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Battle of Faventia, 82 BC

Battle of Faventia, 82 BC


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Battle of Faventia, 82 BC

The battle of Faventia (82 BC) saw the total failure of an attempt by Carbo to launch a surprise attack on Sulla's commander in the north of Italy, Metellus Pius. Soon afterwards Carbo gave up the fight and fled to Africa, leaving the Marian cause almost leaderless in Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

At the start of the campaign of 82 BC the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo had operated in the north of Italy, while his co-consul, the younger Marius, faced Sulla to the south of Rome. Marius suffered a heavy defeat at the battle of Sacriportus, and had to retreat into Praeneste, where he was besieged by Sulla's forces. Carbo retreated back towards Rome, but the city fell to Sulla, and Carbo ended up at Clusium, about eighty miles to the north. Sulla advanced north from Rome, defeated a cavalry detachment from Carbo's army on the Glanis River, and then fought an inconclusive day-long battle at Clusium (first battle of Clusium, 82 BC). At about the same time Pompey, who had followed Carbo from the north, defeated his lieutenant Carinnas at Spoletium. Carinnas was besieged in Spoletium and an attempt to lift the siege failed, but he was able to escape under cover of a storm.

Sulla was forced to abandon his attempts to defeat Carbo by news from the south, where the Samnites had decided to side with Carbo and Marius. A large Samnite army was threatening to intervene at Praeneste, and Sulla was forced to rush south to reinforce the troops already taking part in the siege.

Although Pompey had moved south, Sulla still had an army in the Po, commanded by Metellus Pius, based at Faventia (modern Faenza, just inside Cisalpine Gaul on the edge of the Po plains, a few miles north-west of Ariminum (Rimini). Carbo moved to Ariminum, and at some point up with Gaius Norbanus, one of the consuls for the previous year, and the first Marian general to be defeated by Sulla during the Civil War (battle of Casilinum, 83 BC).

Carbo and Norbanus planned to attack Metellus late in the day, one hour before nightfall. The attack turned into a disaster. Their route took them across a series of vineyards, and their men got caught up in the vines. The surprise clearly failed, and Metellus must have attacked while his opponents were still disordered. Appian reports that Carbo's army suffered 10,000 dead and 6,000 deserters and most of the rest of the force dispersed. Carbo and Norbanus only had 1,000 men under orders when they straggled back into Ariminum.

More bad news soon followed. Part of Norbanus's army was a legion of Lucanians (from southern Italy) under the command of Albinovanus. When these men learnt of the disaster at Faventia, they deserted to Metellus. Albinovanus didn't accompany them, but stayed with Norbanus. After a few days he got in touch with Sulla and offered to betray Norbanus in return for a promise of safety. He then invited Norbanus, his officers and some of Carbo's officers who had remained in the north to a feast. Norbanus didn't attend, and this saved his life (at least for the moment). In one of the oldest tricks in the book, Albinovanus massacred the Marian officers at the feast, and then fled to Sulla. At about the same time some of Norbanus's bases, including Ariminum, changed sides. Norbanus decided that the war was lost and fled into exile in Rhodes, where he later committed suicide after Sulla demanded his return to Rome.

Carbo was also becoming discouraged. He made one final attempt to lift the siege of Praeneste, sending Brutus Damasippus with two legions, but this also failed. News then arrived that Cisalpine Gaul had switched sides, and another of Carbo's forces in the Po valley was defeated near Placentia. Carbo decided that the war was lost, and fled to Africa, in the hope that he could revive his fortunes there.


The Goths were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe.

The Ostrogoths were a Roman-era Germanic people. In the 5th century, they followed the Visigoths in creating one of the two great Gothic kingdoms within the Roman Empire, based upon the large Gothic populations who had settled in the Balkans in the 4th century, having crossed the Lower Danube. While the Visigoths had formed under the leadership of Alaric I, the new Ostrogothic political entity which came to rule Italy was formed in the Balkans under the influence of the Amal Dynasty, the family of Theodoric the Great.

Totila, original name Baduila, was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552 AD. A skilled military and political leader, Totila reversed the tide of the Gothic War, recovering by 543 almost all the territories in Italy that the Eastern Roman Empire had captured from his Kingdom in 540.

Ildibad was a king of the Ostrogoths in Italy in 540�.

Teia, also known as Teja, Theia, Thila, Thela, and Teias, was the last Ostrogothic King of Italy. He led troops during the Battle of Busta Gallorum and had noncombatant Romans slaughtered in its aftermath. In late 552/early 553, he was killed during the Battle of Mons Lactarius. Archaeological records attesting to his rule show up in coinage found in former Transalpine Gaul.

Gesalic, Gesaleico in Spanish and Portuguese, Gesaleic in Catalan,, was a king of the Visigoths from 507 to 511, and died in 513. Although the illegitimate son of Alaric II, he had been elected king by the Visigoths after Alaric had been killed in battle by the Franks. Alaric's only legitimate son, Amalaric, was a child and too young to rule.

This is a chronology of warfare between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century BC. The series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, was one of many factors which led to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.

The Balt dynasty or Balth dynasty was the first ruling family of the Visigoths from 395 until 531. They led the Visigoths into the Western Roman Empire in its declining years.

The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy, was established by the Germanic Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.

Amalafrida, was the daughter of Theodemir, king of the Ostrogoths, and his wife Erelieva. She was the sister of Theodoric the Great, and mother of Theodahad, both of whom also were kings of the Ostrogoths.

The Gothic Wars were a long series of conflicts against the Roman Empire between the years 249 and 554. The main wars are detailed below.

Valamir or Valamer was an Ostrogothic king in the ancient country of Pannonia from AD 447 until his death. During his reign, he fought alongside the Huns against the Roman Empire and then, after Attila the Hun's death, fought against the Huns to consolidate his independent control over a large group of Goths.

The Goths, Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians were East Germanic groups who appear in Roman records in Late Antiquity. At times these groups warred against or allied with the Roman Empire, the Huns, and various Germanic tribes.

The Battle of Marcianople or Marcianopolis took place in 376 following the Goths' migration over the Danube. It was the first notable battle of the Gothic War of 376�.

Valaris was a Gothic soldier who fought for the Ostrogoths against the Eastern Roman Empire in the Gothic War.

Coccas was an Eastern Roman soldier who deserted to the Ostrogoths during the final stages of the Gothic War. Procopius calls him "a Roman soldier" and "a man of the Gothic army". His name is not Germanic, and might be Thracian.

The Battle of Treviso was an engagement in 541 near Treviso, Italy, between Ostrogoths and Byzantines during the Gothic War.

Anzalas was an Armenian soldier and retainer of Narses who fought for the Eastern Roman against the Ostrogoth kingdom in the Gothic Wars.

