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The I and II world wars are 25 years apart, which is within the length of one generation. This is interesting, because it creates a premise for an entire part of a generation to be both without fathers and grandfathers. Have there been other wars separated by the length of one generation (20-30 years)?
In the U.S., the French and Indian War, 1754-1763 was about one generation ahead of the American Revolution 1776-1783. If you take the Texas Revolution of 1836 as the "start" of the Mexican-American War, the 1836 start was 25 years ahead the Civil War (1861-65).
The argument is that the earlier wars "incubated" the later wars, as some historians believe was the case with World War I and II. The French and Indian War caused the taxation (and set up a potential alliance with France), that led to the American Revolution. And the wars of Texas and America against Mexico sharpened the slavery issue, helping to incubate the Civil War.
The "third wars" in these sequences were the War of 1812 after the American Revolution, and the Korean War after World War II. There was no "third war" after the Civil War because of the exhaustion of the Americans.
There were plenty: E.g. the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) form such a pair. Obviously Prussia (soon to become center of the German Empire as proclaimed by Wilhelm I in 1871) participated in both.
As a European who has been born in the 1960s I rather often comment to my friends that it has been extraordinary good fortune for us members of an generation that hasn't had to witness war (from up-close) during their lifetimes (keeping fingers crossed.) I give credit partly to the shocks of the two WWs (on the destructive side) and the developments leading up to the founding of the EU (on the constructive side) each.
UPDATE: I now realize that I have answered a slightly different question by mistake, i.e. one for pairs of wars with a time span of 25 years or less (sic!) in between. Sorry for that.
How about the Punic Wars? The first war was 264 to 241 BC. The second was 218 to 201 and the third 149 to 146. There were 23 years between the first two and 52 between the last two.
What about three generations in a row?
From the series of Polish-Teutonic Wars that took place between 14th and 16th century, I would refer to three periods of time. 1409-11 (with the Battle of Grunwald, which was one of the largest military engagements of medieval Europe) during the rules of Władysław II Jogaila, then a generation later, 1431-35, at the end of his reigns, and finally another generation later, Thirteen Years War (1454-66), in the times of Casimir IV Jagiellon.
The French Revolution begun in 1789 and the Battle of Waterloo was 1815, 25 years later. I think you could also find many examples during Hundred-Years War.
Also crusades can be set in 10-30 year steps:
- 2nd (1150)
- 3rd (1190)
- 4th (1202)
- children's (1212)
- 5th (1220)
- 6th (1230)
- 7th (1250)
- 8th (1270)
(dates rounded, full list eg. in Wikipedia)
The French Revolution (begun in 1789) happened around a decade before the Napoleonic Wars (late 1700s-1814). That's a clear case, too, of the one leading to the other, as the instability surrounding the Reign of Terror and so on led directly to Napoleon gaining power in France.
One could argue that there's a similar link between the Russo-Japanese War of the early 1900s and the Great War, as it demonstrated that Russia was weak and could be taken. As with the French Revolution / Napoleonic campaigns, though, that might be too close for you, as you had more or less the same cohort fighting in each instance.
My other example was going to be the Punic Wars, although those too have already been mentioned. If ever one conflict led to another…
57d. Roe v. Wade and Its Impact
Pope John Paul II was a leader in the pro-life movement. During his landmark 1998 visit to Cuba, he criticized the island's legalized abortion policies.
No topic related to the feminist movement has aroused such passion and controversy as much as the right to an abortion. In the 1960s, there was no federal law regulating abortions, and many states had banned the practice entirely, except when the life of the mother was endangered.
Women's groups argued that illegality led many women to seek black market abortions by unlicensed physicians or to perform the procedure on themselves. As a result, several states such as California and New York began to legitimize abortions. With no definitive ruling from the federal government, women's groups sought the opinion of the United States Supreme Court.
The battle began in Texas, which outlawed any type of abortion unless a doctor determined that the mother's life was in danger. The anonymous Jane Roe challenged the Texas law, and the case slowly made its way to the highest court in the land.
After two years of hearing evidence, the Court invalidated the Texas law by a 7-2 vote. Using the same reasoning as the Griswold v. Connecticut decision, the majority of the justices maintained that a right to privacy was implied by the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments. No state could restrict abortions during the first three months, or trimester, of a pregnancy.
States were permitted to adopt restrictive laws in accordance with respecting the mother's health during the second trimester. The practice could be banned outright during the third trimester. Any state law that conflicted with this ruling was automatically overturned.
Women's groups were ecstatic. But immediately an opposition emerged. The Roman Catholic Church had long criticized abortion as a form of infanticide. Many fundamentalist Protestant ministers joined the outcry. The National Right to Life Committee formed with the explicit goal of reversing Roe v. Wade .
Religious traditions throughout the world have very different views on unborn children. In Japan, the Bodhisattva Jizo is the guardian of unborn children and expectant mothers. Legend has it that when babies die, they are sent to the underworld for causing their parent's great suffering. Jizo rescues the children from that punishment.
