied side, the Pergamese had three ships destroyed and two captured, while the Rhodians lost three ships sunk and none captured. During the battle the Macedonians lost 6,000 rowers and 3,000 marines killed and had 2,000 men captured. The casualties for the allies were significantly lower, with the Pergamese losing 70 men the Rhodians 60 killed, the allies as a whole losing 600 captured.  Peter Green describes this defeat as "crippling and costly", with Philip sustaining more casualties than he had previously suffered in any battle. 
After this battle, the Rhodian admirals decided to leave Chios and sail back home. On the way back to Rhodes, the Rhodian admiral Theophiliscus died of the wounds he received at Chios, but before he died he appointed Cleonaeus as his successor.  As the Rhodian fleet was sailing in the strait between Lade and Miletus on the shore of Asia Minor, Philip's fleet attacked them. Philip defeated the Rhodian fleet in the Battle of Lade and forced it to retreat back to Rhodes.  The Milesians were impressed by the victory and sent Philip and Heracleides garlands of victory when they entered Milesian territory as did the city of Hiera Cone. 
Philip, disappointed by the spoils in Mysia, proceeded south and plundered the towns and cities of Caria. He invested Prinassus, which held out bravely at first, but when Philip set up his artillery, he sent an envoy into the city offering to let them leave the city unharmed or they would all be killed. The citizens decided to abandon the city.  At this stage in the campaign, Philip's army was running out of food, so he seized the city of Myus and gave it to the Magnesians in return for food supplies. Since the Magnesians had no grain, Philip settled for enough figs to feed his whole army.  Subsequently, Philip turned north in order to seize and garrison the cities of Iasos, Bargylia, Euromus and Pedasa in quick succession. 
While Philip's fleet was wintering in Bargylia, the combined Pergamese and Rhodian fleet blockaded the harbour. The situation in the Macedonian camp became so grave that the Macedonians were close to surrendering.  The dire situation was alleviated somewhat by supplies sent by Zeuxis.  Philip, however, managed to get out by trickery. He sent an Egyptian deserter to Attalus and the Rhodians to say that he was preparing to attack the allies the next day. Upon hearing the news, Attalus and the Rhodians started preparing the fleet for the oncoming attack.  While the allies were making their preparations, Philip slipped past them by night with his fleet, leaving numerous campfires burning to give the appearance that he remained in his camp. 
While Philip was involved in this campaign, his allies the Acarnanians became involved in a war against Athens after the Athenians murdered two Acarnanian athletes.  The Acarnanians complained to Philip about this provocation, and he decided to send a force under the command of Nicanor the Elephant to assist them in their attack on Attica.  The Macedonians and their allies plundered and looted Attica before attacking Athens.  The invaders made it as far as the Academy of Athens when the Roman ambassadors in the city ordered the Macedonians to retreat or to face war with Rome. 
Philip's fleet had just escaped from the allied blockade and Philip ordered that a squadron head to Athens. The Macedonian squadron sailed into Piraeus and captured four Athenian ships.  As the Macedonian squadron was retreating, the Rhodian and Pergamese fleet, which had followed Philip's ships across the Aegean, appeared from the allied base at Aegina and attacked the Macedonians. The allies defeated the Macedonian fleet and recaptured the Athenian ships, which they returned to the Athenians.  The Athenians were so pleased by the rescue that they replaced the recently abolished pro-Macedonian tribes, the Demetrias and Antigonis tribes, with the Attalid tribe in honour of Attalus as well as destroying monuments that had previously been erected in honour of Macedonian Kings.  Attalus and the Rhodians convinced the Athenian assembly to declare war on the Macedonians. 
The Pergamese fleet sailed back to their base at Aegina and the Rhodians set out to conquer all the Macedonian islands from Aegina to Rhodes, successfully assaulting all except Andros, Paros and Cythnos.  Philip ordered his prefect on the island of Euboea, Philoces, to assault Athens once again with 2,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. Philocles was unable to capture Athens, but ravaged the surrounding countryside. 