The Battle of Horreum Margi was fought between the Ostrogothic Kingdom and the Eastern Roman Empire in 505. The battle took place as the Ostrogothic Kingdom was expanding into the Balkans, eventually encroaching upon Eastern Roman territory. In this endeavor they were led by the general Pitzias and had allied themselves with the Hunnic-Gepidic robber-chieftain Mundo. As a response, the Eastern Roman Empire sent Sabinianus with a large force of Bulgars. At Horreum Margi, modern-day Ćuprija, Serbia, Sabinuanus was defeated.

The battle of Scardon was a battle during the Gothic War of Justinian I, near Skradin. In it a Roman force under Constantinianus defeated an Ostrogothic force under Uligisalus. After Asinarius approached with a combined Suevi-Gothic army Constantinianus retreated to Salona to which the Goths laid siege.


Contents

Faenza, at the foot of the first sub-apennine hills, is surrounded by an agricultural region including vineyards in the hills, and cultivated land with traces of the ancient Roman land-division system, and fertile market gardens in the plains. In the nearby green valleys of the rivers Samoggia and Lamone there are great number of 18th and 19th century stately homes, set in extensive grounds or preceded by long cypress-lined driveways.

According to mythology, the name of the first settlement, Faoentia, had Etruscan and Celtic roots, meaning in Latin "Splendeo inter deos" or "I shine among the gods," in modern English. The very name, coming from the Romans who developed this center under the name of Faventia, has become synonymous with ceramics (majolica) in various languages, including French (faïence) and English (faience).

From the second half of the 1st century AD the city flourished considerably as a result of its agricultural propensities and the development of industrial activities such as the production of everyday pottery and brickwork objects and linen textiles.

Here Totila and an Ostrogothic army defeated the Byzantine army in Italy in the Battle of Faventia in 542 CE.

After a period of decadence from the 2nd century to the early Middle Ages it regained prosperity from the 8th century on. Around the year 1000 with the government of the Bishops and subsequently in the age of the Comune the city began a long period of richness and building expansion which reached its peak with the rule of the Manfredi family. The first consuls were elected in 1141 and in 1155 a podestà was in charge of government of the city. In the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines that began in the following years Faenza was at first loyal to the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1178, however, it changed side and entered the Lombard League. The inner disputes anyway favoured acquisition of power by Maghinardo Pagano, who remained podestà and capitano del popolo for several years.

At the beginning of the 14th century the Guelph Manfredi began a rule over Faenza that was to last for almost two centuries. The peak of splendour was reached under Carlo II Manfredi, in the second half of the century, when the city centre was renewed. In 1488 Galeotto Manfredi was assassinated by his wife: his son Astorre III succeeded him, but was in turn killed in Rome as a prisoner of Cesare Borgia, who had captured Faenza in 1501.

After a brief period of Venetian domination Faenza became part of the Papal States until 1797.

Faenza lost 1,322 of its citizens during World War II. After months of bombings and a bloody battle was finally liberated by the New Zealand Army (2nd New Zealand Division) on 17 December 1944.

Faenza's architectural attractions are concentrated in the two contiguous main squares: Piazza del Popolo, lined by two double order porticoed wings, and Piazza della Libertà.

Religious buildings Edit

    : located along the east side of Piazza della Libertà. Influenced by Tuscan style, it is one of the highest expressions of Renaissance art in Romagna. Built to Giuliano da Maiano's design, it was begun in 1474 and completed in 1511. The marble decoration of the façade remained unfinished. The interior, a nave and two aisles with obvious references to Brunelleschi's San Lorenzo in Florence, houses numerous works of Renaissance art, chiefly sculpture, among which are the tombs of St. Terence and St. Emilian (Tuscan school of the 15th century) and that of St. Savino, perhaps done in Florence by Benedetto da Maiano.

Secular buildings Edit

  • Palazzo del Podestà and the Town Hall, both of medieval origin, stand in Piazza del Popolo. The former was largely restored in the early 20th century while the latter — radically transformed in the 18th century — was the Palazzo of the Captain of the People and later the residence of the governing Manfredi family.
  • Goldsmiths' Portico opposite the Cathedral this open gallery and monumental fountain with bronzes were built in the first decade of the 17th century.
  • Clock Tower, in front of the entrance to the Piazza, is a postwar rebuilding of the 17th century tower that stood at the crossroad of the cardo and the decumanus gate of the Roman Faventia.

Among the other monuments of the historic centre are Palazzo Milzetti, the richest and most significant Neoclassical building in the region, and the Teatro Masini (1780–1787). In the nearby, the Villa Case Grandi dei Ferniani has a collection of 18th and 19th century Faenza ceramics.

Natural sites Edit

Grotta Tanaccia Karstic Park and the Carnè Natural Park, a vast green area with a visitor’s centre and refreshments, are also of great interest, characterized by a typical landscape of dolinas, ravines and swallow holes.

Faenza is home to the International Museum of Ceramics. The museum houses pieces from all over the world and from every epoch, from classical amphoras to the works of Chagall and Picasso, and there is a rich section dedicated to Faenza pottery in the golden age of the Renaissance. Other interesting art collections are located in the Municipal Art Gallery, the Diocese Museum, the Bendandi Museum and the Manfredi Library. The historic production of Faenza majolica is recognized worldwide as one of the highest moments of artistic creativity expressed through pottery. The tradition was born from a convergence of favourable conditions: a territory rich in clay, a centuries-old history of political and commercial relations with nearby Tuscany (especially with Florence).

As a testament to the popularity of the city's majolica through the ages, on 18 August 2006, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced that Canadian archaeologists had discovered the precise location of Canada's lost first colony of Charlesbourg-Royal, [6] and that a fragment of a decorative Istoriato plate manufactured in Faenza between 1540 and 1550 was found there that could only have belonged to a member of the French aristocracy in the colony.

In September and October international contemporary and classical ceramic art events draw majolica amateurs, collectors and artists to Faenza from all over the world. In June the Palio del Niballo, a tournament between five horsemen from the districts of the town, re-evokes the magnificence and struggles of Faenza in the Manfredi epoch.

Faenza also houses the annual Mexi-talian Convention, in which Mexican and Italian food and drinks are served alike at the local market this event usually occurs in May, as part of a Cinco de Mayo celebration.

Typical regional dishes include home-made tagliatelle, cappelletti, lasagna and strozzapreti with the Romagna meat sauce. Two of the best restaurants in Faenza are Spaghetti Notte and Casa Spadoni.

The Botanical Gardens, next to the Civic Natural Science Museum with its collections, houses more than 170 species of plants indigenous to Romagna. There is about 1 square kilometre (0.39 sq mi) of public urban green area. The Bucci Park, created in 1968, has an area of about 80,000 square metres (20 acres) of undulating land, green meadows and fish-rich waters, with species of birds including wild duck, storks and swans.