The issue is fundamentally thorny because it involves basic faiths. Those who believe life begins at conception feel that the unborn child deserves the same legal protections as an adult. Ending such a life is equivalent to murder to those who subscribe to this belief. Others argue that life begins at birth, and that laws restricting abortion interfere with the right of a woman to decide what is in her own best interests. Opponents of abortion use the label "pro-life" to define their cause. Supporters of Roe v. Wade identify themselves as " pro-choice ."
Since 1973, the battle has raged. Pro-life groups began to lobby their Senators and Representatives to propose a Right-to-Life Amendment to the Constitution. Although introduced in Congress, the measure has never received the necessary support. Pro-choice groups such as the National Abortion Rights Action League fear that a slow erosion of abortion rights has taken place since Roe v. Wade .
The Hyde Amendment of 1976 prohibits the use of federal Medicaid funds to be used for abortions. Later Court decisions such as Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) have upheld the right of states to impose waiting periods and parental notification requirements. President George Bush imposed a "gag rule" that prohibited workers in federally funded clinics from even mentioning abortion as an option with their patients. Bill Clinton promptly ended the gag rule in 1993.
Planned Parenthood clinics have become local battlegrounds over the abortion controversy. Since Planned Parenthood prides itself in providing safe, inexpensive abortions, protesters regularly picket outside their offices. Several Planned Parenthood sites have even been bombed by antiabortion extremists.
The fate of Roe v. Wade continues to lie with the Supreme Court. Although every ruling since 1973 upheld the decision, the composition of the Court changes with every retirement. Activists on each side demand a "litmus test" for any justice named to the federal courts. Republicans have tended to appoint pro-life judges, and Democrats have selected pro-choice nominees.
15 Shakespeare in Love (1998)
This Best Picture Oscar winner stars Joseph Fiennes as a young, broke Shakespeare with writer's block who meets his dream girl and is thusly motivated to write one of his most famous plays. While the story is not one draped in historical accuracy, the background and setting draw the eye to inaccuracies that stand out. The characters drink out of modern beer glasses and the Queen attends a play publicly any plays she would have seen would have been performed in her own court. Add to that the theatres would have been closed anyway in the dying days of the bubonic plague outbreak, and you've got yourself a fairly impossible scenario.
The film creates an alternate universe where Shakespeare’s inspiration for ‘Romeo and Juliet’ mirrors his own experience in forbidden love. Luckily, screenwriter Marc Norman never pretended the film was rooted in fact, but its liberal take on the life of the most famous writer in history undoubtedly mislead numerous viewers into thinking Shakespeare was essentially a run-of-the-mill starving artist at one stage, just like countless others.
'What Every Person Should Know About War'
War is defined as an active conflict that has claimed more than 1,000 lives.
Has the world ever been at peace?
Of the past 3,400 years, humans have been entirely at peace for 268 of them, or just 8 percent of recorded history.
How many people have died in war?
At least 108 million people were killed in wars in the twentieth century. Estimates for the total number killed in wars throughout all of human history range from 150 million to 1 billion. War has several other effects on population, including decreasing the birthrate by taking men away from their wives. The reduced birthrate during World War II is estimated to have caused a population deficit of more than 20 million people.
How many people around the world serve in the military?
The combined armed forces of the world have 21.3 million people. China has the world's largest, with 2.4 million. America is second with 1.4 million. India has 1.3 million, North Korea 1 million, and Russia 900,000. Of the world's 20 largest militaries, 14 are in developing nations?
How many wars are taking place right now?
At the beginning of 2003 there were 30 wars going on around the world. These included conflicts in Afghanistan, Algeria, Burundi, China, Colombia, the Congo, India, Indonesia, Israel, Iraq, Liberia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda.
Is there a genetic reason why we fight?
There is no single "war gene." Combinations of genes can predispose a person to violence. However, aggression is a product of biology and environment. In America, sources of aggressive dispositions include domestic violence, the portrayal of violence in the media, threats from enemies, and combat training.
Worldwide, 97 percent of today's military personnel are male. This is thought to be a reflection of culture and biology. Fifteen percent (204,000) of American military personnel are female.
Can women fight as effectively as men do?
Yes. While fewer women are "natural killers," and women are on average smaller than men, there are many women who have the psychological makeup and the physical ability to fight. There are many men without either. Women have shown valor in combat. Dr. Mary Walker won the Medal of Honor during the Civil War.
Why are civilians so attracted to war?
War is often regarded by observers as honorable and noble. It can be viewed as a contest between nations, a chance to compete and be declared the victor.
Does the American public support war?
Between 65 and 85 percent of the American public will support a military action when it begins. Vietnam had 64 percent support in 1965. As American casualties mount, support often decreases. The Korean and Vietnam Wars ended with support levels near 30 percent. World War II support levels never fell below 77 percent, despite the prolonged and damaging nature of the conflict. The Gulf War enjoyed similar levels of support.
How large is the American military?
The active peacetime force of the U.S. armed services includes 1.4 million people, with the Army making up almost 500,000 of that number. The Navy has approximately 380,000 men and women on active duty. The Air Force has approximately 365,000, and the Marines have approximately 175,000. Approximately 1.3 million Americans serve in Reserve and National Guard branches that can be activated in time of war.
How many Americans have died in wars?