Meanwhile, Rhodian, Pergamese, Egyptian, anti-Macedonian Cretan and Athenian delegations travelled to Rome to appear before the Senate.  When they were given audience they informed the Senate about the treaty between Philip and Antiochus and complained of Philip's attacks on their territories. In response to these complaints the Romans sent three ambassadors, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Gaius Claudius Nero and Publius Sempronius Tuditanus to Egypt with the orders to go to Rhodes after speaking with Ptolemy. 
While this was happening, Philip attacked and occupied the cities in Thrace which still belonged to Ptolemy, Maroneia, Cypsela, Doriscus, Serrheum and Aemus. The Macedonians then advanced on the Thracian Chersonese where they captured the cities of Perinthus, Sestos, Elaeus, Alopeconnesus, Callipolis and Madytus.  Philip then descended to the city of Abydos, which was held by a combined Pergamese and Rhodian garrison. Philip started the siege by blockading the city by land and sea to stop attempts to reinforce or supply the city. The Abydenians, full of confidence, dislodged some of the siege engines with their own catapults while some of Philip's other engines were burnt by the defenders. With their siege weaponry in tatters, the Macedonians started undermining the city's walls, eventually succeeding in collapsing the outer wall. 
The situation was now grave for the defenders and they decided to send two of their most prominent citizens to Philip as negotiators. Appearing before Philip, these men offered to surrender the city to him on the conditions that the Rhodian and the Pergamese garrisons were allowed to leave the city under a truce and that all the citizens were permitted to leave the city with the clothes they were wearing and go wherever they pleased, in effect meaning an unconditional surrender.  Philip replied that they should "surrender at discretion or fight like men."  The ambassadors, powerless to do more, carried this response back to the city.' 
Informed of this response, the city's leaders called an assembly to determine their course of action. They decided to liberate all slaves to secure their loyalty, to place all the children and their nurses in the gymnasium and to put all the women in the temple of Artemis. They also asked for everyone to bring forward their gold and silver and any clothes that were valuable so they could put them in the boats of the Rhodians and the Cyzicenes.  Fifty elder and trusted men were elected to carry out these tasks. All the citizens then swore an oath. As Polybius writes:
. whenever they saw the inner wall being captured by the enemy, they would kill the children and women, and would burn the above mentioned ships, and, in accordance with the curses that had been invoked, would throw the silver and gold into the sea. 
After reciting the oath, they brought forward the priests and everyone swore that they would defeat the enemy or die trying.' 
When the interior wall fell, the men, true to their promise, sprang from the ruins and fought with great courage, forcing Philip to send his troops forward in relays to the front line. By nightfall the Macedonians retreated to camp. That night the Abydenians resolved to save the women and children and at daybreak they sent some priests and priestess with a garland across to the Macedonians, surrendering the city to Philip. 
Meanwhile, Attalus sailed across the Aegean to the island of Tenedos. The youngest of the Roman ambassadors, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, had heard about the siege at Abydos while he was in Rhodes and he arrived at Abydos to find Philip. Meeting the king outside the city, Lepidus informed him of the Senate's wishes.  Polybius writes:
The Senate had resolved to order him not to wage war with any Greek state nor to interfere in the dominions of Ptolemy and to submit the injuries inflicted on Attalus and the Rhodians to arbitration and that if he did so he might have peace, but if he refused to obey he would promptly have war with Rome." Upon Philip endeavoring to show that the Rhodians had been the first to lay hands on him, Marcus interrupted him by saying: "But what about the Athenians? And what about the Cianians? And what about the Abydenians at this moment? Did any one of them also lay hands on you first?" The king, at a loss for a reply, said: "I pardon the offensive haughtiness of your manners for three reasons: first, because you are a young man and inexperienced in affairs secondly, because you are the handsomest man of your time" (this was true) "and thirdly, because you are a Roman. But for my part, my first demand to the Romans is that they should not break their treaties or go to war with me but if they do, I shall defend myself as courageously as I can, appealing to the gods to defend my cause. 
