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Ancient World Time Chart

Ancient World Time Chart

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List of time periods

The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization. [1] This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (time periods in the origin and mass evolution of the universe), geological (time periods in the origin and evolution of the Earth), anthropological and historical (time periods in the origin and evolution of human civilization).

List of largest cities throughout history

This article lists the largest human settlement in the world (by population) over time, as estimated by historians, from 7000 BCE when the largest populated place in the world was a proto-city in the Ancient Near East with a population of about 1,000–2,000 people, to the year 2000 when the largest urban area was Tokyo with 26 million. Alexandria, Rome, or Baghdad may have been the first city to have 1,000,000 people, as early as 100 BCE or as late as 925 AD. They were later surpassed by Constantinople, Chang'an, Hangzhou, Jinling, Beijing, London (the first city to reach 2 million), and New York (the first to top 10 million), among others, before Tokyo took the crown in the mid-20th century. As of 2020, the Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.393 million residents. [1]

Many of the figures are uncertain, especially in ancient times. Estimating population sizes before censuses were conducted is a difficult task. [2]

Evidence for past temperatures comes mainly from isotopic considerations (especially δ 18 O) the Mg/Ca ratio of foram tests, and alkenones, are also useful. Often, many are used in conjunction to get a multi-proxy estimate for the temperature. This has proven crucial in studies on glacial/interglacial temperature. [1]

Pleistocene Edit

The last 3 million years have been characterized by cycles of glacials and interglacials within a gradually deepening ice age. Currently, the Earth is in an interglacial period, beginning about 20,000 years ago (20 kya).

The cycles of glaciation involve the growth and retreat of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere and involve fluctuations on a number of time scales, notably on the 21 ky, 41 ky and 100 ky scales. Such cycles are usually interpreted as being driven by predictable changes in the Earth orbit known as Milankovitch cycles. At the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene (0.8 million years ago, close to the Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal) there has been a largely unexplained switch in the dominant periodicity of glaciations from the 41 ky to the 100 ky cycle.

The gradual intensification of this ice age over the last 3 million years has been associated with declining concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, though it remains unclear if this change is sufficiently large to have caused the changes in temperatures. Decreased temperatures can cause a decrease in carbon dioxide as, by Henry's Law, carbon dioxide is more soluble in colder waters, which may account for 30ppmv of the 100ppmv decrease in carbon dioxide concentration during the last glacial maximum. [1]

Similarly, the initiation of this deepening phase also corresponds roughly to the closure of the Isthmus of Panama by the action of plate tectonics. This prevented direct ocean flow between the Pacific and Atlantic, which would have had significant effects on ocean circulation and the distribution of heat. However, modeling studies have been ambiguous as to whether this could be the direct cause of the intensification of the present ice age.

This recent period of cycling climate is part of the more extended ice age that began about 40 million years ago with the glaciation of Antarctica.

Initial Eocene thermal maxima Edit

In the earliest part of the Eocene period, a series of abrupt thermal spikes have been observed, lasting no more than a few hundred thousand years. The most pronounced of these, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is visible in the figure at right. These are usually interpreted as caused by abrupt releases of methane from clathrates (frozen methane ices that accumulate at the bottom of the ocean), though some scientists dispute that methane would be sufficient to cause the observed changes. [ citation needed ] During these events, temperatures in the Arctic Ocean may have reached levels more typically associated with modern temperate (i.e. mid-latitude) oceans. [ citation needed ] During the PETM, the global mean temperature seems to have risen by as much as 5-8 °C (9-14 °F) to an average temperature as high as 23 °C (73 °F), in contrast to the global average temperature of today at just under 15 °C (60 °F). Geologists and paleontologists think that during much of the Paleocene and early Eocene, the poles were free of ice caps, and palm trees and crocodiles lived above the Arctic Circle, while much of the continental United States had a sub-tropical environment. [5]

Cretaceous thermal optimum Edit

During the later portion of the Cretaceous, from 66 to 100 million years ago , average global temperatures reached their highest level during the last

200 million years. [6] This is likely to be the result of a favorable configuration of the continents during this period that allowed for improved circulation in the oceans and discouraged the formation of large scale ice sheet. [ citation needed ]

Fluctuations during the remainder of the Phanerozoic Edit

The Phanerozoic eon, encompassing the last 542 million years and almost the entire time since the origination of complex multi-cellular life, has more generally been a period of fluctuating temperature between ice ages, such as the current age, and "climate optima", similar to what occurred in the Cretaceous. Roughly 4 such cycles have occurred during this time with an approximately 140 million year separation between climate optima. In addition to the present, ice ages have occurred during the Permian-Carboniferous interval and the late Ordovician-early Silurian. There is also a "cooler" interval during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, with evidence of increased sea ice, but the lack of continents at either pole during this interval prevented the formation of continental ice sheets and consequently this is usually not regarded as a full-fledged ice age. In between these cold periods, warmer conditions were present and often referred to as climate optima. However, it has been difficult to determine whether these warmer intervals were actually hotter or colder than occurred during the Cretaceous optima.

Late Proterozoic ice ages Edit

The Neoproterozoic era ( 1,000 to 541 million years ago ), provides evidence of at least two and possibly more major glaciations. The more recent of these ice ages, encompassing the Marinoan & Varangian glacial maxima (about 560 to 650 million years ago ), has been proposed as a snowball Earth event with continuous sea ice reaching nearly to the equator. This is significantly more severe than the ice age during the Phanerozoic. Because this ice age terminated only slightly before the rapid diversification of life during the Cambrian explosion, it has been proposed that this ice age (or at least its end) created conditions favorable to evolution. The earlier Sturtian glacial maxima (

730 million years) may also have been a snowball Earth event though this is unproven.

The changes that lead to the initiation of snowball Earth events are not well known, but it has been argued that they necessarily led to their own end. The widespread sea ice prevents the deposition of fresh carbonates in ocean sediment. Since such carbonates are part of the natural process for recycling carbon dioxide, short-circuiting this process allows carbon dioxide to accumulate in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect and eventually leads to higher temperatures and the retreat of sea ice. [8]

Overall view Edit

Direct combination of these interpreted geological temperature records is not necessarily valid, nor is their combination with other more recent temperature records, which may use different definitions. Nevertheless, an overall perspective is useful even when imprecise. In this view time is plotted backwards from the present, taken as 2015 CE. It is scaled linear in five separate segments, expanding by about an order of magnitude at each vertical break. Temperatures in the left-hand panel are very approximate, and best viewed as a qualitative indication only. [9] Further information is given on the graph description page.