More than 650,000 Americans have been killed in combat. Another 243,000 have died while wars were being fought, due to training accidents, injury, and disease. In the twentieth century, approximately 53,000 Americans were killed in combat in World War I, 291,000 in World War II, 33,000 in the Korean War, 47,000 in Vietnam, and 148 in the Gulf War. Including deaths from disease, accidents, and other factors, each war's total was much higher: approximately 116,000 died in World War I, 400,000 in World War II, 53,000 in the Korean War, 90,000 in Vietnam, and almost 400 in the Gulf War.
How deadly is the American military?
It is difficult to measure how many enemy deaths American armed forces have inflicted. Americans and their allies typically cause 10 to 20 times more combat casualties than American forces suffer. Estimates of Iraqi soldiers killed in the Gulf War range from 1,500 to 100,000. The lowest figure would still be 10 times the number of Americans killed in the war. Approximately 850,000 Vietcong died in the Vietnam War, 18 times the 47,000 U.S. dead. More than 600,000 North Korean and 1 million Chinese fighters died in the Korean War, almost 50 times the 33,000 American dead. In World War II, 3,250,000 German and 1,507,000 Japanese soldiers, sailors, and pilots were killed, 16 times the 291,000 American servicemen who were killed.
How much does it cost the United States to maintain its armed forces?
Since 1975, America has spent between 3 and 6 percent of its gross domestic product on national defense, or approximately 15 to 30 percent of each year's federal budget. In the first years of the twenty-first century, this meant spending roughly $350 billion per year. In comparison, annual spending for other programs included roughly $15 billion on state and international assistance and $60 billion on education. From 1940 to 1996 (a period that includes several cycles of war and peace, including the arms race of the cold war), America spent $16.23 trillion on the military ($5.82 trillion of that on nuclear weapons), versus $1.70 trillion on health care and $1.24 trillion on international affairs.
The cost of the Gulf War was approximately $76 billion. Vietnam cost $500 billion the Korean War, $336 billion and World War II, almost $3 trillion. Put another way, the Gulf War cost each person in the United States $306 Vietnam, $2,204 per person Korea, $2,266 per person and World War II, $20,388 per person. At its outset, estimates for the cost of the Iraqi War were $50 to $140 billion, and an additional $75 to $500 billion for occupation and peacekeeping, or from $444 to $2,274 per person.
How big is the military industry in the United States?
Besides the 1.4 million active duty personnel, the military employs 627,000 civilians. The defense industry employs another 3 million. In total, the military and its supporting manufacturing base employs 3.5 percent of the U.S. labor force. In 2002, the Department of Defense spent $170.8 billion with military contractors such as Boeing and Lockheed Martin.
How has the size of the industry changed over time?
The 2003 level of 3.5 percent of the labor force is historically low. In 1987, toward the end of the cold war, defense (including the military) made up 5.7 percent of the U.S. labor market in 1968, during Vietnam, 9.8 percent in 1943, during World War II, 39 percent. After World War II, defense employment dropped to 4.5 percent, but jumped back to 11 percent in 1951 with the Korean War and the start of the cold war.
Does the military industry help make defense spending decisions?
Yes. In 2000, defense lobbying groups spent approximately $60 million. Defense political action committees also contribute roughly $14 million per congressional election cycle. Defense aerospace, defense electronics, and miscellaneous defense are the 31st-, 44th-, and 46th-ranking industries, respectively.
How many weapons does the U.S. military industry export each year?
In 2001, U.S. arms manufacturers exported $9.7 billion in weapons worldwide. The United Kingdom was second in international exports with $4 billion. In addition, the United States made new sales of $12.1 billion. Russia was second with $5.8 billion. The United States is the world's largest arms manufacturer, supplying almost half of all the arms sold on the world market.
What kinds of arms does the United States export?
In 2002, U.S. manufacturers planned to export arms including Cobra and Apache attack helicopters, Black Hawk helicopters, KC-135A Stratotanker air-to-air tanker/transport aircraft, Hellfire and Hellfire II air-to-surface antiarmor missiles, Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, TOW 2A and 2B missiles, M-16 rifles, M-60 machine guns, grenade launchers, MK-82 (500 lb.) and MK-83 (1,000 lb.) bombs, Sentinel radar systems, GBU12 Paveway series laser-guided bombs, standard assault amphibious personnel vehicles, assault amphibious command vehicles, and CBU-97 sensor fused weapon antitank cluster bombs.
How many of the weapons U.S. companies export go to developing countries?
Approximately half. From 1994 to 2001, the United States exported $131 billion in arms, with $59 billion going to developing nations. The United States is the leading exporter to developing countries, with Russia and France second and third.
How do American arms exports affect the American people?
Arms exports are an important source of American jobs and help maintain U.S. military manufacturing capacity. They also have some negative consequences. When American weapons are used in a conflict-for example, by Israel against the Palestinians-America is also blamed for the attacks. U.S. forces regularly find themselves up against sophisticated weaponry of American origin, which is harder to defend against.
How dangerous is war for civilians?