While Philip was walking through Abydos, he saw people killing themselves and their families by stabbing, burning, hanging, and jumping down wells and from rooftops. Philip was surprised to see this, and published a proclamation announcing that would give three days' grace to anybody wishing to commit suicide.  The Abydenians, who were bent on following the orders of the original decree, thought that this would amount to treason to the people who had already died, and refused to live under these terms. Apart from those in chains or similar restraints, each family individually hurried to their deaths. 
Philip then ordered another attack on Athens his army failed to take either Athens or Eleusis, but subjected Attica to the worst ravaging the Atticans had seen since the Persian Wars.  In response, the Romans declared war on Philip and invaded his territories in Illyria. Philip was forced to abandon his Rhodian and Pergamese campaign in order to deal with the Romans and the situation in Greece. Thus began the Second Macedonian War. 
After Philip's withdrawal from his campaign against Rhodes, the Rhodians were free to attack Olous and Hierapytna and their other Cretan allies. Rhodes' search for allies in Crete bore fruit when the Cretan city of Knossos saw that the war was going in Rhodes' favour and decided to join Rhodes in an attempt to gain supremacy over the island.  Many other cities in central Crete subsequently joined Rhodes and Knossos against Hierapytna and Olous. Now under attack on two fronts, Hierapytna surrendered. 
Under the treaty signed at the conclusion of the war, Hierapytna agreed to break off all relations and alliances with foreign powers and to place all its harbors and bases at Rhodes' disposal. Olous, among the ruins of which the terms of the treaty have been found, had to accept Rhodian domination.  As a result, Rhodes was left with control of a significant part of eastern Crete after the war. The conclusion of the war left the Rhodians free to help their allies in the Second Macedonian War.
The war had no particular short-term effect on the rest of Crete. Pirates and mercenaries there continued in their old occupations after the war's end. In the Battle of Cynoscephalae during the Second Macedonian War three years later, Cretan mercenary archers fought for both the Romans and the Macedonians. 
The war was costly for Philip and the Macedonians, losing them a fleet that had taken three years to build as well as triggering the defection of their Greek allies, the Achean League and the Aetolian League, to the Romans. In the war's immediate aftermath the Dardani, a barbarian tribe, swarmed across the northern border of Macedon, but Philip was able to repel this attack.  In 197, however, Philip was defeated in the Battle of Cynoscephalae by the Romans and was forced to surrender.  This defeat cost Philip most of his territory outside Macedon and he had to pay a war indemnity of 1,000 talents of silver to the Romans. 
The Rhodians regained control over the Cyclades and reconfirmed their naval supremacy over the Aegean. The Rhodians' possession of eastern Crete allowed them to largely stamp out piracy in that area, but pirate attacks on Rhodian shipping continued and eventually led to the Second Cretan War.  Attalus died in 197 and was succeeded by his son, Eumenes II, who continued his father's anti-Macedonian policy. The Pergamese, meanwhile, came out of the war having gained several Aegean islands which had been in Philip's possession and went on to become the supreme power in Asia Minor, rivaled only by Antiochus. 
From Naupactus, Sulpicius sailed east to Corinth and Sicyon, conducting raids there. Philip, with his cavalry caught the Romans ashore and was able to drive them back to their ships, with the Romans returning to Naupactus.
Philip then joined Cycliadas the Achaean general, near Dyme for a joint attack on the city of Elis, the main Aetolian base of operations against Achaea. However, Sulpicius had sailed into Cyllene and reinforced Elis with 4000 Romans. Leading a charge, Philip was thrown from his horse. Fighting on foot Philip became the object of a fierce battle, finally escaping on another horse. The next day Philip captured the stronghold of Phyricus, taking 4000 prisoners and 20,000 animals. Hearing news of Illyrian incursions in the north Philip abandoned Aetolia and returned to Demetrias in Thessaly.