Other temperature changes in Earth's past Edit

Prior to the Neoproterozoic, evidence of temperature changes and glaciation is usually too scattered and sporadic to draw firm conclusions, though it seems likely that temperature fluctuations were also substantial during this period. [ citation needed ]

Temperature reconstructions based on oxygen and silicon isotopes from rock samples have predicted much hotter Precambrian sea temperatures. [10] [11] These predictions suggest ocean temperatures of 55–85 °C during the period of 2,000 to 3,500 million years ago , followed by cooling to more mild temperatures of between 10-40 °C by 1,000 million years ago . Reconstructed proteins from Precambrian organisms have also provided evidence that the ancient world was much warmer than today. [12] [13]

However, other evidence suggests that the period of 2,000 to 3,000 million years ago was generally colder and more glaciated than the last 500 million years. [ citation needed ] This is thought to be the result of solar radiation approximately 20% lower than today. Solar luminosity was 30% dimmer when the Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago, [14] and it is expected to increase in luminosity approximately 10% per billion years in the future. [15]

On very long time scales, the evolution of the sun is also an important factor in determining Earth's climate. According to standard solar theories, the sun will gradually have increased in brightness as a natural part of its evolution after having started with an intensity approximately 70% of its modern value. The initially low solar radiation, if combined with modern values of greenhouse gases, would not have been sufficient to allow for liquid oceans on the surface of the Earth. However, evidence of liquid water at the surface has been demonstrated as far back as 4,400 million years ago . This is known as the faint young sun paradox and is usually explained by invoking much larger greenhouse gas concentrations in Earth's early history, though such proposals are poorly constrained by existing experimental evidence.

The China of the mid-20th century looks remarkably different when compared to the modern-day nation. Prior to the 1980s, China was going through a period of social upheaval, poverty, and dictatorship under Mao Zedong.

The 1970s

Beginning in the late 1970s, China’s share of global exports stood at less than 1%. The country had few trade hubs and little industry. In 1979, for example, Shenzhen was a city of just around 30,000 inhabitants.

In fact, China (excluding Taiwan* and Hong Kong) did not even show up in the top 10 global exporters until 1997 when it hit a 3.3% share of global exports.

YearShare of Global ExportsRank

*Editor’s note: The above data comes from the UN, which lists Taiwan as a separate region of China for political reasons.

The 1980s

In the 1980s, several cities and regions, like the Pearl River Delta, were designated as Special Economic Zones. These SEZs had tax incentives that worked to attract foreign investment.

Additionally, in 1989, the Coastal Development Strategy was implemented to use strategic regions along the country’s coast as catalysts for economic development.

The 1990s and Onwards

By the 1990s, the world saw the rise of global value chains and transnational production lines, with China offering a cheap manufacturing hub due to low labor costs.

Rounding out the ‘90s, the Western Development Strategy was implemented in 1999, dubbed the “Open Up the West” program. This program worked to build up infrastructure and education to retain talent in China’s economy, with the goal of attracting further foreign investment.

Finally, China officially joined the World Trade Organization in 2001 which allowed the country to progress full steam ahead.

The Entire History of the World—Really, All of It—Distilled Into a Single Gorgeous Chart

This “Histomap,” created by John B. Sparks, was first printed by Rand McNally in 1931. (The David Rumsey Map Collection hosts a fully zoomable version here.) (Update: Click on the image below to arrive at a bigger version.)

This giant, ambitious chart fit neatly with a trend in nonfiction book publishing of the 1920s and 1930s: the “outline,” in which large subjects (the history of the world! every school of philosophy! all of modern physics!) were distilled into a form comprehensible to the most uneducated layman.

The 5-foot-long Histomap was sold for $1 and folded into a green cover, which featured endorsements from historians and reviewers. The chart was advertised as “clear, vivid, and shorn of elaboration,” while at the same time capable of “holding you enthralled” by presenting:

The chart emphasizes domination, using color to show how the power of various “peoples” (a quasi-racial understanding of the nature of human groups, quite popular at the time) evolved throughout history.

It’s unclear what the width of the colored streams is meant to indicate. In other words, if the Y axis of the chart clearly represents time, what does the X axis (marked as “relative power of contemporary states, nations, and empires”) represent? What’s the meaning of “power” to the mapmaker? And did Sparks see history as a zero-sum game, in which peoples and nations would vie for shares of finite resources? Given the timing of his enterprise—he made this chart between two world wars and at the beginning of a major depression—this might well have been his thinking.

Sparks followed up on the success of this Histomap by publishing at least two more: the Histomap of religion (which I’ve been unable to find online) and the Histomap of evolution.

Update, April 29, 2015: This post has been updated for clarity.

Nebuchadnezzar of Chaldea

Nebuchadnezzar was the popular king of Babylon who ruled the throne during the time of the Judean exile. He is known to westerners as Nebuchadnezzar and Nebuchadnezzar were how his name was pronounced in ancient times. Chaldaic was a dialect of Aramaic, and it used to be the official language of the Middle East and Mesopotamian region once the Babylonians gained power over the Assyrians. Nebuchadnezzar’s official name was pronounced and written in this ancient language. His name means “Nabu defend my son” or ” a favorite of Nabu”. The deity Nabu was the son of the Babylonian chief god Marduk and Nebuchadnezzar was named after this deity from his father King Nebopolasser, who considered himself to be favored by Marduk.

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Nebuchadnezzar took the throne of Babylon in 605 B.C. when his father passed away from natural causes. This is when he appears on the Biblical Timeline Chart. Before he became king, he was a coregent with Nabopolassar, and he was out fighting many battles to expand the Babylonian empire. Nebuchadnezzar’s father defeated the Assyrians and from this event the Babylonians began to dominate various cultures all throughout the Middle East and the Mesopotamian region.

The Bible states that before Nebuchadnezzar began his conquest the Lord communicated to him that he was supposed to dominate the land of Judah. God had revealed himself to Nebuchadnezzar, and this probably happened through the dreams he had and through the reputation of the Hebrew people. Nebuchadnezzar’s father made it a point to search out ancient records so that he could worship the pagan deities from the past. This too probably helped to inspire Nebuchadnezzar to conquer Judah since the Assyrians had revelations from God that they were given this task for the Israelites they defeated. It should also be kept in mind that many of the Israelites were living in Assyria after the Babylonians took it over, and they too revealed God to the Babylonian rulers.

Nebuchadnezzar had become very powerful and successful with his conquests, and the defeat of Judah was one of his most important victories. A few years after he conquered Judah he had a particular group of young Hebrew boys to become educated within his court. Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego were the young men who would really reveal God to him by their presence.