Very dangerous. Between 1900 and 1990, 43 million soldiers died in wars. During the same period, 62 million civilians were killed. More than 34 million civilians died in World War II. One million died in North Korea. Hundreds of thousands were killed in South Korea, and 200,000 to 400,000 in Vietnam. In the wars of the 1990s, civilian deaths constituted between 75 and 90 percent of all war deaths.
What is the civilian experience in war?
They are shot, bombed, raped, starved, and driven from their homes. During World War II, 135,000 civilians died in two days in the firebombing of Dresden. A week later, in Pforzheim, Germany, 17,800 people were killed in 22 minutes. In Russia, after the three-year battle of Leningrad, only 600,000 civilians remained in a city that had held a population of 2.5 million. One million were evacuated, 100,000 were conscripted into the Red Army, and 800,000 died. In April 2003, during the Iraqi War, half of the 1.3 million civilians in Basra, Iraq, were trapped for days without food and water in temperatures in excess of 100 degrees.
How many refugees axe there?
In 2001, 40 million people were displaced from their homes because of armed conflict or human rights violations. Refugees have been a concern throughout the twentieth century. Five million Europeans were uprooted from 1919 to 1939. World War II displaced 40 million non-Germans in Europe, and 13 million Germans were expelled from countries in Eastern Europe. Approximately 2.5 million of the 4.4 million people in Bosnia and Herzegovina were driven from their homes during that region's war in the early 1990s. More than 2 million Rwandans left their country in 1994. In 2001, 200,000 people were driven from Afghanistan to Pakistan. In early 2003, 45,000 Liberians were displaced from their homes.
What are the consequences of becoming a refugee?
Refugees have very high mortality rates, due primarily to malnutrition and infectious disease. Rwandan refugees in Zaire in 1994 had a death rate 25 to 50 times higher than prewar Rwandans. Iraqi Kurdish refugees in Turkey in 1991 had a death rate 18 times higher than usual.
How does war affect children?
More than 2 million children were killed in wars during the 1990s. Three times that number were disabled or seriously injured. Twenty million children were displaced from their homes in 2001. Many were forced into prostitution. A large percentage of those will contract AIDS. Children born to mothers who are raped or forced into prostitution often become outcasts.
How many child soldiers are there?
More than 300,000 worldwide. Soldiers are sometimes recruited at age 10 and younger. The youngest carry heavy packs, or sweep roads with brooms and branches to test for landmines. When children are hostile, the opposing army is more likely to consider every civilian a potential enemy.
Why do children join armies?
They are often forced to. Some are given alcohol or drugs, or exposed to atrocities, to desensitize them to violence. Some join to help feed or protect their families. Some are offered up by their parents in exchange for protection. Children can be fearless because they lack a clear concept of death.
Women often take on larger economic roles in wartime. They must find ways to compensate for their husband's military deployment or unemployment. Those in war zones must search for food, water, medicine, and fuel despite shortages. Some women in war zones are forced into prostitution to provide for their family. Famine and stress cause increased stillbirth and early infant death. AIDS risk increases for many women in war, from prostitution, husbands who return from military duty with HIV, or rape.
Genocide is any number of acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, according to the United Nations. Others include political and social groups in the definition, making genocide more broadly the annihilation of difference. Genocidal campaigns have become more frequent since World War I. Modern industrial weapons have made mass killings easier to commit.
How many genocides have occurred since World War I?
Dozens. The most devastating include those in the Soviet Union, where approximately 20 million were killed during Stalin's Great Terror (1930s) Nazi Germany, where 6 million Jews were killed in concentration camps along with 5 million or more Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other "enemies of the German state" (1937-1945) Cambodia, where 1.7 million of the country's 7 million people were killed as a result of the actions of the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979) Iraq, where 50,000 Kurds were killed during the ethnic cleansing of Anfal in 1987 Bosnia, where 310,000 Muslims were killed (1992-1995) and Rwanda, where more than 1 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were slaughtered over ten weeks in 1994.
How is the U.S. military organized?
The U.S. military is run by the Department of Defense. It oversees the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, which are responsible for land, sea, and air fighting respectively.
Excerpted from WHAT EVERY PERSON SHOULD KNOW ABOUT WAR by CHRIS HEDGES Copyright © 2003 by Chris Hedges
Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
The Top 25 Brother Sister Duos in Movie History
You may have heard it said that all movies follow one of a handful of basic storylines. When you think of the endless complexity of cinema, it seems like a strange claim. However, at heart, every piece of film deals with a core human interest or concern. The vast majority are about finding love. Others are about losing it. Some focus on the trauma of grief. Then, there are movies about personal triumph, parental sacrifice, and bravery in the face of great danger. There’s also a special place in cinema for sibling relationships. Think about it. Some of the most exciting, iconic, and enigmatic movie duos are made up of a brother and sister. The classic example is, of course, Luke and Leia, but they’re not the only ones. For Hollywood, the bond between siblings has long been a subject of fascination.
We’re going to take a look at some of the most interesting brother sister duos in movie history. Some are inspiring. Some are a little icky. Others will make you turn to your sibling and thank them for being in your life.
