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In the area of ​​geography, urbanization It is a process of transforming the rural characteristics of a locality or region to urban characteristics.

Typically, urbanization is related to the development of civilization and technology. In this process, the rural space becomes an urban space and there is a field-city population migration.

Urbanization is studied by various sciences, such as sociology, geography and anthropology, each proposing different approaches to the problem of city growth. The disciplines that seek to understand, regulate, design and plan the processes of urbanization are urbanism, urban planning, landscape planning, urban design, geography, among others.

The city of São Paulo - example for urbanization

The urbanization process

Although the process of urbanization began with the Industrial Revolution, it was until the mid-twentieth century a relatively slow and circumscribed phenomenon.

After World War II, this phenomenon was completed in developed countries and was overwhelmingly initiated in many underdeveloped countries, most Latin American countries, and many Asian countries. The African continent is still very undeveloped.

All developed countries, as well as some newly industrialized countries, have high rates of urbanization. With the exception of China and India, with the largest populations on the planet, all industrialized countries are urbanized. Some countries have very low rates of industrialization and others that have virtually no industrial park, yet they are heavily industrialized.

Thus, it is concluded that there are two basic sets of factors that condition urbanization: the attractive, which draw populations to cities; and the repulsive that repel them from the field.

Urbanization of developed countries

The factors attractive of urbanization in developed countries are essentially linked to the process of industrialization, to the transformations caused in the city by industry.

In these countries, in addition to the urban transformations, an agricultural revolution also occurred as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, that is, an update of agriculture that, throughout history, has allowed people to move from the countryside to the city, especially as a result of mechanization. of agriculture.

The urbanization that took place in developed countries was gradual. The cities were structuring without hurry to absorb migrants, having improvements in urban infrastructure - housing, water, sewage, electricity, etc. - and increased job creation.

Thus urban problems have not multiplied as much as in underdeveloped countries. Moreover, because there was gradually an increase in the flow of goods and people, the process of industrialization was also decentralizing geographically. As a result, there is a dense and articulated network of cities in developed countries.

Urbanization in underdeveloped countries

The factors repulsive They are typical of underdeveloped countries with no industries or a low level of industrialization. These factors are directly linked to the poor living conditions in rural areas, due to the highly concentrated land structure, low wages, lack of support for small farmers, farming techniques, among others.

Thus, there is a large population transfer to cities, especially to large metropolises, creating a series of urban problems. These problems are the result of an urban phenomenon characteristic of many underdeveloped countries: the urban macrocephaly.

Cluttered Growth - Example of Urban Macrocephaly

THE urban macrocephaly It should be understood as a result of the large concentration of economic activities, especially services, so the population in some cities becomes relatively large. Although this phenomenon also occurs in developed countries, it assumes greater proportions in the underdeveloped.

In developed countries, as city growth was slow and well-planned, the phenomenon did not take on such large proportions as in many underdeveloped countries, where city growth was, in addition to being highly spatially concentrated, fast and chaotic. The consequence was a series of readily perceived problems in the urban landscape of these countries.