Nebuchadnezzar was prone to have strange dreams that troubled him deeply, and he would usually try to have the Chaldean wise men interpret these dreams. The Chaldean wise men couldn’t interpret his dreams but with God’s help Daniel was able to tell Nebuchadnezzar about his dreams.

King Nebuchadnezzar went insane during a seven-year period during his rule. Nebuchadnezzar honestly believed that he handled being so successful during his reign and would not acknowledge that God was behind his achievements. So God revealed to Nebuchadnezzar that he would go insane and believed that he was a wild animal. Daniel had told the Babylonian king that this would happen and eventually came to pass. After this period was over God allowed Nebuchadnezzar regain his sanity. He then was humble enough to acknowledge that the Lord of the Hebrews was the only true and living God.

Some Differences in Life between the Ancient and Modern Worlds

In a time without cell phones, computers, telephones, automobiles, refrigerators, and all of the beeps, buzzes and noises of modern life, silence was common. In a time when the world’s population was less than 50 million, solitude was common. In a time when populations lived or died according to the size of their local annual harvest, austerity was the norm. This paper will mention only a few.

By design, man has always received information from the world outside of himself through his senses. However, in ancient times the senses of man were limited in what they could experience by the local environment. Today such limitations are far less.

Ancient – Without photographs and with drawings and paintings rare, man’s visual input was limited to the sights of his immediate surroundings. Few people had seen snow and jungles and mountains and forests and oceans because they rarely traveled more than a few dozen miles from home and those features are rarely co-located. Travelers could describe features to friends back home, but direct experience of varied sights was uncommon. With few written documents and little literacy, reading and analyzing documents was unusual.

People in Canaan had an advantage over many other ancient peoples in their visual experiences for two reasons. First, Canaan has snow and mountains (Mt. Hermon and vicinity), forests (Lebanon, Galilee, Jordan River basin), deserts (in the south around Beersheba, Negev), and the Mediterranean Sea. As nations go, Canaan is small (comparable in land mass to modern Slovenia or El Salvador), and residents of the land had only a few weeks travel from the deserts in the mountains in the north (Beersheba to Mount Hermon is just over 200 miles by ancient routes). The distance from the Jordan River to the east, and Mediterranean Sea to the west is only 60 miles. Second, Canaan was a crossroads of trade between Mesopotamia, Arabia, Africa, Asia, and Europe. People could see traders from India bringing peacocks and elephants, those from Yemen bringing gold and spices, and those from Europe trading furs. Assyria and Egypt were mighty empires compared to puny Israel, but while average Assyrians may never have seen an ocean and average Egyptians may never have seen snow or mountains, ordinary Israelites could easily have experienced both. Few places in the world can boast of such diversity in so small an area.

Modern – Technology allows almost anyone to have almost any type of visual input, regardless of their environment. With millions of documents on every conceivable subject available to most people in an instant, people can spend large percentages of their time on them.

Ancient – The sounds of nature, the human voice, and the noises of a few manmade things such as the creak and groan of the oxcart and the clash of swords comprised the sounds available to be heard. The overall noise level, except near inherently noisy places such as waterfalls, was low. Conversation occurs at about 60 decibels (db) and the sound of a large waterfall such as Niagara might tip 100 decibels. A human shout, such as what people might have heard in war, tops out about 90 db. Our ancestors would rarely have heard anything louder.

Modern – The only limit of sounds to which one can be exposed is the ability of the human ear. One can listen to sounds from the deep sea or high atmosphere, sounds never experienced in person by anyone.

The overall noise level is relatively high in the cities, with traffic hovering around 80 db and a jet takeoff hitting 140 db. Since over 50% of humanity lives in cities, most people experience more sounds than their ancestors did.

Ancient – The smells accessible to man were those of the natural world immediately around them. Abraham, for example, probably never experienced the smells of cinnamon, nutmeg or cloves. Due to an increase in trade, the apostles may have.

Modern – Smells are more limited than sights or sounds because it is more difficult to transmit chemicals over the internet than electrons. Nonetheless, foods, flowers and other fragrant items can be transported across the globe in a matter of hours.

Ancient – As with smells, food could not travel far, so people experienced only what was local. Because Canaan was a land bridge for trade between the continents, Israelites would have had the chance to experience much more.

Modern – As with smells, the only limit to tastes one can experience today is the limitations of the human body.

Ancient – Tactile stimuli are the same throughout the world.

Modern – Ancient man was far less protected from hot, cold, rough, smooth, and other such stimuli than we are today. Many of us spend our days in climate-controlled houses, buildings and vehicles.

It is important to note that while the ancients had a smaller variety of stimuli to observe, they may have observed more deeply than we do today.

In antiquity, man was governed by the realities of nature in a way that few people living today can even imagine. Sundials, water clocks and other devices were used to tell time in the ancient world, but mechanical clocks were not invented until the early Renaissance. The rhythms of the seasons dictated schedules.

Time Period

Ancient – Artificial light, usually candles or lamps lit with olive oil, was expensive. Most people had little. When the sun went down, they went to bed. Combat larger than small unit actions could not occur at night because commanders could not control bodies of troops. Land navigation depended upon the stars and landmarks because roads, until the famous Assyrian roads, with their regular waypoints, were generally narrow and could be easily missed.

Commoners and slaves usually did hard physical labor farming, hunting, gathering, or construction, and were exhausted when evening came. David spent hours alone in the countryside with his sheep and Lincoln spent hours alone in the forest splitting wood.

Modern – Today artificial light is cheap and work is less often hard physical labor. Instead of being awake 12-14 hours per day like the ancients were, we are awake 16-18 hours per day, most of it filled with activity and sensation.

Ancient – The phases of the moon and the movement of the stars were important for religious observances and for long distance navigation, especially nautical.

Modern – Navigation is done with timepieces, maps, charts, and radio and satellite navigation aids. Celestial navigation is a vanishing art.

Ancient – As largely agricultural people, the seasons dictated man’s activities. Wars could not occur during the harvest until there were enough people to do both at the same time.

Modern – Few in developed countries are one poor harvest away from starvation, so the seasons have far less impact on the lives of people.

The greatest force available to man in the ancient world was the pulling force of an ox or horse and the pushing force of the wind or water. Thus man’s ability to lift and move was limited (although as the builders of the pyramids demonstrated, impressive).