Hansel and Gretel – Hansel & Gretel: Witch Hunters
Hansel and Gretel are one of the oldest sibling duos in literary history. Yet, in 2013, a blockbuster turned this familiar relationship on its head. Hansel & Gretel: Witch Hunters transformed the two from tragic tots, who get eaten by a witch, into a badass witch hunting team. While they frequently bicker, they always present a united front when it comes to taking down the bad guys.
Luke and Leia – Star Wars Franchise
We couldn’t compile a list of movie siblings without including the strangest pairing in the galaxy. Luke and Leia Skywalker meet as two galactic warriors, determined to take on Darth Fader and his appetite for world destruction. They share a romantic kiss, before later finding out that not only are they related, they’re actually twins. If that makes you cringe, you know how all those Star Wars fans felt in 1983 after the big reveal.
Theo and Isabelle – The Dreamers
Although, Star Wars has got nothing on 2003 drama The Dreamers. It tells the tale of Isabelle and Theo, two French siblings with an unhealthy relationship. They are joined by American exchange student Matthew, who quickly becomes embroiled in a wild sexual odyssey with the pair. The three leads are an electric presence. They manage to convince themselves that their incestuous union is more free-spirited and libertarian than dangerous. That is, until the final act when their secret is revealed.
Ferris and Jeanie – Ferris Bueller’s Day Off
Now, on to a more familiar sibling set up. Like most teenagers, Jeanie Bueller doesn’t always get along with her brother. In fact, when she finds out he’s playing hooky from school, in order to spend the day adventuring, she’s determined to ruin the plans. While everybody wants to have the kind of relationship where you’d both be cool enough to cover for the other, siblings just love to snitch. You can’t blame poor Jeannie. Ferris is a bit of a nightmare.
Richie and Margot – The Royal Tenenbaums
The Royal Tenenbaums is a wonderfully quirky film about the perils of success and the burden of family. There are several siblings in the movie and its female lead, Margot, is technically not related to any of them. She was adopted as a child, and her literary talent, old world style, and hipster cynicism make her irresistible to her grown-up ‘brothers.’ Despite this complexity, the film portrays a burgeoning romance between Margot and tennis prodigy Richie with surprising sensitivity. However, this is only after an emotionally devastating incident brings the two together.
Sammy and Terry — You Can Count on Me
Kenneth Lonergan has a reputation for directing quietly affecting films. You Can Count on Me is no exception. It follows the story of Sammy Prescott, a single mother who invites her brother to stay in her home after his girlfriend attempts suicide. Throughout the movie, the two constantly butt heads as their views on life, parenting, and romance are so different. Yet, although there’s a lot of conflicts, the message at its heart is clear. You can always count on your sibling to be there, whether they understand you or not.
Wendy and Jon – The Savages
You Can Count on Me isn’t Laura Linney’s only turn as a beleaguered sister. In The Savages, she plays Wendy Savage, a woman forced to confront her past when her father grows sick with dementia. Together with her brother, they join forces to take care of him, but it isn’t as easy as they expected. The two are surrounded by the trauma of her childhood and the fact it has pushed them into emotionally unsatisfying lives.
Max and Dani – Hocus Pocus
Hocus Pocus is one of the most popular Halloween movies of all time. It’s filled with witches, ghouls, ghosts, and magic, but there’s also a pretty special relationship between a big brother and his little sister. At the start of the movie, Dani is the archetypal sibling. She makes fun of Max, messes with his things, and follows him everywhere. They do a lot of bickering, but when a band of witches hunts them down, they go to great lengths to protect one another.
Josie and Rob – Never Been Kissed
You know what it’s like. You spend all your time trying fit in and be cool, and your little brother becomes King of the School without effort. This is the situation in Never Been Kissed after Josie and her brother go undercover in a high school. He’s an instant hit with the popular kids, and she’s a fish out of water. Luckily, Rob has his own emotional revelation and decides to help his big sister rise to the top.
Elizabeth and Donnie — Donnie Darko
Donnie Dark is an incredibly strange film about a teenager who hallucinates and discovers the world is due to end. Of course, nobody believes him. He’s treated like a troubled kid and put on medication. This makes the relationship with his older sister Elizabeth very tense, as she’s more interested in partying and planning for the future. There are some hilarious scenes in which the two trade insults. However, as the film comes to a climax, we see that Elizabeth is genuinely scared and worried about Donnie.
Stranz and Fairchild — Blades of Glory
Comedy superstars Will Arnett and Amy Poehler have created one of the most loathsome brother sister duos in movie history. Blades of Glory sees Stranz and Fairchild Van Waldenberg resort to villainous tactics to try and stop two new ice skaters from taking their crown. Throughout the movie, there are some gross and hilarious hints at a forbidden love. They even dress as Kennedy and Monroe for a skating routine called ‘Forbidden Romance.’
Sheryl and Frank/Dwayne and Olive – Little Miss Sunshine
There are two sets of siblings in this charming movie, but that’s no surprise as it’s all about the messy, complicated nature of families. Mother of two Cheryl ends up supporting her brother after he attempts suicide. This is all while helping her daughter make it to a beauty pageant and guiding her teenage son through a difficult time in his life. All of the relationships in this film are dysfunctional, but it sets out to convince the viewer that messy, quirky, unique, and creative is always better than perfect.