The Florence–Faenza 100-kilometre (62 mi) marathon, a demanding long-distance race held during the last weekend in May, attracts athletes of all nationalities.

Faenza is home to the Formula One racing team Scuderia AlphaTauri, formerly Scuderia Toro Rosso, formerly Minardi. Minardi was one of the last small, independent constructors in Formula One, and was bought by Red Bull in 2005, continuing to be based in Faenza.

Also headquartered in Faenza is Gresini Racing, started in 1997 by Fausto Gresini, former 125cc world champion. The team has won 4 motorcycle world championships: one in 250cc with Daijiro Kato, one in Moto 2 with Toni Elías, one in Moto 3 with Jorge Martín and the last one with Matteo Ferrari in MotoE.

Faenza has been host to Motocross World Championship Grand Prix numerous times, the last one in 2020. The track used is Monte Coralli Circuit, located 8km from the city center.

Faenza railway station, at Piazza Cesare Battisti, forms part of the Bologna–Ancona railway. It is also a terminus of two secondary railways, linking Faenza with Ravenna and Florence, respectively. Opened in 1893, it replaced an earlier station, which had been opened in 1861 at a location to the east of the present station, near what is now Via Caldesi. [7]


References [ edit ]

  1. ↑ 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.121.131.141.151.16 Sampson, Gareth C. (2013-09-09). "6". The collapse of Rome : Marius, Sulla and the first Civil War, 91-70 BC. Barnsley, South Yorkshire. pp. Mostly section: Battle of Mount Tifata (Casilinum). ISBN  9781473826854 . OCLC�.
  2. ↑ 2.02.1 Beesley, A. H. (2017). The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla. Pinnacle Press.

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History of Rome

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I don't know about other disciplines, but I'm pretty sure that in most specialties of history, there are some basic, "classic" volumes, often 19th century, that are assumed to contain the "facts" which subsequent academic careerists are assumed to know and therefore need not recall. Much more fun to speculate with interpretation and "revisionist" readings without having to remember who did what when. In ancient history, one of these is "Mommsen". I was surprised, therefore, to find, on reading the great Herr Doktor Professor's "History of Rome" (which became available cheap, that is, free, on Kindle) that the proportion of fact to imagination and speculation was pretty small. Mommsen is the quintessential nineteenth century authority. He plows through eight centuries of pre-imperial history with magnificent assurance, confidently judging the historical figures whose doings he describes, giving extensive resumes of their thoughts and assigning moral strengths and defects with aplomb, all leading up to his hero, Julius Caesar, who is praised so fulsomely that one really does rub one's eyes in disbelief. Lack of source material is no real hindrance to the good professor-- he knows. He can provide a character sketch and a psychoanalysis of just about anybody in ancient times.

Professor Mommsen makes no pretense of explaining or justifying his point of view--it is simply and self-evidently correct. In English writers of the same period this assurance is often bracing--translated from German, where it is based on slightly different conventional attitudes, it is ridiculous.

My undergraduate years left me with scant respect for academia. Otherwise, I imagine Mommsen would have grieved me. Possibly ancient and medieval history is unusual in the vast and evident superiority of modern efforts over those of the more distant historiographical past. But I bet it's not.

This work, all five volumes, is mighty entertaining. Either Professor Mommsen or his translator was able to avoid the dullness of so much academic writing--but at what cost! I recommend it to anyone who is inclined to admire authority--it should be a good corrective.


Battle of Faventia, 82 BC - History

* ** 497 BC – Battle of Lake Regillus – Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis defeats Tarquinius Superbus. * 495 BC – Battle of Aricia – consul Publius Servilius Priscus Structus defeats the Aurunci. * ** 482 BC – Battle of Antium – the Volsci defeat consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus. ** 482 BC – Battle of Longula – consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus defeats the Volsci the day after his defeat in the Battle of Antium. ** 458 BC – Battle of Mount Algidus – Cincinnatus defeats the Aequi ** 446 BC – Battle of Corbio – Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus leads Roman troops to defeat the Aequi and the Volsci. ** 480 BC – Battle of Veii (480 BC) – Consuls Marcus Fabius Vibulanus and Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus win heavy battle against Veians and their Etruscan allies. Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus and former consul Quintus Fabius are slain. ** 477 BC – *** Battle of the Cremera – All the Fabii except Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are killed in battle with the Veii|Veians *** Battle of the Temple of Hope – Consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with the Etruscans *** Battle of Colline Gate (477 BC) – Consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus has indecisive victory over the Etruscan civilization|Etruscans soon after the Battle of the Temple of Hope

* ** 396 BC – Battle of Veii – Romans complete conquest of Etruscans * Battle of Allia River (390 BC) – Gauls defeat the Romans, then sack Rome. * ** 342 BC – Battle of Mount Gaurus – Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites. ** 341 BC – Battle of Suessula – Roman consul Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites once more. * ** 339 BC – Battle of Vesuvius – Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus defeat the rebellious Latins. ** 338 BC – Battle of Trifanum – Roman general T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins. * ** 321 BC – Battle of the Caudine Forks – Romans under Spurius Postumius Albinus and T. Verturius Calvinus are defeated by the Samnites under Gaius Pontius. ** 316 BC – Battle of Lautulae – Romans are defeated by the Samnites. ** 305 BC – Battle of Bovianum – Roman consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius decisively defeat the Samnites. ** 310 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans.