Man can walk about three to four miles per hour over moderate terrain, and camel and donkey caravans averaged about the same speed. The typical day’s journey was 25 to 30 miles although it was possible to go faster if the roads were good. Roads were made of dirt until the Roman era and trouble from highwaymen was common. Camels needed to spend up to two months in between long journeys to recuperate. Caravan routes followed established trails or roads between water points. Fodder had to be brought along, with roughly 30 loads of fodder for every 100 loads of merchandise. Each camel would carry loads of up to 300 lbs. Typical cargos were wool, cotton, tea, spices, precious stones, and manufactured goods. A caravan might include 150 camels, roughly eight files of 18 camels per file, for a total of 22.5 tons (45,000 lbs).

Water transportation was by rowing or sailing ships. Depending upon the winds and the current, triremes (ancient Greek ships with rows and sails) typically traveled six to seven miles per hour and travel up to 60 miles per day. Most ships would stay close to the shore and anchor at night to avoid running aground unless they were in very familiar seas. By 240 BC, the Greeks were using cargo ships which were each capable of carrying 500 tons (1,000,000 lbs). It is little wonder that sea trade was far cheaper than land trade.

By contrast, modern trucks can travel 400 miles in one day while carrying 24 tons (48,000 lbs). Modern ultra large container vessels (ULCV) can carry up to 15,000 twenty foot equivalent units (TEU). Each TEU represents approximately 24 tons (48,000 lbs). Thus one modern ULCV can carry roughly 360,000 of load.

Health was one of the greatest differences between ancient and modern times. As late as England in the 18 th century, 25 women died for every 1000 babies born. According to estimates using data from the Roman Empire, about 300 of every 1000 newborns died before completing their first year. Abortion and infanticide, common practices, artificially elevate that number, but modern non-industrial societies sometimes have infant mortality rates of up to 200/1000. Average life expectancy was 25 years, but people who lived into adulthood probably made it to their 60s or 70s.

By contrast, modern life expectancy at birth is 75 to 80 years in the Western world and infant mortality is roughly three to five deaths per 1,000 births. Maternal mortality is roughly 10 deaths per 100,000 live births.

Libraries have been written on this topic, but students of history and historical documents such as the Bible should be aware of these important facts. A clearer understanding of the lives of our ancestors will help us better understand their thoughts, actions, and lives. It will also help us better identify the lessons of history and apply them to our world today.

Global Policy Forum

Egyptian Empire (3100BC to 30 BC)
Norte Chico Empire (3000-1800 BC)
Indus Valley: Empires: Harappa and Mohenjo-Darro (2550-1550 BC)
Akkadian Empire (2500-2000 BC)
Babylonian Empire (1792-1595 BC)
Ancient Chinese Empires: Shang (1751-1111 BC), Chou (1000-800 BC), etc.
Hittite Empire (1500-1200 BC)
Assyrian Empire (1244-612 BC)
Persian Empires (550 BC to 637 AD) including Achemenid Empire (550-330 BC), Sassanian Empire (224 BC-651 AD)
Carthaginian Empire (ca. 475-146 BC)
Athenian Empire (461-440 BC, 362-355 BC)
Macedonian Empire (359-323 BC)
Roman Empire (264 BC to 476 AD)
Parthian Empire (247 BC- 224 AD)

Pre-Modern Period (to 1500)

African Empires: Ethiopian Empire (ca. 50-1974), Mali Empire (ca. 1210-1490), Songhai Empire (1468-1590), Fulani Empire (ca. 1800-1903)
Mesoamerican Empires esp. Maya Empire (ca. 300-900) Teotihuacan Empire (ca. 500-750), Aztec Empire (1325-ca. 1500)
Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
Andean Empires: Huari Empire (600-800) Inca Empire (1438-1525)
Chinese Pre-Modern Empires: including T'ang Dynasty (618-906), Sung Dynasty (906-1278)
Islamic Empires esp. Umayyid/Abbasid (661-1258), Almohad (1140-1250), Almoravid (1050-1140)
Carolingian Empire (ca. 700-810)
Bulgarian Empire (802-827, 1197-1241)
Southeast Asian Empires: Khmer Empire (877-1431), Burmese Empire (1057-1287)
Novogorod Empire (882-1054)
Medieval German Empire (962-1250)
Danish Empire (1014-1035)
Indian Empires, including Chola Empire (11th cent), Empire of Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1039 AD), Mughal Empire (1526-1805)
Mongol Empire (1206-1405)
Mamluk Empire (1250-1517)
Holy Roman Empire (1254-1835)
Habsburg Empire (1452-1806)
Ottoman Empire (1453-1923)

Modern Period (after 1500)

Portuguese Empire (ca. 1450-1975)
Spanish Empire (1492-1898)
Russian Empire/USSR (1552-1991)
Swedish Empire (1560-1660)
Dutch Empire (1660-1962)
British Empire (1607-ca. 1980)
French Empire (ca. 1611- ca. 1980)
Modern Chinese Empire: esp. Ch'ing Dynasty (1644-1911)
Austrian/Austro-Hungarian Empire (ca. 1700-1918) [see also Habsburg Empire]
US Empire (1776-present)
Brazilian Empire (1822-1889)
German Empire (1871-1918, 1939-1945)
Japanese Empire (1871-1945)
Italian Empire (1889-1942)

World 500 BCE

Some of the greatest thinkers in all world history are living at this time. Their teachings will have a lasting impact on the history of humanity, right up to the present day.

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World history in 500 BCE - the classical world takes shape

Great thinkers

At this time, many of the classical civilizations of the ancient world enter their period of greatness: Greek, Chinese, Indian and Israelite civilizations all experience a burst of creativity, each producing thinkers who will profoundly shape the future course of world history. The Buddha in India, Confucius in China, the Greek philosophers of the Ionian school, and the Jewish prophets of ancient Israel – all lay down modes of thought whose influence is still with us today.

Technology and culture

Over the past few centuries, Iron Age technology has been spreading far and wide in the Eastern Hemisphere. It has now reached South East Asia, and is rippling down into Africa. Wherever it arrives it replaces the Stone Age tools used by farmers for millennia. This allows agricultural productivity to rise, populations to expand, towns and cities to grow, and civilization to advance. It is one of the great turning points in global history.

At the same time, the use of alphabetic scripts has been becoming widespread. The Aramaean script is now used throughout the Middle East. Its employment is fostered by the rise of huge imperial states in the region, and the transfers of population that this has involved.

Beyond the Middle East, the closely-related Sanskrit script has evolved amongst the Aryans in India. To the west, Phoenician traders have carried the alphabet to the Greeks, Italians (including of course the Romans) and other peoples of the Mediterranean.

The Middle East

In the Middle East, the past few centuries have seen the rise and fall of a succession of great empires – the Assyrian, the Neo-Babylonian and the Median. Now the Persian empire rules, the largest empire so far.

Europe and Asia

The Celts are now coming to dominate France and other parts of western Europe, populating it with their hill forts and warlike chieftainships.