Maggie and Milo – The Skeleton Twins
The Skeleton Twins is a deeply sad film, but it’s also strangely uplifting. It depicts Milo and Maggie, twins who become distant and do not speak for a decade. That is, until the night they both coincidentally end up considering suicide. Milo has a failed attempt and Maggie is about to take a handful of pills when she gets a call about her brother. The move in together for support, but only end up repeating past mistakes. While the journey is difficult for both of these characters, they’re surprised to find strength in one another.
Carmen and Juni — Spy Kids
Carmen and Juni are just a normal brother and sister. They fight, they bicker, and each finds the other desperately annoying. However, when their parents are kidnapped, they’re forced to fight as a team in order to get them back. It’s a wild ride because, along the way, they discover their parents used to be Super Spies. Cue plenty of explosions, bad guys, evil plots, and heroic moments from two siblings on a mission.
Kathryn and Sebastian – Cruel Intentions
It seems like cinema can’t get enough of brother sister relationships that cross that line. In Cruel Intentions, Kathryn and Sebastian are step-siblings (so, not truly related) who make the Borgias look affectionate. They scheme, plot, and create dastardly plans in order to get what they want, whether it’s revenge or the corruption of a school sweetheart. At one point, the two decide on a wager. The icky part is, if Sebastian wins, Kathryn agrees to go to bed with him.
Klaus and Violet – A Series of Unfortunate Events
Violent and Klaus are two extraordinary siblings who lose their parents in a suspicious fire. They leave behind a huge fortune, but the children (and their baby sister) must go to live with a distant relative until they’re old enough to claim it. This turns out to be a dastardly Count who pursues the trio relentlessly and plots their demise. Violet and Klaus must use their talents as a reader and an inventor to outwit this villain.
The relationship between Tris and Caleb Prior makes for one of the most complex brother sister duos in science fiction. Caleb frequently admonishes his little sister for not being true to the qualities of her faction and social group. However, it is later revealed he plans to defect and has been hiding his own secret qualities. Tris and Caleb are often at loggerheads and she soon realises that even family can be dangerous.
Lucilla and Commodus — Gladiator
The relationship between Lucilla and Commodus (both real figures) is one of the most chilling in cinema. Fortunately, the filmmakers took more than a few liberties with their story. For one thing, there was no incest or sexual abuse between the pair. Lucilla did try to have her younger brother assassinated though, so it’s fair to say they weren’t all that close. Sadly, her attempt to take down the despotic emperor failed and he later had her executed. The film goes in a different direction entirely, however, and movie Lucilla gets a happier ending.
Sue and Johnny – Fantastic Four
Sue and Johnny Storm were a beloved duo well before Jessica Alba and Chris Evans got their hands on them in Fantastic Four. They’re also one of few cinematic siblings to get on rather well. After losing both parents at a young age, they grew close and have been protecting each other ever since. Not they need protection. Sue has the power of invisibility and Johnny can fly and shoot flames.
Chris and Carine – Into the Wild
Chris and Carine McCandless are another real-life brother sister duo. In 2007, a movie was made about Chris, because he lost his life in a very unusual way. Without warning, the young man gave away all of his money, cut up his credit cards, and ran away from home. He never made contact with his family again, but we know from his diary that he had some amazing experiences out in the wilderness.
Lex and Tim – Jurassic Park
The first instalment in the Jurassic Park franchise is full of amazing characters. However, brother sister duo Tim and Lex stand out, because they bravely face some terrifying things. While young brother Tim can be annoying, Lex does everything she can to protect him, including baiting a hungry raptor in the hotel kitchen. She later saves the entire group with her unexpected cyber hacking skills.
Evie and Jonathan — The Mummy
In the original version of The Mummy, Rachel Weisz and John Hannah play squabbling siblings trying to prevent a great evil from taking over Egypt. Evie is as studious and smart as she is courageous. John is more interested in himself and only signs on to her expedition after finding out there may be gold involved. Ironically, it’s his ruinous actions at the start of the film that later become a source of hope for the group.
Trish and Darry – Jeepers Creepers
In Jeepers Creepers, we get to see a brother and sister uniting against an unimaginable evil. They start out happily enough, on a drive home for spring break. However, the banter and playful teasing turns into a fight for their life after they run into a demon on the road. We see lots of moments in the movie that tell us siblings would do anything to keep each other safe. The story takes a devastating turn when Trish is forced to make the ultimate sacrifice for her brother.
The Kids Are Alright
The Kids Are Alright is a unique film, because it was the first major picture to portray a homosexual couple raising teenage children. At heart, it’s a movie about the secrets we keep from one another. Seventeen year old Laser decide to track down the man who donated sperm, so that his lesbian parents could start a family. As he’s still a minor, he must enlist his older sister and get her to seek out this estranged father.
Tammy and Andy – 28 Weeks Later
This is another film that portrays the unbreakable bond between brother and sister. After mistakenly believing that a worldwide zombie outbreak is over and under control, the military fails to prevent a major incident. Rage zombies overrun the compound where Andy and his big sister Tammy are staying. She risks her own life to make sure he gets through the nightmare alive, including keeping some very important information under wraps.