* ** 298 BC – Battle of Camerinum – Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. ** 297 BC – Battle of Tifernum – Romans under Quintus Fabius Maximus and Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus defeat the Samnite army led by Gellius Statius ** 295 BC – Battle of Sentinum – Romans under Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus defeat the Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace ** 293 BC – Battle of Aquilonia – Romans decisively defeat the Samnites. * ** 284 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls. ** 283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls. ** 282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed. * ** 280 BC – Battle of Heraclea – First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost. ** 279 BC – Battle of Asculum – Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans but once again suffers significant casualties in the process. ** 275 BC – Battle of Beneventum – Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius. * ** 261 BC – Battle of Agrigentum – Carthaginian forces under Hannibal Gisco and Hanno are defeated by the Romans, who attain control of most of Sicily. ** 260 BC - *** Battle of the Lipari Islands – A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians. *** Battle of Mylae – A Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet, giving Rome control of the western Mediterranean. ** 258 BC – Battle of Sulci – Minor Roman victory against the Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia. ** 257 BC – Battle of Tyndaris – Naval victory of Rome over Carthage in Sicilian waters. ** 256 BC – *** Battle of Cape Ecnomus – A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus. *** Battle of Adys – Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa ** 255 BC – Battle of Tunis – Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured. ** 251 BC – Battle of Panormus – Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus. ** 250 BC - Siege of Lilybaeum - Siege on the Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum by Roman army under Gaius Atilius Regulus Serranus and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus. Carthaginian victory. ** 249 BC – Battle of Drepana – Carthage under Adherbal defeat the fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher. ** 242 BC – Battle of the Aegates Islands – Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians. *First Illyrian War (229–228 BC) *Second Illyrian War (220–219 BC) * ** 218 BC – *** Battle of Lilybaeum – First naval clash between the navies of Carthage and Rome during the Second Punic War. *** Battle of Cissa – Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco and gain control of the territory north of the Ebro River. *** Battle of the Ticinus – Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight. *** Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus with the use of an ambush. ** 217 BC - *** Battle of Ebro River – In a surprise attack, Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania. *** Battle of Lake Trasimene – In another ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed. *** Battle of Ager Falernus – Avoiding destruction with deceit, Hannibal escapes Fabius' trap in this small skirmish. ** 216 BC – *** Battle of Cannae – Hannibal destroys the main Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art. *** First Battle of Nola – Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal. ** 215 BC – Second Battle of Nola – Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal. ** 214 BC – Third Battle of Nola – Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal. ** 212 BC – *** First Battle of Capua – Hannibal defeats the consuls Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes *** Battle of the Silarus – Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula. *** Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius. ** 211 BC – *** Battle of the Upper Baetis – Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with the Carthaginians under Hasdrubal Barca *** Second Battle of Capua – Hannibal is not able to break the Roman siege of the city. ** 210 BC – *** Second Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed. *** Battle of Numistro – Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more ** 209 BC – Battle of Asculum – Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle ** 208 BC – Battle of Baecula – Romans in Hispania (Iberia) under P. Cornelius Scipio the Younger defeat Hasdrubal Barca. ** 207 BC – *** Battle of Grumentum – Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal. *** Battle of the Metaurus – Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army. *** Battle of Carmona – Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio besiege the city of Carmona and take it from Hasdrubal Gisco ** 206 BC – *** Battle of Ilipa – Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania. *** Battle of the Guadalquivir – Roman army under Gaius Lucius Marcius Séptimus defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir. *** Battle of Carteia – Roman fleet under Gaius Laelius defeats a Carthaginian fleet under Adherbal ** 204 BC – Battle of Crotona – Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy. ** 203 BC – Battle of Bagbrades – Romans under Scipio defeat the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal is sent to return to Africa. ** 202 BC, 19 October – Battle of Zama – Scipio Africanus Major decisively defeats Hannibal in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War. *First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) * ** 225 BC – Battle of Faesulae – Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy. ** 224 BC – Battle of Telamon – Romans under Aemilius Papus and Gaius Atilius Regulus defeat the Gauls. ** 222 BC – Battle of Clastidium – Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls. ** 216 BC - Battle of Silva Litana - Roman army under Lucius Postumius Albinus is ambushed by the Boii and crushed under falling trees. ** 200 BC – Battle of Cremona – Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul

* ** 198 BC – Battle of the Aous – Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V ** 197 BC – Battle of Cynoscephalae – Romans under Flamininus decisively defeats Philip in Thessaly * ** 195 BC – Battle of Gythium – With some Roman assistance, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis * Battle of Placentia (194 BC) – Roman victory over the Boian Gauls * Battle of Mutina (193 BC) – Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat. * ** 191 BC – Battle of Thermopylae – Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeat Antiochus III the Great and force him to evacuate Greece ** 190 BC – *** Battle of the Eurymedon – Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle. *** Battle of Myonessus – Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans *** December, Battle of Magnesia – (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war. *Aetolian War (191–189 BC) * ** Battle of Mount Olympus – Romans under Gnaeus Manlius Vulso allied with Attalus II of Pergamum deliver a crushing defeat to an army of Galatian Gauls ** Battle of Ancyra – Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra, in what was an almost identical repeat of the Battle of Mount Olympus. * ** 181 BC – Battle of Manlian Pass – Romans under Fulvius Flaccus defeat an army of Celtiberians. * ** 171 BC – Battle of Callicinus – Perseus of Macedon defeats a Roman army under Publius Licinius Crassus. ** 168 BC, 22 June – Battle of Pydna – Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus defeat and capture Macedonian King Perseus. *Third Illyrian War (169–167 BC) *Lusitanian War (155–139 BC) * ** 134 BC - Siege of Numantia - Roman forces under Scipio Aemilianus Africanus defeat and raze the Celtiberian city of Numantia. * ** 148 BC – Second battle of Pydna – The forces of the Macedonian pretender Andriscus are defeated by the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus. * ** 147 BC - *** Battle of the Port of Carthage - Roman forces under Lucius Hostilius Mancinus are defeated by the Carthaginians. *** Second Battle of Neferis - Roman forces under Scipio Aemilianus win a decisive victory against Carthage marking the turning point in the Third Punic War. ** 146 BC – Battle of Carthage ends: Scipio Africanus Minor captures and destroys Carthage. * ** 146 BC – Battle of Corinth – Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of Critolaus, who is killed. Corinth is destroyed and Greece comes under direct Roman rule. *First Servile War (135–132 BC) * ** 112 BC - Battle of Noreia - Roman force under Gnaeus Papirius Carbo are defeated by the Cimbri ** 109 BC – Battle of the Rhone River – Roman force under Marcus Junius Silanus are defeated by the Helvetii ** 107 BC – Battle of Burdigala – Roman forces under Lucius Cassius Longinus are defeated by the Helvetii ** 105 BC, 6 October – Battle of Arausio – Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus ** 102 BC - Battle of Aquae Sextiae - Romans under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons, with mass suicides among the captured women. ** 101 BC - Battle of Vercellae – Romans under Gaius Marius defeat the Cimbri, who are entirely annihilated. * ** 108 BC – Battle of the Muthul – Roman forces under Caecilius Metellus fight indecisively against the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia *Second Servile War (104–103 BC)