In the steppes of central Asia, the nomadic horsemen have become a major threat to the settled civilizations of Eurasia. In the East, these “barbarians” have already had an impact on Chinese history by helping break up the unified Zhou kingdom into numerous different states and in the West, deep raids by the Cimmerians have caused much destruction.

North of the Black Sea, the Cimmerians have been replaced as the dominant people by the Scythians, whose tribes are fanning out over a huge area from eastern Europe to central Asia. In the Easter steppes it was the Quanrong – probably related to the later Xiongnu (Huns) – who seem to predominate.


In Africa, Iron Age farming has taken root amongst the Bantu peoples of the West African rainforest. They have started expanding outwards from their homelands.

Civilization is penetrating inner Africa from the north via the kingdom of Nubia, becoming more “African” as it travels.

The Americas

In the Western Hemisphere, several centers of the Olmec civilization of Mexico have experienced a mysterious development, with the ritual burial of great sculptures accompanying the destruction of their communities. Nevertheless, by now the Olmec culture’s influence has spread over a large area of central America.

Far to the south, the Chavin civilization, the first of a long series of urban cultures in the Andean region of South America, has appeared.

Dig Deeper

For details of the different civilizations, click on the relevant timeline above.

More ‘Dig Deeper’ links may be found in the regional maps. To access, click on the markers in the world map.

Forgotten In Time: A Journey of Discovering The Ancient Solfeggio Frequencies

We have incarnated into this human experience as divine beings with a blueprint, a set of instructions. Scientists tell us, however, that a very small percentage (3%) of these instructions make up our physiology.

Carl Sagan writes that most of our genetic information (about 97%) is unused DNA. He refers to this as "genetic gibberish."

Is it possible that most of who we are still lies dormant as our human potential?

In the old paradigm of religion, "potential" remained a mystery to the human mind, therefore we coined a mystical term called "SPIRIT." The old paradigm and its premise stated that we began as biology in the womb of our mothers.

Telliard deChardin, however, tells us that we are not a human being trying to attain a spiritual experience, but, rather, we are spiritual beings having a human experience.

This shift in perception causes a tremendous difference in the way we perceive ourselves in this third/fourth time-space continuum.

We Are Energy Beings. The Divine AS Me

Being a student of "A Course In Miracles" in the late 80’s, I was faced with a dichotomy in the idea that we are not a body. I never understood this statement fully until I began to study Quantum Physics which tells us that everything is energy and matter is not as solid as we perceive it to be.

I believe what is being stated is that at the deepest level we are not separate, as a body, as a spirit, as a soul — we are just energy-beings. This is the level of consciousness being opened to us from which a new paradigm is emerging for the purpose of healing all separation.

The popular term, "The Divine, is in me"- makes "me" separate from the Divine.

May I suggest a shift in the saying to: "The Divine, AS me" to remove the separation.

The Body As An Energy Field

As we move from genetics and concepts like Soul, "Soul Mates" and "Soul work," we move beyond physical diagnosis, into a new field of quantum physics.

In this new field, where consciousness is seen as a unified field where everything is everything else, (T.O.E. Theory - The Theory of Everything) — there are no boundaries.

There is no "this" or "that" no you or me. It is a pure field of awareness – consciousness.

I solved the dichotomy about "we are not our body" by changing my perception of genetics to energetics - realizing that we are not meant to ignore our physiology, but recognize the body as energy, vibrating at a very dense frequency.

The Human Cell. A Field of Potential

I was first introduced to DNA in 1988 when I was going through a transitional period, during which I felt that I had come to the end of everything that I believed.

A tape was given to me of a gentleman speaking in an accent, (which I thought at the time, was rather boring), and I didn’t understand what he was talking about. Then all of a sudden, as I was ready to turn it off, he said: "Quantum physics has found that there is no empty space in the human cell, but it is a teeming, electric-magnetic field of possibility or potential."

That’s all he said! But whatever frequency was contained in those words, RESONATED something inside the CORE of my BEING — and I had a KNOWING in me that the NOTHING I thought I was looking at was the EVERYTHING.

Much like in Zen, and the idea of becoming "as an empty bowl." Eastern Religions (including the Bible) refer to it as the VOID – The Nothing that is EVERYTHING – The Womb of Creation.

I knew that I was experiencing a re-birth!

The person on that tape was Dr. Deepak Chopra. I had never heard of Deepak Chopra in 1988, as he was just coming on the scene about that time. I credit him for a very important transition in my life, just from the statement he made on that tape.

Today, in retrospect, I would call my response to that statement a "cellular memory experience."

We know that intelligence is stored within the cells of the body, and when the right resonance comes and releases that information to become inherent information or inherent KNOWLEDGE – that comes from the true Self.

Is this why so many of us seem to jump from one stimuli to another looking for what will resonate in us?

A Frequency to Repair DNA?

The work being done today with energy at the cellular level really excites me, since I had been very interested in DNA before it became a part of the collective consciousness when CNN produced a special on the Genome Project in 2000.

In fact, I think it took me two years just to learn how to pronounce it (deoxyribonucleic acid did not roll off my tongue quickly). But, I was determined to understand this tremendously powerful energetic blueprint for life, as we know it, at the cellular level on this planet.

As I pursued my passion for the study of DNA, I attended a workshop by Dr. Robert Girard from California on DNA Activation. His work focused on using certain sounds and frequencies to activate DNA and I started offering DNA Activation workshops.

Through those workshops, an article was given to me that reported how biochemists are using the frequency 528 Hz to repair human DNA. The article stated that it was a "C." When I read that I thought, "All I would need to do is go to a piano or other instrument and play a "C" and then, in the DNA workshops we would be able to repair DNA."

How I found out about the Ancient Solfeggio Frequencies

Well, it wasn’t that simple, because I discovered that the regular "C" that we all know of in this culture (which is from the diatonic scale of do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do) was not the 528 Hz frequency "C", as described in the article.

Instead, I discovered that a current 12-tone temperament "C" vibrates to a frequency of only 512 Hz (based on cycles of 8 or 523 Hz on a standard piano tuning), and that the "C" of 528 Hz used in DNA repair had been a part of a set of ancient frequencies called the Solfeggio.

Moreover, the difference in the frequencies existed because of different tuning methods that were utilized in ancient times, vs. those in general use today. Later, we will explore that difference between how we create music today vs. how we used to create it, and how that simple change has made all of the difference in the world.

I found these ancient frequencies to be part of a 6-tone sequence of electro-magnetic frequencies called the Original Solfeggio through the book "The Healing Codes of Biological Apocalypse" by Dr. Leonard Horowitz. These particular frequencies were rediscovered by Dr. Joseph Puleo, who received them in a wonderful experience that some would suggest was mystical.