Why Sibling Relationships Are Such a Lure for Filmmakers
The bond between siblings is unique. Brothers and sisters, in particular, can feel great love for one another and still want to inflict hurt and pain. There is rivalry, jealousy, bitterness, and loathing in many sibling relationships, perhaps because they serve as a mirror. No matter how different you may think you are to your sibling, they are a version of yourself, and this can be tough to confront. As well as reflecting your strengths, they are also a mirror of your flaws. It’s one of the reasons why the relationship is so fascinating, especially for filmmakers. Ultimately, there are few people who know you as well as your brother or sister. Many of the films listed tell us that, even if you grow apart, the bond remains. It’s an anchor, a safety rope that you can always use to find your way home.
After death, you’re aware that you’ve died, say scientists
A Harvard professor's study discovers the worst year to be alive.
The Triumph of Death. 1562.
- Harvard professor Michael McCormick argues the worst year to be alive was 536 AD.
- The year was terrible due to cataclysmic eruptions that blocked out the sun and the spread of the plague.
- 536 ushered in the coldest decade in thousands of years and started a century of economic devastation.
The past year has been nothing but the worst in the lives of many people around the globe. A rampaging pandemic, dangerous political instability, weather catastrophes, and a profound change in lifestyle that most have never experienced or imagined.
But was it the worst year ever?
Nope. Not even close. In the eyes of the historian and archaeologist Michael McCormick, the absolute "worst year to be alive" was 536.
Why was 536 so bad? You could certainly argue that 1918, the last year of World War I when the Spanish Flu killed up to 100 million people around the world, was a terrible year by all accounts. 1349 could also be considered on this morbid list as the year when the Black Death wiped out half of Europe, with up to 20 million dead from the plague. Most of the years of World War II could probably lay claim to the "worst year" title as well. But 536 was in a category of its own, argues the historian.
It all began with an eruption.
According to McCormick, Professor of Medieval History at Harvard University, 536 was the precursor year to one of the worst periods of human history. It featured a volcanic eruption early in the year that took place in Iceland, as established by a study of a Swiss glacier carried out by McCormick and the glaciologist Paul Mayewski from the Climate Change Institute of The University of Maine (UM) in Orono.
The ash spewed out by the volcano likely led to a fog that brought an 18-month-long stretch of daytime darkness across Europe, the Middle East, and portions of Asia. As wrote the Byzantine historian Procopius, "For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year." He also recounted that it looked like the sun was always in eclipse.
Cassiodorus, a Roman politician of that time, wrote that the sun had a "bluish" color, the moon had no luster, and "seasons seem to be all jumbled up together." What's even creepier, he described, "We marvel to see no shadows of our bodies at noon."
. that led to famine.
The dark days also brought a period of coldness, with summer temperatures falling by 1.5° C. to 2.5° C. This started the coldest decade in the past 2300 years, reports Science, leading to the devastation of crops and worldwide hunger.
. and the fall of an empire
In 541, the bubonic plague added considerably to the world's misery. Spreading from the Roman port of Pelusium in Egypt, the so-called Plague of Justinian caused the deaths of up to one half of the population of the eastern Roman Empire. This, in turn, sped up its eventual collapse, writes McCormick.
Between the environmental cataclysms, with massive volcanic eruptions also in 540 and 547, and the devastation brought on by the plague, Europe was in for an economic downturn for nearly all of the next century, until 640 when silver mining gave it a boost.
Was that the worst time in history?
Of course, the absolute worst time in history depends on who you were and where you lived.
Native Americans can easily point to 1520, when smallpox, brought over by the Spanish, killed millions of indigenous people. By 1600, up to 90 percent of the population of the Americas (about 55 million people) was wiped out by various European pathogens.
Like all things, the grisly title of "worst year ever" comes down to historical perspective.
Aftermath of the War
When Athens surrendered in 404 BCE, it was clear that the Peloponnesian war had truly come to an end. Political instability within Athens had made it difficult for the government to function, its fleet had been destroyed, and its treasuries were empty. This meant Sparta and its allies were free to dictate the terms of peace. Thebes and Corinth wanted to burn it to the ground and enslave its people, but the Spartans rejected this notion. Although they had been enemies for years, Sparta recognized the contributions Athens had made to Greek culture and did not want to see it destroyed. Lysander, however, established a pro-Spartan oligarchy that installed a reign of terror in Athens.
However, perhaps more importantly, the Peloponnesian War dramatically changed the political structure of Ancient Greece. For one, the Athenian Empire was over. Sparta assumed the top position in Greece, and for the first time ever it formed an empire of its own, although this would not last more than a half century. Fighting would continue amongst the Greeks after the Peloponnesian war, and Sparta eventually fell to Thebes and its newly formed Boeotian League.
Yet perhaps the biggest impact of the Peloponnesian War was felt by the citizens of ancient Greece. The art and literature to come out of this time period spoke often of war weariness and of the horrors of such prolonged conflict, and even some of the philosophy, written by Socrates, reflected some of the inner conflicts people were facing as they tried to understand the purpose and meaning of so much bloodshed. Because of this, as well as the role the conflict had in shaping Greek politics, it’s easy to see why the Peloponnesian War played such an important role in the history of Ancient Greece.