Meanwhile, Sulpicius sailed round into the Aegean and joined Attalus on Aegina for the winter. In 208 BC the combined fleet of thirty-five Pergamene and twenty-five Roman ships failed to take Lemnos, but occupied and plundered the countryside of the island of Peparethos (Skopelos), both Macedonian possessions.
Attalus and Sulpicius then attended a meeting in Heraclea Trachinia of the Council of the Aetolians which included representatives from Egypt and Rhodes, who were continuing to try to arrange a peace. Learning of the conference and the presence of Attalus, Philip marched rapidly south in an attempt to break up the conference and catch the enemy leaders, but arrived too late.
Surrounded by foes, Philip was forced to adopt a defensive policy. He distributed his commanders and forces and set up a system of beacon fires at various high places to communicate instantly any enemy movements.
After leaving Heraclea, Attalus and Sulpicius sacked both Oreus, on the northern coast of Euboea and Opus, the chief city of eastern Locris. The spoils from Oreus had been reserved for Sulpicius, who returned there, while Attalus stayed to collect the spoils from Opus. However, with their forces divided, Philip, alerted by signal fire, attacked and took Opus. Attalus caught by surprise was barely able to escape to his ships.
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First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate. View Historic Battle »
Demetrius urges war against Rome: According to the ancient Greek historian Polybius, an important factor in Philip's decision to take advantage of this opportunity was the influence of Demetrius of Pharos.
Philip makes peace with Aetolia: Philip, at once began negotiations with the Aetolians. At a conference on the coast near Naupactus, Philip met the Aetolian leaders, and a peace treaty was concluded.
Philip builds a fleet: Philip spent the winter of 217–216 BC building a fleet of 100 warships and training men to row them, and according to Polybius, it was a practice that "hardly any Macedonian king had ever done before".
Philip allies with Carthage: After hearing of Rome's disastrous defeat at the hands of Hannibal at Cannae in 216 BC, Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal's camp in Italy to negotiate an alliance.
War breaks out in Illyria: Upon receiving word from Oricum of events in Illyria, Laevinus crossed over with his fleet and army. Landing at Oricum, Laevinus was able to retake the town with little fighting.
Rome seeks allies in Greece: Desiring to prevent Philip from aiding Carthage in Italy and elsewhere, Rome sought out land allies in Greece.
Campaign in Greece: Upon hearing of the Roman alliance with Aetolia, Philip's first action was to secure his northern borders. He conducted raids in Illyria at Oricum and Apollonia and seized the frontier town of Sintia in Dardania or perhaps Paionia.
Attempt at peace fails: There he met representatives from the neutral states of Egypt, Rhodes, Athens and Chios who were trying to end the war—they were trading states and the war was likely hurting trade.
Hostilities resume: Philip, with his cavalry caught the Romans ashore and was able to drive them back to their ships, with the Romans returning to Naupactus.
The war ends: Free from the pressure of the combined Roman and Pergamon fleets, Philip was able to resume the offensive against the Aetolians.
First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)
Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) »
Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)
Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) »
Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)
In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. He was suspected of preparing for war against Rome by the Romans and their most important ally in the east, Eumenes II of Pergamon. View Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) »
Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)
The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Pretending to be the son of former king Perseus, who had been deposed by the Romans after the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC) »
First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate.
First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)
Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View Historic Battles »
Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)
Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Historic Battles »
Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)
In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. View Historic Battles »
Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)
Fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Historic Battles »
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
First Macedonian War 215-205 BC - History
Macedonian Wars 215-168 BC
The Macedonian Wars were fought between the Roman Republic and the Kingdom of Macedonia .
The Chapters of the Macedonian Wars
There were FOUR different conflicts:
First Macedonian War
The First Macedonian War was fought 215-205 BC .
