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Fluminense politician and military (1833-1891). One of the founders of the Republic, he is the author of the Order and Progress motto of the Brazilian flag.
Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhães (18/10 / 1833-22 / 1/1891) is born in Niterói and in 18) 2 joins the Army. He studies engineering at the Central School and astronomy at the Rio de Janeiro Observatory, at the same time he teaches mathematics at the Imperial Colégio Pedro II. In 1887 founds the Military Club, important center of republican propaganda of which it becomes president. On November 9, 1889 he presides over the session in which members of the Military Club decide to overthrow the monarchy. After the proclamation of the Republic, he assumed the portfolio of war in the provisional government and, in 1890, was acclaimed Brigadier General at a public rally. That same year, he heads the Ministry of Public Education, Post and Telegraphs. It elaborates a reform in the teaching based on the principles of the positivism, philosophical current that considered the education an nullifying practice of the social tensions. Dies in Rio de Janeiro.