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There are regions of the earth that have a peculiar, restricted and isolated climate from the surrounding region. They are the microclimates.
A simple example is an equatorial forest: the outside temperature is up to 5 ° C higher than the inside temperature.
Equatorial forest is a type of forest formation located in the equatorial regions, in the intertropical zone, that is, close to the equator.
- Heat Island: occur in urban centers, where asphalt, concrete, air pollution, and especially the barrier created by tall buildings, which prevent the dissipation of heat absorbed because there is not enough wind movement. In relation to the green areas of the surrounding neighborhoods, the temperature may be up to 6 ° C higher.
Urban centers become heat islands
- El nino: consists of warming the waters of the Pacific Ocean between spring and summer, with varying intervals (which makes El Nino a recurring rather than sporadic phenomenon).
Heated, some of the water evaporates, gains altitude, and, driven by winds from the west, falls again in the form of rain in western South America, particularly in Peru and Ecuador. When associated with Antarctic air masses, it causes heavy rainfall in southern and southeastern Brazil. On the other hand, rainfall decreases in eastern Amazonia and drought worsens in northeastern Brazil. Depending on the intensity of El Niño, the phenomenon may reach further afield, such as central Europe (warmer summers) and southern Canada (mildly cold winter);
El Niño Phenomenon
- La Niña: presents the opposite of the El Niño event. Instead of warming, the Pacific waters cool beyond normal. There is a shortage of rainfall in Brazil and heavy rainfall in the Northeast. The winds rise, raising water levels off the coast of Indonesia and lowering them in South America.
Flood in Northeast Brazil, effect of La Niña phenomenon