These frequencies are not something new, but they are something very old.

My First Set of Solfeggio Tuning Forks

I shared the information about these frequencies with Aryiana, a musician friend who had a studio in her home. After reviewing the information, she decided that she would like to experiment with these frequencies in the form of meditation music.

She was also in touch with Jonathan Goldman (author of the book, "Healing Sounds") and he knew of these frequencies, and was using them in some of his music such as "The Lost Chord" CD. Aryiana requested that he have the tuning forks made for her to research the frequencies. I asked if she could also have a set made for me.

After I received the tuning forks and began talking about them around the country, I noticed that people were resonating with the information about these powerful frequencies. It felt as though something was going on in a much larger picture.

We were connecting energetically to this information, and yet I didn’t know what I was going to do with the tuning forks.

The Birth of SomaEnergetics

In 1999, Friends began to ask if I could use the tuning forks on them. From those experiences, along with information I had gathered, a series of techniques began to develop.

The main frequency that I knew the most about was 528 Hz (that the article indicated that biochemists were using for DNA repair). I also knew that the right side of the body is controlled by the left-brain, and the left side by the right-brain and DNA comes thru the Mother’s side and Father’s side through the chromosomes.

In the beginning I would sound the fork and listen as I moved the fork down each side of the body. I began to notice a tremendous imbalance in the sound between the two sides with most people.

The purpose of energy work, as many of you know, is to attain balance. For example, if everything is in balance, such as the ph level, the physical body can heal more naturally. It’s the same way in our energy bodies.

If we can find that energy balance, that equilibrium, where everything aligns or everything comes into synchronization into the rhythm of the dance of life – then healing becomes the natural state. It’s nothing supernatural, or miraculous.

Spiritual texts have referred to this idea when they describe, "going home to heaven." Heaven, to me, is the complete synchronization with higher frequencies and vibrations of creation being totally entrained. In other words, being in a state of at-one-ment.

When I would continue the technique, the sound would begin to even out between the male and female sides of the body, and the client would indicate they were "feeling" a shift. As that would occur, I was totally amazed, and asked myself, "What is happening here?"

Through these special frequencies could I get in touch with our inner male and female energies and determine if they were in balance or was one ancestry dominant? Could we then use vibration and sound to bring balance and create a shift for our clients?

Although I’ve been a speaker of spiritual things for over 40 years, I can’t tell you that I’ve been the most intuitive person in the world. All of a sudden I started having certain feelings about what to do with the forks.

I found that at some point in working with the client, I stopped "doing" the tuning forks (being the initiator of the technique), and they started "doing me" – seeming to direct the movement of the forks! After hundreds of tunings and positive testimonies, I have learned to trust the Ancient Solfeggio frequencies in the form of Tuning Forks as a legitimate modality.

Hence, the birth of SomaEnergetics. Soma means "body" in the Greek. SomaEnergeticscombines the wholistic idea of the body as an energy fieldwith vibrational sound techniquesdesigned to bridge the gap to 5th dimensional energiesby harnessing the power of the Solfeggio frequencies.

Energy and Relationship

Everything is relationship. I remember Dr. Fred Wolf, who is a physicist stating on a tape "Everything is consciousness."

He further noted, "When you are observing an object, on some level the object is observing you." As I listened to that statement, I thought it was strange. I then realized that because something doesn’t have a human consciousness, as I do, that doesn’t mean it doesn’t have it’s own consciousness. Apparently, observing something changes it on some level – that the observer, and the observed are one.

I consider the Solfeggio tuning forks a conscious "entity." They are energy, they’re vibration, they’re frequency – the client is vibration, frequency and energy – I am vibration, frequency and energy. All of that coming together begins to produce a synergetic experience that takes place on many levels.

The energy bodies that we focus on using the Solfeggio Frequencies are the physical, the etheric, the mental/emotional, and the astral.

Sound, Vibration and Form

For more than 200 years, researchers have been validating the connections of Sound and Vibrations on physical form.

The first to make that connection was German scientist Ernst Chladni, who, in 1787, detailed his research in his book "Discoveries Concerning the Theory of Music."

In that pioneering work, he explained ways to make sound waves generate visible structures. He detailed how a violin bow, drawn at a right angle across a flat plate covered with sand, produces patterns and shapes.

Today, those patterns and shapes are called Chladni figures. (Coincidentally, Chladni died in 1829, the same year as Beethoven. Mozart, a Free Mason, heavily influenced Beethoven about the mathematics of music, and likely influenced Chladni as well). 1

In 1815, Mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch followed up on Chaldi’s discoveries. He concluded that the conditions for these designs to arise were because the frequencies, or oscillations per second, were in whole number ratios to each other—such as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and so on. 2

Cymatics: The Forms of Sound

The study of wave phenomena, the ability of sound to organize and repattern matter, is called Cymatics. According to John Beaulieu, in Music and Sound in the Healing Arts , "Form is the more elusive component of sound. Sound-forms can be seen by subjecting mediums such as sand, water, or clay to a continuous sound vibration."

The following pictures taken by Dr. Hans Jenny are sound-forms. They were obtained by placing various mediums on a steel plate with a crystal sound oscillator attached to the bottom. The Oscillator creates a pulse, which vibrates the steel plate. The forms on the plate are examples of sound organizing matter."

Jenny also "noticed that when the vowels of ancient languages like Hebrew and Sanskrit were pronounced, the sand took the shape of the written symbols for those vowels."

"Space is not empty. It is full, a plenum as opposed to a vacuum, and is the ground for the existence of everything, including ourselves. The universe is not separate from this cosmic sea of energy." David Bohm

Jenny concluded there were examples of cymatic elements everywhere—"vibrations, oscillations, pulses, wave motions, pendulum motions, rhythmic courses of events, serial sequences, and their effects and actions"—and they effected everything including biological evolution.

The evidence convincingly demonstrated that all natural phenomena were ultimately dependent on, if not entirely determined by the frequencies of vibration. He argued that physical healing could be aided or hindered by tones. Different frequencies influenced genes, cells, and various structures in the body, he claimed.

Vibration of Music of the Spheres: "Every cell pulsates, reflects and interacts with acoustic oscillations of the medium. Even the earth and sun vibrate in unison based on a main rhythm of 160 minutes. Each musical note is therefore united to non-audible notes of higher octaves, and each symphony to other symphonies that we do not hear, and although they make our cells oscillate and possibly resonate. Even DNA has it’s own melody. The musical nature of nuclear matter from atoms to galaxies is now recognized by official science."