thumb|Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations. * ** 89 BC – Battle of Fucine Lake – Roman forces under Lucius Porcius Cato are defeated by the Italian rebels. ** 89 BC – Battle of Asculum – Roman army of C. Pompeius Strabo decisively defeats the rebels. * ** 87 BC - 86 BC - Siege of Athens and Piraeus - Siege of Athens, which had sided with the Pontic invaders during the First Mithridatic War by Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Roman victory. ** 86 BC – Battle of Chaeronea – Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces of Archelaus in the First Mithridatic War ** 85 BC – Battle of Orchomenus – Sulla again defeats Archelaus in the decisive battle of the First Mithridatic War. * ** 83 BC – Battle of Mount Tifata – Sulla defeats the popular forces of Caius Norbanus. * ** 82 BC – Battle of Halys – Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena fights Mithridates and Gordius after launching several raids, to which the Romans lose. * ** 80 BC – Battle of the Baetis River – Rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias in Hispania. * ** 82 BC – *** Battle of the Asio River – Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats a Popular army under Gaius Carrinas. *** Battle of Sacriporto – Fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gaius Marius the Younger, Optimate victory. *** First Battle of Clusium – Fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, Popular victory. *** Battle of Faventia – Fought between the Optimates under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius and the Populares under Gaius Norbanus Balbus, Optimate victory. *** Battle of Fidentia – Fought between the Optimates under Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and the Populares under Lucius Quincius, Optimate victory. *** Second Battle of Clusium – Pompei Magnus defeats a numerically superior Populares army under Gaius Carrinas and Gaius Marcius Censorinus. *** Battle of Colline Gate – Sulla defeats Samnites allied to the popular party in Rome in the decisive battle of the Civil War. * ** 73 BC – Battle of Cyzicus – Roman forces under Lucius Lucullus defeat the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus ** 72 BC – Battle of Cabira or the Rhyndacus – Lucullus defeats the retreating forces of Mithridates, opening way to Pontus ** 69 BC – Battle of Tigranocerta – Lucullus defeats the army of Tigranes II of Armenia, who was harbouring his father-in-law Mithridates VI of Pontus ** 68 BC – Battle of Artaxata – Lucullus again defeats Tigranes. ** 66 BC – Battle of the Lycus – Pompey the Great decisively defeats Mithridates VI, effectively ending the Third Mithridatic War * ** 73 BC – Battle of Mount Vesuvius – Spartacus defeats Gaius Claudius Glaber ** 72 BC – Battle of Picenum – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army led by Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus ** 72 BC – Battle of Mutina I – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat another army of Romans. ** 71 BC – *** Battle of Campania – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army. *** Battle of Campania II – a Roman army under Marcus Crassus defeats Spartacus's army of slaves. *** Battle of the Siler River – Marcus Crassus defeats the army of Spartacus. *Pompey's Georgian campaign (65 BC) * ** 62 BC, January – Battle of Pistoria – The forces of the conspirator Catiline are defeated by the loyal Roman armies under Gaius Antonius. * ** 58 BC – *** June – Battle of the Arar (Saône) – Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii *** July – Battle of Bibracte – Caesar again defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively. *** September – Battle of Vosges – Caesar decisively defeats the forces of the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus near modern Belfort ** 57 BC – *** Battle of the Axona (Aisne) – Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones. *** Battle of the Sabis (Sambre) – Caesar defeats the Nervii. *** Battle of Octodurus (Martigny) – Servius Galba defeats the Seduni and Veragri. ** 52 BC – Battle of Alesia – Caesar defeats the Gallic rebel Vercingetorix, completing the Roman conquest of Gallia Comata. * ** 53 BC - Battle of Carrhae – Roman triumvir Crassus is disastrously defeated and killed by the Parthians. Crassus has molten gold poured down his throat by his captors. * ** 49 BC, June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender. ** 49 BC, 24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide. ** 48 BC, 10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia ** 48 BC, 9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt ** 47 BC, February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII ** 46 BC, 4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus ** 46 BC, 6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa. ** 45 BC, 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed. * ** 47 BC, May – Battle of Zela – Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said ''Veni, vidi, vici.'' (I came, I saw, I conquered.) * ** 43 BC, 14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius ** 43 BC, 21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter. ** 42 BC, 3 October – First Battle of Philippi – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide. ** 42 BC, 23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after. * ** 36 BC – Battle of Naulochus – Octavian's fleet, under the command of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeats the forces of the rebel Sextus Pompeius. * ** 41 BC – Battle of Perugia – Mark Antony's brother Lucius Antonius and his wife Fulvia are defeated by Octavian. * ** 31 BC, 2 September – Battle of Actium – Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle near Greece. * ** 25 BC - Battle of Vellica - Roman forces under Augustus against the Cantabri people, Roman victory. ** 25 BC - Siege of Aracillum - Roman forces under Gaius Antistius Vetus against the Cantabri people, Roman victory. * ** Clades Lolliana (16 BC) – The troops of Consul Marcus Lollius Paulinus are defeated by West Germanic warriors in Gaul. ** Battle of the Lupia River (11 BC) – Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany.

* Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9) – German leader Arminius ambushes three Roman legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus. *Battle at Pontes Longi (15) - Indecisive battle between a Roman army under Aulus Caecina Severus and German tribes led by Arminius. * Battle of the Weser River (16) - Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius. * ** 43 – Battle of the Medway – Claudius and general Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins ** 50 – Battle of Caer Caradoc – British chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by the Romans under Ostorius Scapula. ** 71 – Battle of Scotch Corner ** 83 – Battle of Mons Graupius. Romans under Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeat the Caledonians. * ** 58 – Sack of Artaxata by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo during the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia ** 59 – Capture of Tigranocerta by Corbulo. ** 62 – Battle of Rhandeia – Romans under Lucius Caesennius Paetus are defeated by a Parthian-Armenian army under King Tiridates of Parthia. * ** 60 – Battle of Camulodunum – Boudica begins her uprising against the Romans by capturing and then sacking Camulodunum then moves on Londinium. ** 61 – Battle of Watling Street – Boudica is defeated by Suetonius Paullinus * ** 66 – Battle of Beth-Horon – Jewish forces led by Eleazar ben Simon defeat a Roman punitive force led by Cestius Gallus, Governor of Syria ** 73 – Siege of Masada – The Sicarii are defeated by the Romans under Lucius Flavius Silva, leading them to commit mass suicide * ** 69 – *** Winter – Battle of 'Forum Julii' – Othonian forces defeat a small group of Vitellianist auxiliaries in Gallia Narbonensis *** 14 April – First Battle of Bedriacum – Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeats Emperor Otho and seizes the throne. *** 24 October – Second Battle of Bedriacum – Forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius. * ** 87 – Dacian King Decebalus crushes the Roman army at Tapae (today Transylvania, Romania), Legio V Alaudae and general Cornelius Fuscus perish in battle. ** 88 – the Romans return and obtain a victory in the same battleground

* ** 101 – Second Battle of Tapae – Trajan defeats Decebalus, with heavy losses. ** 102 – Battle of Adamclisi - Roman forces led by Trajan annihilate a mixed Dacian-Roxolano-Sarmatae army, with heavy casualties on the Roman side. * ** 106 – Battle of Sarmisegetusa – A Roman army led by Trajan conquers and destroys the Dacian capital. Part of Dacia is annexed to the Roman Empire. * ** 115-117 – Trajan's Parthian campaign – Trajan invades Parthia and occupies Ctesiphon. ** 161-166 – Roman–Parthian War – Vologases IV invades Armenia, but is pushed back and Ctesiphon is sacked. ** 198 – Battle of Ctesiphon – Septimus Severus invades, sacks Ctesiphon, and acquires northern Mesopotamia. *Kitos War (115–117) *Second Jewish Revolt (132–135/136) * ** 170 – Battle of Carnuntum – Marcomannic King Ballomar defeats the Roman Army and invade Italy. ** 178-179 – Praetorian Prefect Teratenius Paternus defeats the Quadi. ** 179 or 180 – Battle of Laugaricio – Marcus Valerius Maximianus defeats the Quadi in Slovakia. * ** 193 – Battle of Cyzicus – Septimius Severus, the new Emperor, defeats his eastern rival Pescennius Niger ** 193 – Battle of Nicaea – Severus again defeats Niger ** 194 – Battle of Issus – Severus finally defeats Niger. ** 197, 19 February – Battle of Lugdunum – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats and kills his rival Clodius Albinus, securing full control over the Empire.