Macedonian King Philip V allied with Hannibal from Carthage , who was himself involved in a war against Rome, the Second Punic War . Brilliant timing, thought Philip, and went ahead to invade Illyria, formerly under Roman domination. The Romans were unable to defend their territories. The Peace of Phoenice in 205 BC concluded the war.
The Macedonians won the First Macedonian War.
Second Macedonian War
The Second Macedonian War was fought 200-196 BC .
Philip kept going for more territories, the Romans told him to stop, Philip couldn't hear on that ear. The Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC was part of this war. Led by General Titus Quinctius Flamininus Rome won the battle and the war.
The Romans won the Second Macedonian War.
Third Macedonian War
The Third Macedonian War was fought 171-168 BC .
Rome noticed Philip's successor Perseus trying to ally himself with a number of Greek rulers. The Romans decided it was time for yet another war. Roman general Lucius Aemilius Paullus sent the Macedonians packing at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC.
To drive the point home, the Romans took Perseus prisoner and made Macedonia pay annual tribute.
The Romans won the Third Macedonian War.
Fourth Macedonian War
The Fourth Macedonian War was fought 149-148 BC .
Perseus' son Andriscus thought the arrangement with Rome stunk and hence the Fourth Macedonian War was next on the timeline.
Roman General Quintus Caecilius Metellus straightened the Macedonians out and Macedonia became a Roman province.
The Romans won the Fourth Macedonian War.
War breaks out in Illyria [ edit | edit source ]
In the late summer of 214 BC, Philip again attempted an Illyrian invasion by sea, with a fleet of 120 lembi. He captured Oricum which was lightly defended, and sailing up the Aous (modern Vjosë) river he besieged Apollonia. ⎟]
Meanwhile the Romans had moved the fleet from Tarentum to Brundisium to continue the watch on the movements of Philip and a legion had been sent in support, all under the command of the Roman propraetor Marcus Valerius Laevinus. ⎠] Upon receiving word from Oricum of events in Illyria, Laevinus crossed over with his fleet and army. Landing at Oricum, Laevinus was able to retake the town with little fighting.
In the account given by Livy, ⎡] Laevinus, hearing that Apollonia was under siege, sent 2000 men under the command of Quintus Naevius Crista, to the mouth of the river. Avoiding Philip's army, Crista was able to enter the city by night unobserved. The following night, catching Philip's forces by surprise, he attacked and routed their camp. Philip, escaping to his ships in the river, made his way over the mountains and back to Macedonia, having burned his fleet and left many thousands of his men that had died or been taken prisoner, along with all of his armies' possessions, behind. Laevinus and his fleet wintered at Oricum.
Twice thwarted in attempts at invasion of Illyria by sea, and now constrained by Laevinus' fleet in the Adriatic, Philip spent the next two years 213–212 BC making advances in Illyria by land. Keeping clear of the coast, he took the inland towns of Atintania, and Dimale, and subdued the Greek ⎢] tribe of the Dassaretae and the Illyrian Parthini ⎣] and at least the southern Ardiaei. ⎤]
He was finally able to gain access to the Adriatic by capturing Lissus and its seemingly impregnable citadel, after which the surrounding territories surrendered. ⎥] Perhaps the capture of Lissus rekindled in Philip hopes of an Italian invasion. ⎦] However the loss of his fleet meant that Philip would be dependent on Carthage for passage to and from Italy, making the prospect of invasion considerably less appealing.