The conquest of ancient Greece by Phillip of Macedon and the rise of his son, Alexander (the Great) were largely predicated on the conditions following the Peloponnesian War. This is due to the fact that the destruction from the Peloponnesian War weakened and divided the Greeks for years to come, eventually allowing the Macedonians an opportunity to conquer them in the mid-4 th century BCE.
A Boeing 707 That Survived The &lsquoBlack September&rsquo Hijacking Spree Is Getting Scrapped
At an abandoned airport in Berlin, a derelict Boeing 707 airliner tells a story of Cold War intrigue, international terrorism, and the changing fortunes of the German capital. But time is now up for the decaying jet, and the excavators have moved in to begin breaking up this historic aircraft.
At first glance, you might think the 707, sitting forlornly at the edge of a forest, in a remote corner near the perimeter of the former Berlin Tegel Airport, could be a wreck used for training firefighters, or some kind of museum exhibit, but it’s been inaccessible for several years. Although long since faded by the effects of weather and decay, the blue and yellow colors formerly used by the German airline Lufthansa still adorn the airliner's hulk.
From the archives: The fall of Saigon: witnessing the end of the Vietnam war – podcast
Through all the years of conflict, war had not often touched Saigon, with the exceptions of the occasional rocket attack, some restaurant bombings and the dramatic but limited incursion into the city – indeed, into the grounds of the US embassy itself – during the Tet offensive in 1968. Saigon shuddered, but felt it had escaped the worst. And in fact, as the liberation music echoed down the streets, it had just escaped again. Although few knew it, the North Vietnamese had been prepared to batter the city with heavy artillery and to fight their way in, block by block, if the defence they met had been stronger. Had the last South Vietnamese president, General Duong Van Minh, not ordered the army to lay down its arms, Saigon would have fared very badly indeed. Vietnamese joked that the communists took Saigon “without breaking a light bulb”. That was not true either: casualties were heavy on both sides, but the fighting stopped just short of the city limits. In the centre, there was potentially more to fear from lawlessness and looters. Stewart Dalby of the Financial Times and I were walking along Tu Do, one of Saigon’s main streets, when a hard-looking man with his shirt out over his trousers stood in our way. He touched his waistband to indicate a gun, and then casually lifted Dalby’s expensive camera off his neck. Incidents like that were enough to convince most people that the sooner the communists took full control, the better.
The extermination of Witches and other heretics
""Forget not the days of old / And recall the stories told / Of the burnings and the screams / Do they ever haunt your dreams?
"There was a time when freedom died / It was an age of genocide / The Inquisition at the door / The Church of Rome in a holy war . "
Then the turning of the tide / From the truth they could not hide / Now the darkest age has passed / The Goddess has returned at last!"
We are not going to win many friends in the Neopagan communities with the following two essays. However, we believe it to be accurate. It is a story that needs to be told.
The facts are that almost all of the information that is generally accepted as truth by the Neopagan community about the "burning times" is wrong. What really happened was:
Orthodox Church is strongly critical of sorcerers (among whom it includes palmists, fortune tellers and astrologers), but has not generally seen the remedy in accusations, trials and secular penalties, but rather in confession and repentance, and exorcism if necessary. " 2
2019: A witch memorial is proposed in Scotland:
3,837 people are known to have been executed in Scotland during the 17th to 18th century, after having been found guilty of withcraft. 5 They were strangled, hanged, burned at the stake, beheaded, or drowned. Construction of a withcraft memorial to be erected in their memory is scheduled to be discussed on 2019-SEP-26 at the Torryburn and New Mills Community Centre in Scotland. 6
The proposal would involve relocating the Beamer Rock navigation beacon which was removed from the Firth of Forth during 2011, and rebuild it on the coast of the river Ness in Torryburn, which is located NorthWest of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Councillors Kate Stewart, Mino Manekshaw and Bobby Clelland isued a joint statement, saying:
"We'd love to see the creation of a memorial at Torryburn, dedicated to the memory of Lillias Adie and more generally to the many thousands of (mainly women) persecuted as witches in early modern Scotland.
"It would help to re-positioning them away from the misguided modern 'Halloween-style' perception of fun they have become. They were the innocent victims of an unimaginable injustice."
Related essay on this web site:
|Are all Witches equal? The Harry Potter books and how they highlighted public confusion over the meaning of "Witch" and "Witchcraft."|
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
- " Burning times Inkubus Sukkubus ," You Tube, 2009-DEC-26, at: http://youtu.be/
- "Christian responses to Witchcraft and sorcery," at: http://hayesfam.bravehost.com/
- Cornell University has a "Witchcraft Collection" with over 3,000 titles documenting the history of the Inquisition and the persecution of witches.
"It documents the earliest and the latest manifestations of the belief in witchcraft as well as its geographical boundaries, and elaborates this history with works on canon law, the Inquisition, torture, demonology, trial testimony, and narratives. Most importantly, the collection focuses on witchcraft not as folklore or anthropology, but as theology and as religious heresy."