thumb|The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271. See Crisis of the Third Century * ** 217 – Battle of Nisibis – Bloody stalemate between the Parthians and the Roman army under Emperor Macrinus. ** 231-232 - War between Ardashir I and Severus Alexander resulted in humiliating Roman defeat and withdrawal. ** 243 – Battle of Resaena – Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I. ** 260 – Battle of Edessa – Emperor Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian ** 296 or 297 – Battle of Carrhae – Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh. ** 298 – Battle of Satala – Galerius secures a decisive victory against Narseh, following a peace treaty. * ** 218, 8 June – Battle of Antioch – Varius Avitus defeats Emperor Macrinus to claim the throne under the name Elagabalus. ** 238 – Battle of Carthage – Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax defeat and kill his successor Gordian II. ** 274 – Battle of Châlons – Aurelian defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus, reestablishing central control of the whole empire. ** 285 – Battle of the Margus – The usurper Diocletian defeats the army of the Emperor Carinus, who is killed. * ** 235 – Battle at the Harzhorn - Small Roman army defeats a German army while retreating back to Roman territory. ** 250 – Battle of Philippopolis – King Cniva of the Goths defeats a Roman army. ** 251, Summer – Battle of Abrittus – Goths defeat and kill the Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus ** 259 – Battle of Mediolanum – Emperor Gallienus decisively defeats the Alemanni that invaded Italy ** 268 – Battle of Naissus – Emperor Gallienus and his generals Claudius and Aurelian decisively defeat the Goths. ** 268 or 269 – Battle of Lake Benacus – Romans under Emperor Claudius II defeat the Alemanni ** 271 – *** Battle of Placentia – Emperor Aurelian is defeated by the Alemanni forces invading Italy *** Battle of Fano – Aurelian defeats the Alamanni, who begin to retreat from Italy *** Battle of Pavia – Aurelian destroys the retreating Alemanni army. ** 298 – *** Battle of Lingones – Caesar Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alemanni *** Battle of Vindonissa – Constantius again defeats the Alamanni * ** 272 – *** Battle of Immae – Aurelian defeats the army of Zenobia of Palmyra *** Battle of Emesa – Aurelian decisively defeats Zenobia.

The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars. * ** 312 – *** Battle of Turin – Constantine I defeats forces loyal to Maxentius. *** Battle of Verona – Constantine I defeats more forces loyal to Maxentius. *** 28 October – Battle of Milvian Bridge – Constantine I defeats Maxentius and takes control of Italy. ** 313, 30 April – Battle of Tzirallum – In the eastern part of the Empire, the forces of Licinius defeat Maximinus. ** 314, 8 October – Battle of Cibalae – Constantine defeats Licinius ** 316 or 317 – Battle of Mardia – Constantine again defeats Licinius, who cedes Illyricum to Constantine. ** 324 – *** 3 July – Battle of Adrianople – Constantine defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium *** July – Battle of the Hellespont – Flavius Julius Crispus, son of Constantine, defeats the naval forces of Licinius *** 18 September – Battle of Chrysopolis – Constantine decisively defeats Licinius, establishing his sole control over the empire. * ** 344 – Battle of Singara – Emperor Constantius II fights an indecisive battle against King Shapur II of Persia ** 359 – Siege of Amida – Sassanids capture Amida from Romans ** 363, 29 May – Battle of Ctesiphon – Emperor Julian defeats Shapur II of Persia outside the walls of the Persian capital, but is unable to take the city, and his death leads to an ultimate disaster on the retreat back to Roman territory. * ** 351 – Battle of Mursa Major – Emperor Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius ** 353 – Battle of Mons Seleucus – Final defeat of Magnentius by Constantius II * ** 356 – Battle of Reims – Caesar Julian is defeated by the Alamanni ** 357 – Battle of Strasbourg – Julian expels the Alamanni from the Rhineland ** 368 – Battle of Solicinium – Romans under Emperor Valentinian I defeat yet another Alamanni incursion. * Civil War – 366 – Battle of Thyatira – The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius. * ** 377 – Battle of the Willows – Roman troops fight an inconclusive battle against the Goths ** 378 – *** May – Battle of Argentovaria – Western Emperor Gratianus is victorious over the Alamanni, yet again. *** 9 August – Battle of Adrianople – Thervings under Fritigern defeat and kill the Eastern Emperor Valens ** 380 – Battle of Thessalonica – The new Eastern Emperor, Theodosius I, is also defeated by the Thervings under Fritigern. * Civil War – 388 – Battle of the Save – Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus. * Civil War – 394, 5–6 September – Battle of the Frigidus – Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish ''magister militum'' Arbogast.

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, and Franks. * ** 402 – *** 6 April – Battle of Pollentia – Stilicho defeats the Visigoths under Alaric. *** June – Battle of Verona – Stilicho defeats Alaric, who withdraws from Italy. ** 406, 31 December – Battle of Mainz – Franks lose to Vandals, Suebi and Alans. ** 410, 24 August – Sack of Rome – Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome. ** 419 – Battle of the Nervasos Mountains – Romans and Suebi defeat Vandals and Alans. ** 468 – Battle of Cap Bon - Failure of the invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals by the Western and Eastern Roman Empires * Civil War – 432 – Battle of Ravenna – Bonifacius defeats rival Roman general Flavius Aetius, but is mortally wounded in the process. * War with Visigoths – 436 – Battle of Narbonne – Flavius Aetius again defeats the Visigoths led by Theodoric. * ** 447 – Battle of the Utus – The Romans in the East fight an indecisive battle with Huns led by Attila. ** 451, 20 June – Battle of the Catalaunian Plains – The Romans with Flavius Aetius and the Visigoths with Theodoric, defend against Attila the Hun. * ** 455 – Sack of Rome by Geiseric, King of the Vandals ** 463 – Battle of Orleans – Gallo-Roman and Salian Frank forces under the command of Aegidius defeat a force of Visigoths at Orleans. ** 476 – Odoacer defeats the remnants of the Western Roman army, exiles emperor Romulus Augustulus, and declares himself King of Italy ** 486 – Battle of Soissons – Clovis I defeats Syagrius, last Roman commander in Gaul, and annexes the Roman rump state into the Frankish realm. ** 516 – Battle of Mons Badonicus – Romano-British under Ambrosius Aurelianus defeat Anglo-Saxons.