First Macedonian War
Following the death of Pyrrhus of Epirus at the Battle of Argos in 272 BC, Antigonus II Gonatas was firmly in control of Macedon, and has also established hegemony over the Greek city-states. He then did his best to maintain his control over his homeland, raising a great sacred mound to honor the Argead house, reorganized the provincial system to increase its efficiency, and was vigilant in keeping Macedonian coinage a high-quality currency. He extensively utilized the great Antigonid fleet and the naval fortresses of Demetrias, Chalcis, and Corinth to ferry troops to strategic locations. An Athenian-led, Ptolemaic-supported attempt at shaking off Macedonian domination in the Chremonidean War of 267-261 BC failed, but crucial fortresses such as Acrocorinth were lost during his reign, which ended on his death in 239 BC. His successor, Demetrius II of Macedon, ruled for an uneventful decade, and he died in 229 BC. The late king's own son Philip V of Macedon came to the throne as a child, and a distant relative, Antigonus Doson, served as his regent. Doson raised Philip as his own son and energetically set to campaigning to beat back Macedon's enemies. He first expelled the Illyrians from the kingdom and then crushed the Aetolian League, and he renounced all Macedonian claims south of the Thermopylae pass to stabilize Macedon. Antigonus accepted the title of King by the army, and he appointed Philip his official heir. After another series of victories, including the first-ever seizure of Sparta by a foreign army, Doson died in 221 BC, leaving behind a resurgent, stable, and increasingly powerful Macedon to Philip V, who now ascended to the throne. From 220 to 217 BC, the Aetolian War saw the Aetolian League and its allies again challenge Macedonian hegemony, and it was at this time that Demetrius of Pharos arrived at Philip's court. Hannibal's victories over Rome in the Second Punic War led to Demetrius advising Philip to end the Social War and attack Italy himself to acquire hegemony over the Mediterranean. Accepting the military status quo and ending the war at Naupactus, Philip again drove the Illyrians from Macedon and, in the winter of 217 BC, he built a fleet of 100 light warships. In the summer of 216 BC, he made his first attempt at securing Illyria's coastal region, but the approach of a Roman fleet forced him to return home. After the Battle of Cannae, Philip sent an embassy to Hannibal to secure an alliance with Carthage, but the envoy, Xenophanes, was captured by a Roman praetor. Xenophanes claimed that he was travelling to Italy to make peace with Rome, and he was released however, he was captured again on his way back to Macedon with the treaty with Hannibal in hand, and the Romans were warned of the Macedonians' plans. Philip resumed his attacks on coastal Illyria, attacking Corcyra in 214 BC.
In 214 BC, Philip launched a major offensive. His land army marched into Illyria from Epirus as 120 galleys sailed up the Straits of Otranto, seizing Oricum and besieging Apollonia. The Illyrians called to Rome for help, and the Roman commander Marcus Valerius Laevinus crossed the Adriatic with 55 heavy warships and recaptured Apollonia and Oricum. After these victories, he wintered his fleet in Oricum while Philip burned his ships and retreated overland to Macedon. He then attacked through the Pindus mountains and made significant gains in 213-212 BC, taking the inland Dassaretis, Parthini, and Atintani tribal settlements without a significant Roman response, as Rome did not have the land troops to spare for a side venture. During the later part of 212 BC, when Philip once again reached the Adriatic, he seized Lissus, another possible staging point. Rome now acknowledged the Macedonian threat, so the Roman Senate began to use diplomacy as a weapon and enticed other Greek states to do the neutralizing for them. Rome allied with the Aetolian League, who would get any captured town or city in exchange for the booty going to the Romans. Sparta, Elis, Messenia, Illyria, and Pergamon also joined in the war, and the Romans took important centers such as Anticyra. Philip made little gains against the coalition, and, in 207 BC, Rome derailed peace talks. From 206 to 205 BC, the Macedonians were gradually forced into peace, and hostilities were temporarily concluded.
Campaign in Greece
Later that summer, Laevinus seized the main town of Zacynthus, except for its citadel, the Acarnanian town of Oeniadae and the island of Nasos, which he handed over to the Aetolians. He then withdrew his fleet to Corcyra for the winter.
Upon hearing of the Roman alliance with Aetolia, Philip’s first action was to secure his northern borders. He conducted raids in Illyria at Oricum and Apollonia and seized the frontier town of Sintia in Dardania or perhaps Paionia. He then marched rapidly south through Pelagonia, Lyncestis and Bottiaea and on to Tempe which he garrisoned with 4,000 men. He turned north again into Thrace, attacking the Maedi and their chief city Iamphorynna before returning to Macedon.