In " Molecules of Emotion," by Candace Pert, Ph.D., she writes, "… basically, receptors function as scanners (sensing molecules, on a cellular level). They cluster in cellular membranes, waiting for the right ligand (much smaller molecules than receptors), to come dancing along (diffusing) through the fluid surrounding each cell, and mount them – binding with them and (tickling ) them to turn them on and get them motivated to vibrate a message into the cell. Binding of the ligand to the receptor is likened to two voices, striking the same note and producing a vibration that rings a doorbell to open the doorway to the cell."

Poet Cathie Guzetta summarized this science best when she wrote:

"The forms of snowflakes and faces of flowers may take on their shape because they are responding to some sound in nature. Likewise, it is possible that crystals, plants, and human beings may be, in some way, music that has taken on visible form."

How Did The Solfeggio Frequencies Get Lost?

I discovered that these powerful frequencies had been given to the church many years ago for a very spiritual purpose. This was back when the church was a wonderful place for the people in the villages to gather together.

The church served as a social, political, and spiritual place. People came to Mass, which at that time, was done in Latin (until Vatican II came along). When people sing in Latin or musical tones, it is very powerful, because it gets through all of the limited thought forms, and into deeper levels of the subconscious – accessing insights beyond belief systems.

As described above by Dr. Candace Pert, PhD, energy and vibration go all the way to the molecular level. She states that we have 70 different receptors on the molecules and when vibration and frequency reaches that far they begin to vibrate. Moreover, she observed, "as they begin to vibrate they sort of touch each other, and tickle each other, and they play and mount each other."

It’s this whole energetic dance ritual, at the cellular level, that opens the chromosomes and exposes the DNA to the frequencies. When we do toning, drumming, chanting, or tuning forks – it can be a way to direct energy for transformational purposes.

Sound Intention: Positive of Negative?

Vibration and sound can be used, like most things, either with positive intention or negative intention. Used negatively, it’s nothing more than control and manipulation. Most of the world has been built upon control and manipulation by the way we communicate thru language.

A lot of different texts, such as the Bible, talk about the importance of making Sound—whether it’s chants, drumming, or speaking in tongues (such as the charismatic fundamentalists do), they are just different ways that people are accessing deeper levels of themselves. I suggest to you that the Solfeggio Tuning Forks are an even purer way of doing that with positive intention.

When Dr. Joseph Puleo was researching the tones, he was directed to a Monsignor at a university in Spokane WA, who was head of the medieval department. Following a 20 minute conversation, the clergyman asked what he could assist Dr. Puleo with:

"Can you decipher Mediaeval Latin?’

‘And you know the musical scale and everything?’

‘Well then, could you tell me what ‘UT - queant laxis’ means?’

After a brief pause, the Monsignor quipped, ‘It’s none of your business’

Additionally, as Dr. Puleo researched the tones further, he came across a book on Gregorian chants by Professor Emeritus Willi Apel who "argued that the chants being used today were totally incorrect, and undermined the spirit of the Catholic faith." 1

Moreover, Professor Apel reported that "one-hundred fifty-two chants were apparently missing. The Catholic Church presumably "lost" these original chants. The chants were based on the ancient original scale of six musical notes called the Solfeggio." 1

Trust me, nothing is lost, it’s just neatly put away however, they cannot hide from the masses what is energetically placed within the Soul.

Altered Frequencies Weakened Spiritual Impact of Hymns

According to Professor Willi Apel,1 "The origin of what is now called Solfeggio. arose from a Medieval Hymn to John the Baptist which has this peculiarity that the first six lines of the music commenced respectively on the first six successive notes of the scale, and thus the first syllable of each line was sung to a note one degree higher that the first syllable of the line that preceded it.

By degrees these syllables became associated and identified with their respective notes and as each syllable ended in a vowel, they were found to be peculiarly adapted for vocal use. Hence "Ut" was artificially replaced by "Do." Guido of Arezzo was the first to adopt them in the 11th century, and Le Marie, a French musician of the 17th century added "Si" for the seventh note of the scale, in order to complete the series."

Further research states that, "Pope Johannes later became a saint - Saint Iohannes - and then the scale was changed. The seventh note "Si" was added from his name. "Si" later became "Ti."

These changes significantly altered the frequencies sung by the masses. The alterations also weakened the spiritual impact of the Church’s hymns. Because the music held mathematical resonance, frequencies capable of spiritually inspiring mankind to be more "Godlike," the changes affected alterations in conceptual thought as well, further distancing humanity from God."

In other words, whenever you sing a Psalm, it is music to the ears. But it was originally intended to be music for the soul as well or the "secret ear."

Thus by changing the notes, high matrices of thought and to a great extent well being, was squelched. Now it is time to recover these missing notes." 1

The Hidden Meanings of the Solfeggio

I’d heard of do, re, me, fa, so, la, ti, do. I particularly responded to it whenever I hear that song by Julie Andrews from "The Sound of Music." I literally have a "brain cell firing" as it is engraved into my brain, and I see her coming over the mountain in the movie. I didn’t realize this was actually a second, modified scale. The original Solfeggio scale was actually: UT, RE, MI, FA, SO, LA.

Looking at the definitions of each of the original syllables, using hidden entries from Webster’s Dictionary and the Original Greek Apocrypha, I have determined that these original frequencies can be used for: Turning grief to joy, helping the person connect with their Source to bring forth miracles, DNA repair, connecting with spiritual family, solving situations & expressing yourself and finally, becoming more intuitive.2

Through music these tones can assist all the channels in staying open and keep the life force (the Chi) literally flowing thru the Chakra System quite freely. Is this is what the six electro-magnetic frequencies were to accomplish that were put into "lost" hymns and Gregorian chants?

Using the Solfeggio to Restore Spiritual Wholeness

I think we are living in a tremendously wonderful time, and rather than seeing the glass as "half empty," I see it as "half full." Rather than accepting "CNN’s perspective" of the world view, it’s about finding perspective thru the vision of your own heart. It is about change and transformation of mankind to the next level of evolution.

We, as Spiritual Light Workers, have made ourselves accessible at this time, by Divine Appointment, to be here to help those in humanity who choose (it’s all based upon irrevocable choice) to stay, or to go. Those who have chosen to stay will come into our lives, and we have already agreed to assist them.

It’s all about assisting other people. It’s not to be their "Healer," but to assist them in knowing who they are and connecting with their true Source.

It is about providing an atmosphere of non-judgement, a Sacred Space, for the purpose of healing themselves. We should be continuously teaching while assisting people.