1st century

  • Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9) – German leader Arminius ambushes three Roman legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus.
  • Battle at Pontes Longi (15) - Indecisive battle between a Roman army under Aulus Caecina Severus and German tribes led by Arminius.
  • Battle of the Weser River (16) - Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius.
  • Roman conquest of Britain (43󈟌)
    • 43 – Battle of the Medway – Claudius and general Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins
    • 50 – Battle of Caer Caradoc – British chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by the Romans under Ostorius Scapula.
    • 83 – Battle of Mons Graupius. Romans under Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeat the Caledonians.
    • Roman–Parthian War of 58󈞫
      • 58 – Sack of Artaxata by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo during the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia
      • 59 – Capture of Tigranocerta by Corbulo.
      • 62 – Battle of Rhandeia – Romans under Lucius Caesennius Paetus are defeated by a Parthian-Armenian army under King Tiridates of Parthia.
      • Boudica's uprising (60󈞩)
        • 60 – Battle of Camulodunum – Boudica begins her uprising against the Romans by capturing and then sacking Camulodunum then moves on Londinium.
        • 61 – Battle of Watling Street – Boudica is defeated by Suetonius Paullinus
        • First Jewish–Roman War (66󈞵) [1]
          • 66 – Battle of Beth-Horon – Jewish forces led by Eleazar ben Simon defeat a Roman punitive force led by Cestius Gallus, Governor of Syria
          • 73 – Siege of Masada – The Sicarii are defeated by the Romans under Lucius Flavius Silva, leading them to commit mass suicide
          • Roman Civil War of 68󈞱 AD
            • 69 –
              • Winter – Battle of 'Forum Julii' – Othonian forces defeat a small group of Vitellianist auxiliaries in Gallia Narbonensis
              • 14 April – First Battle of Bedriacum – Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeats Emperor Otho and seizes the throne.
              • 24 October – Second Battle of Bedriacum – Forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.
              • Domitian's Dacian War (86󈟄)
                • 87 – Dacian King Decebalus crushes the Roman army at Tapae (today Transylvania, Romania), Legio V Alaudae and general Cornelius Fuscus perish in battle.
                • 88 – the Romans return and obtain a victory in the same battleground

                Crassus or Surena and the Battle of Carrhae

                But as you said, the Pantheon is indeed an exception. And even if it wasn't built as a congregational building, as it probably wasn't, wouldnt't it work like that? How many people you could fit in at least half that space? Also, what you would say about the Hagia Sophia? Is it a congregational building?

                You talked about ancient temples being more like sculptures and that's something I've heard before. I tend to agree with it too. But the Pantheon falls outside that, that's why I found your comment weird. If architecture is understood as building ainterior space, than the Pantheon is a extraordinary piece of architecture, as it has one of the most celebrated interior spaces ever built.

                Semper Victor

                But as you said, the Pantheon is indeed an exception. And even if it wasn't built as a congregational building, as it probably wasn't, wouldnt't it work like that? How many people you could fit in at least half that space? Also, what you would say about the Hagia Sophia? Is it a congregational building?

                You talked about ancient temples being more like sculptures and that's something I've heard before. I tend to agree with it too. But the Pantheon falls outside that, that's why I found your comment weird. If architecture is understood as building ainterior space, than the Pantheon is a extraordinary piece of architecture, as it has one of the most celebrated interior spaces ever built.

                The Hagia Sophia is a congregational building, yes. It worked perfectly as Istanbul main church for ten centuries and later as one of its main mosques for several more.

                The Pantheon is something in between. It's an interior space, but a space built for its own sake, without a clear use or function. Something like for example funerary monuments or pavilions built for propagandistic reasons in international exhibitions. Instead of the exterior of the building being conceived as a sculpture to be admired, it's the interior space that's conceptualized as such.

                It's not a derogatory view of the Pantheon (at least I don't see it as such), but I think that there are Roman buildings much more interesting than it, and some of them by Hadrian himself, especially his great villa at Tibur.

                SNascimento

                But that's the thing. I don't have this information, but is the interior space of the Hagia Sophia bigger than the Pantheon? It was converted to a church after all.

                Also, I wanted to mention the Temple of Venus and Roma, which is another temple with a very interesting interior space. Actually, I think I got the building confused. I remember it being something like the Basilica of Maxentius and it's not. So I'm not sure if my comment is valid.

                Semper Victor

                But that's the thing. I don't have this information, but is the interior space of the Hagia Sophia bigger than the Pantheon? It was converted to a church after all.

                Also, I wanted to mention the Temple of Venus and Roma, which is another temple with a very interesting interior space. Actually, I think I got the building confused. I remember it being something like the Basilica of Maxentius and it's not. So I'm not sure if my comment is valid.

                Hagia Sophia is a larger building. The interior space of the Pantheon is a circle of 43,3 m diameter (and the same height, equivalent to 150 Roman feet).

                In layout, the church of Hagia Sophia (excluding the atrium, but including the narthex) is a rectangle 82 m long and 73 m wide. The main nave is 76.2 m long and 30.8 m wide, with the highest point of the main dome at 55.6 m over floor level.

                While the dome of Hagia Sophia is much smaller in diameter than the Pantheon, it's quite higher. Hagia Sophia was the largest church in the world from its construction until the building of the cathedral of Seville in the XV century.

                As for the temple of Venus and Rome, there's nothing especially outstanding about it, other than its massive size. It's a perypter temple in a traditional Greek style, which was somewhat unusual for Rome, as Roman temples (following Italic and Etruscan precedent) were usually not exempt buildings surrounded by a continous colonnade on their 4 sides. Its originality lays in the fact that in design it was the result of putting together symmetrically two traditional Italic temples, which makes for a perypter temple in the Greek style. The inner cella was in fact formed by two cellae, each one opening to oposite sides, one dedicated to Venus and the other to the goddess Roma. It's possible that perhaps the cellae were covered by concrete vaults and not wooden roofs, but that's not sure (and in the outside the roof was a traditional roof with two wathersheds). Compared with other Hadrianic buildings, the temple of Venus and Rome is not one of the more interesting ones (and certainly much less so than the Pantheon).

                For an interesting pagan temple built during Hadrian's reign and most probably under imperial patronage I'd choose the so-called "Red Basilica" at Pergamum, a temple dedicated to some Egyptian deity, probably either Isis or Serapis.