No sooner had Philip arrived there when he received an urgent plea for help from his ally the Acarnanians. Scopas the Aetolian strategos (general) had mobilised the Aetolian army and was preparing to invade Acarnania. Desperate and overmatched, but determined to resist, the Acarnanians sent their women, children and old men to seek refuge in Epirus and the rest marched to the frontier, having sworn an oath to fight to the death, “invoking a terrible curse” upon any who were forsworn. Hearing of the Acarnanians’ grim determination, the Aetolians hesitated then, learning of Philip’s approach, finally abandoned their invasion, after which Philip retired to Pella for the winter.
In the spring of 210 BC, Laevinus again sailed from Corcyra with his fleet and, together with the Aetolians, captured Phocian Anticyra. Rome enslaved the inhabitants and Aetolia took possession of the town.
Although there was some fear of Rome and concern with her methods, the coalition arrayed against Philip continued to grow. As allowed for by the treaty, Pergamon, Elis and Messenia, followed by Sparta, all agreed to join the alliance against Macedon. The Roman fleet, together with the Pergamene fleet, controlled the sea, and Macedon and her allies were threatened on land by the rest of the coalition. The Roman strategy of encumbering Philip with a war among Greeks in Greece was succeeding, so much so that when Laevinus went to Rome to take up his consulship, he was able to report that the legion deployed against Philip could be safely withdrawn.
However, the Eleans, Messenians and Spartans remained passive throughout 210 BC and Philip continued to make advances. He invested and took Echinus, using extensive siegeworks, having beaten back an attempt to relieve the town by the Aetolian strategos Dorimachus and the Roman fleet, now commanded by the proconsul Publius Sulpicius Galba. Moving west, Philip probably also took Phalara the port city of Lamia, in the Maliac Gulf. Sulpicius and Dorimachus took Aegina, an island in the Saronic Gulf, which the Aetolians sold to Attalus, the Pergamene king, for thirty talents, and which he was to use as his base of operations against Macedon in the Aegean Sea.
In the spring of 209 BC, Philip received requests for help from his ally the Achaean League in the Peloponnesus who were being attacked by Sparta and the Aetolians. He also heard that Attalus had been elected one of the two supreme commanders of the Aetolian League, as well as rumours that he intended to crossover the Aegean from Asia Minor. Philip marched south into Greece. At Lamia he was met by an Aetolian force, supported by Roman and Pergamene auxiliaries, under the command of Attalus’ colleague as strategos, the Aetolian Pyrrhias. Philip won two battles at Lamia, inflicting heavy casualties on Pyrrhias’ troops. The Aetolians and their allies were forced to retreat inside the city walls, where they remained, unwilling to give battle.
When did Rome defeat Macedonia?
They caused increasing involvement by Rome in Greek affairs and helped lead to Roman domination of the entire eastern Mediterranean area. The First Macedonian War (215&ndash205 bc) occurred in the context of the Second Punic War, while Rome was preoccupied with fighting Carthage.
Also Know, is Macedonia in Rome? The Roman province of Macedonia (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: ?&pi&alpha&rho&chiί&alpha &Mu&alpha&kappa&epsilon&delta&omicron&nuί&alpha&sigmaf) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (
People also ask, who won the Macedonian war?
The First Macedonian War (214&ndash205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218&ndash201 BC) against Carthage.
First Macedonian War.
|Location||Macedonia and Illyria|
|Result||Stalemate Peace of Phoenice|
How did the Romans defeated the Macedonian phalanx?
No matter if it was a Macedonian phalanx they attacked, nor a huge Spartan line, they would most probably win. The Romans used javelin attacks before their lines rushed the enemy, in an effort to try and break the enemy line. The Roman is now in front of the Macedonian and uses his sword to kill the pikeman.