The old paradigm teaches us to keep the information among the professionals. The new paradigm is to share the information, and empower the client. Everyone you work with—whether it’s Reiki, Massage, Tuning Forks or other modalities you are using, you should feel that you’ve empowered that person, so they can extend this information to someone else.

Healing has become about our evolution by reconnecting our additional strands of DNA. Healing is also about assisting the person in restoring themselves to a state of "Spiritual Wholeness."

3, 6, and 9: Keys to the Universe

As we look at the six original Solfeggio frequencies, using the Pythagorean method, we find the base or root vibrational numbers are 3,6, & 9. Nikola Tesla tells us, and I quote: "If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe."

John Keely, an expert in electromagnetic technologies, wrote that the vibrations of "thirds, sixths, and ninths, were extraordinarily powerful." In fact, he proved the "vibratory antagonistic thirds was thousands of times more forceful in separating hydrogen from oxygen in water than heat."

In his "Formula of Aqueous Disintegration" he wrote that, "molecular dissociation or disintegration of both simple and compound elements, whether gaseous or solid, a stream of vibratory antagonistic thirds, sixths, or ninths, on their chord mass will compel progressive subdivisions. In the disintegration of water the instrument is set on thirds, sixths, and ninths, to get the best effects."

In the book of Genesis it states that there are six days of creation. Yet many talk about the creation week – or seven days, and the Christian Bible views the number seven as the number of completeness. Why Seven? It is due to the influence of the Near Eastern culture at the time in which Jesus lived, when it was believed that there were only seven planets.

When wrestling with adding a 7th number, I was mystically drawn to an article in Discover Magazine. In his newest book, Just Six Numbers,Rees argues that six numbers underlie the fundamental physical properties of the universe, and that each is the precise value needed to permit life to flourish. In laying out this premise, he joins a long, intellectually daring line of cosmologists and astrophysicists (not to mention philosophers, theologians, and logicians) stretching all the way back to Galileo, who presume to ask: Why are we here? As Rees puts it, "These six numbers constitute a recipe for the universe." He adds that if any one of the numbers were different "even to the tiniest degree, there would be no stars, no complex elements, no life." (From Discovery Magazine). As some authors have speculated, could these tones have played a role in the miraculous shattering of Jericho’s great wall in six days before falling on the seventh day? Some scientists are now stating that if we have been created, we most likely would have been sung into existence. Is it possible that the six days of creation mentioned in Genesis represent six fundamental frequencies that underlie the universe? Religious scholars believe both events occurred as a result of sounds being spoken or played.

Other scientists, including the geniuses Nikola Tesla, Raymond Rife, as well as Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Chladni, all must have known about, and used the concept of, the inherent power of threes, sixes, and nines. So we are dealing with three powerful numbers: 3-6-9. Everyone of the six Solfeggio Tuning Forks all add up, individually to the Pythagorean scheme of 3-6-9. In fact, because there are two sets of 3-6-9 (anagrams) in the solfeggio, they are even more powerful as these combinations serve as "portals" to other dimensions!

Just Intonation – 12 Tone Equal Temperament

As I observed earlier, another reason these Ancient Solfeggio frequencies became "lost" was because of the change in tuning practices throughout history. The standard tuning method for the past 200 years is quite different from the tuning practices dating from antiquity through about the 16th century A.D. These ancient tuning practices used a system of tuning known as Just Intonation. The tuning practice adopted for western cultures during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, and used today, is known as Twelve-Tone Equal Temperament. The explanation of the fundamentals of these tuning systems is far too complex for this agenda, but the following quote from a book written by David B. Doty, titled The Just Intonation Primer , should give an idea of the confinement that music has been relegated to. "Essentially, music has been placed in a box of limitations"— as the result of the rigidity imposed by the Twelve-Tone Equal Temperament tuning standards in use today.

"Although it is difficult to describe the special qualities of Just Intonation intervals to those who have never heard them, words such as clarity, purity, smoothness, and stability come readily to mind. The supposedly consonant intervals and chords of (12-Tone) Equal Temperament, which deviate from simple rations to varying degrees, sound rough, restless, or muddy in comparison."

Just Intonation can be found in many of the great Fathers of Classical Music – Beethoven and Hyden, just to name a few. They did not use this 12-tone temperament and I think that is why we have a richer experience when we hear music that was composed several hundred years ago. Classical Music based on Just Intonation gives us a different rapport with time and space and brings us into our higher Chakras.

Native American chanting is many times based on Just Intonation. The chanting seems to sound monotone, but we are finding out that within the monotone sound is multi-dimensional harmonics.

How these different types of tones affect our health

Consequently, since all music in our contemporary world (from commercials, to modern hymns and symphonies) has been composed utilizing the 12-Tone Equal Temperament Scale, they all have vibrational limits. As a result, vibrational frequency of the tones of modern music can create situations such as "boxed-in thinking," stuffed and suppressed emotions and fear-based " lack" consciousness—all of which then tend to manifest into physical symptoms of "dis-ease."

This is in contrast to music created from the Ancient Solfeggio, which stimulates the vibration of expanded creativity, easier problem solving and holistic health.

Again, it should be noted that although there are contemporary notes that approximate the Solfeggio tones, they are not the same frequencies as the ancient tones. Our research indicates that the vibrational frequencies contained in the Solfeggio tones hold these original healing potentials.

Other Resources:

  • John Beaulieu, "Music and Sound in the Healing Arts." Station Hill Press, 1987
  • Giuliana Conforto, "Man’s Cosmic Game," Edizioni Nowsis, 1998
  • David B. Doty, "Just Intonation Primer"
  • Jonathan Goldman, "Healing Sounds: The Power of Harmonics," Element Books, 1992
  • Leonard Horowitz and Joseph Puleo, "Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse," Tetrahedron Publishing Group, 1999
  • Candace Pert, PhD, "Molecules of Emotion"
  • Michael Talbot, "The Holographic Universe"
  • Dr. Rees, "Just Six Numbers"

Article © 2016 by David Hulse, C.V.S.M.T. -

1 Professor Apel’s and Dr. Puleo’s remarks as reported in "Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse"by Dr. Leonard Horowitz. Pages 58-61 Also pgs 345-6
2 Hidden Entry Meanings from the book, "Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse" by Dr. Leonard Horowitz. Pgs. 166-67

Watch the video: Sensation oder Phantasie: Die Antarktis auf einer Weltkarte von 1508? (May 2022).


  1. Biford

    what is it

  2. Abjaja

    me a couple

  3. Charlton

    All about one and so it is infinite

  4. Raley

    You are not right. I'm sure. We will discuss it.

  5. Jaden

    Bravo, what necessary words..., a magnificent idea

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