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With the decline of sugar cane in the northeast and the discovery of gold and precious stones in the Minas Gerais region in the late 17th century, in the 1690s, there was a strong migration to the Southeast.
The settlers, who previously concentrated on the coast, set out inland, forming urban centers that developed around the mining areas, which later became cities. These include Ouro Preto, São João del Rei, Mariana and Sabará, all in Minas Gerais.
City of Ouro Preto (MG)
Sao Joao del Rei (MG)
The capital Salvador was transferred to Rio de Janeiro, because it is located near the mining. Around 1760, with the decay of the "gold cycle" due to the high taxes paid to the colonizer, the lack of deep mining techniques and the depletion of mineral deposits, the population migrated to the present states of São Paulo and Rio of January.
Scene from the 1965 movie "Viramundo" depicting the migration to Sao Paulo
Seeking other lucrative activities with favorable soil, the coffee growing was the solution of the problem, having rapid development. The success of coffee in the Southeast Region was such that it became necessary to seek labor abroad, especially in Italy.
Port of Santos (SP) during the coffee cycle in the 1840s
Railroads and highways were built to dispose of products from coffee farms and other farms. Many cities sprang up around this region. The crisis in the world economy in 1920 reduced coffee exports to the United States and Europe. With World War II came the lack of products and the need to manufacture them.