                Other than that, in my personal opinion the most interesting building (or rather collection of buildings) built during Hadrian's reign is the imperial villa at Tivoli (ancient Tibur) near Rome, with its bedazzling variety of spaces, forms and construction techniques. The courtyard and "grotto" of the so-called Canopus is conceptually (still today) one of the most original architectural spaces for leisure that I've ever seen, and the complex game of intersecting vaults on curved walls at the main official triclinium of the so-called "Piazza d'Oro" is a clear precedent of the most complex arrangements of vaults of Islamic and Baroque architecture. And then there's the main audience hall, the baths, the "island theater", the several walled gardens and courtyards, the nymphaea, etc. each and every one with its own structural and spatial arrangement, often deeply original.

                It's almost as if Hadrian used his Villa as an experimentation playground to play with every kind of architectural idea that crossed his mind, as in his own home he was free of the constraints found in public buildings.


                Augustus

                Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BCE the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the illustrious one"), and he was then known as Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.

                Owing to the many names the man went by in his life, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BCE, Octavian when referring to events between 44 and 27 BCE, and Augustus regarding events from 27 BCE to his death in 14 CE. It should be noted, however, that Octavian himself, between the years 44 and 27 BCE, never went by that name, choosing instead to align himself closely with his great uncle by carrying the same name a decision which prompted Mark Antony's famous accusation, as recorded by Cicero: "You, boy, owe everything to your name".

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                Augustus, Mark Antony & Lepidus

                After Julius Caesar's assassination in March of 44 BCE, Octavian allied himself with Caesar's close friend and relative, Mark Antony. Together with another supporter of Caesar, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Antony and Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate in October of 43 BCE. Their first order of business seems to have been the systematic killing of any political rivals and supporters of Caesar's assassins. Exactly which of the three was most responsible for the killings is disputed by ancient and modern writers alike with some claiming Octavian innocent and others ascribing to him the most bloodshed. Having cleansed Rome of the 'bad blood' of their opposition, the Second Triumvirate then turned their attention to Caesar's assassins. At the Battle of Phillipi in October 42 BCE, the forces of Brutus and Cassius were defeated by those of the Second Triumvirate forcing both assassins to kill themselves.

                Between 38 and 36 BCE, Octavian and Lepidus battled Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey Magnus, Julius Caesar's great rival) for rule of Rome with Antony lending aid from Egypt. The Second Triumvirate was victorious over Pompeius, and Lepidus, glorying in the triumph and confident of his strength, insulted Octavian by ordering him to leave Sicily, the theatre of operations, with his troops. Octavian, however, offered Lepidus' troops more money than Lepidus could pay and his army defected to Octavian. Lepidus was stripped of all his titles save Pontifex Maximus and the Second Triumvirate came to an end.

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                Augustus, Antony & Cleopatra

                During this time, however, relations between Octavian and Mark Antony began to deteriorate. In 40 BCE, in an effort to solidify their alliance, Octavian had given his sister, Octavia Minor, in marriage to Antony. Antony, though, had allied himself closely with Cleopatra VII of Egypt (the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of his son Caesarion) and, in fact, had become her lover. Octavian charged that Antony had misused his sister when Antony divorced Octavia in favor of Cleopatra in 33 BCE which prompted Antony to write Octavian, “What's upset you? Because I go to bed with Cleopatra? But she's my wife and I've been doing so for nine years, not just recently. Does it really matter where, or with what women, you get your excitement?”

                To Octavian, Antony's behavior in the east, both in private, politically and militarily, was intolerable. He forced the priestesses of the temple of Vesta in Rome to surrender Antony's will and had it read in the Roman Senate. The will gave away Roman territories to Antony's sons and contained directions for a great mausoleum to be built in Alexandria for Antony and Cleopatra, among other stipulations which Octavian felt threatened the grandeur of Rome and branded Antony a renegade.

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                Among the worst of Antony's offenses was his declaration that Caesarion was the true heir of Julius Caesar, not Octavian. The Senate revoked Antony's consulship and declared war on Cleopatra VII. At the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BCE Octavian's forces, under the general Marcus Agrippa, defeated the combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra, scattered them (many had already defected to Octavian's side before the battle) and pursued the survivors until 1 August 30 BCE when, after the loss of Alexandria, Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves. Octavian had Caesarion strangled (stating that “two Caesars are one too many”) and Antony's eldest son executed as a possible threat to Rome.

                Octavian was now the supreme ruler of Rome and all its territories but, in order to keep from making the same mistake his adoptive father had of seeming to covet power, Octavian was careful to characterize all of his political stratagems as being for the good of the Roman Republic. In January of 27 BCE, Octavian resigned his powers humbly only to receive them back from the grateful Senate who also bestowed upon him the title Augustus. Octavian was careful not to refer to himself by that title at any time in public, simply calling himself 'Princeps', or, First Citizen. So carefully did Octavian play the political game in Rome that his claims to restoration of the Republic seemed in earnest, even when he gained supreme power, giving him absolute control over Rome and its colonies.

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                Augustus as Emperor

                Popular already with the soldiers of his army, the title Augustus solidified his power in the provinces as Imperator, or commander-in-chief (from which the English word 'emperor' is derived). The month of August was named in his honor. In the year 19 BCE, he was given Imperium Maius (supreme power) over every province in the Roman Empire and, from that time on, Augustus Caesar ruled supremely, the first emperor of Rome and the measure by which all later emperors would be judged. By 2 BCE Augustus was declared Pater Patriae, the father of his country.

                The era of Augustus' reign was a golden age in every respect. The peace which Augustus restored and kept (the Pax Romana) caused the economy, the arts and agriculture to flourish. An ambitious building program was initiated in which Augustus completed the plans made by Julius Caesar and then continued on with his own grand designs. In his famous inscription Res Gestae Divi Augusti (The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) he claims to have restored or built 82 temples in one year. The famous public Roman baths were constructed under Augustus by his second-in-command, Agrippa, and the poet Virgil composed his epic the Aeneid. Augustus took great personal concern in the arts and was a personal patron of many artists.

                Death

                Augustus died at Nola in 14 CE. His official last words were, “I found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble” which aptly describes Augustus' achievements during his reign as emperor. According to his wife Livia Drusilla and his adopted son Tiberius (r. 14-37 CE), however, his last words were actually, “Have I played the part well? Then applaud as I exit.”

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                Augustus' body was brought back to Rome, and on the day of the funeral, all businesses in Rome closed out of respect for the emperor. He was succeeded by Tiberius who he had adopted in 4 CE and who read the eulogy (along with his own son, Drusus) at Augustus' famously grand funeral. The emperor's body was cremated and his ashes interred in his mausoleum. Augustus' death was mourned as the loss of a great ruler of immense talent and vision, and he was proclaimed a god among the host of the Roman pantheon.


                Watch the video: Battle of Legnano 1176 Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines (May 2022).


Comments:

  1. Marc

    How do you order to understand?



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