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The Communist Intent, also known as the Red Uprising of 35 or Communist Uprising, was an attempted coup against Getúlio Vargas's government. It was led by the Brazilian Communist Party on behalf of the National Liberating Alliance, took place in November 1935, and was quickly countered by the National Security Forces.
Enthusiastic about the post-World War I European political composition, in which two fronts vied for space (Fascism and Communism), two political movements emerged in Brazil with these same characteristics.
In 1932, under the command of São Paulo politician Plínio Salgado was founded the National Integralist Action, fascist in nature. From the far right, Integralists fervently fought communism.
Parallel to the Integralist campaign, the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) pushed the founding of the National Liberating Alliance, a political movement radically opposed to the National Integralist Action.
The ANL, created in 1935, defended communist ideals and its proposals went beyond those defended by the PCB, such as:
- Non-payment of external debt;
- The nationalization of foreign companies;
- The fight against fascism;
- Agrarian reform;
On July 5, 1935, when the Tenentist uprisings were celebrated, Luis Carlos Prestes launched a manifesto of support for the ANL, in which he encouraged a revolution against the government. This was the trigger for Getúlio Vargas to decree the illegality of the movement, in addition to having its leaders arrested.
With the decree of Getúlio Vargas, the plan to make a revolution was put into practice.
The action was planned inside the barracks and the military sympathetic to the communist movement began the rebellions in November 1935 in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, where the revolutionaries came to take power for three days. It then spread to Maranhão, Recife and lastly to Rio de Janeiro on the 27th.
However, the revolutionaries failed in their organization. The riots occurred on different dates, which facilitated government actions to dominate the situation and frustrate the movement.
From this episode, Vargas decreed a state of siege and began a strong crackdown on those involved in the Communist Intent. Luis Carlos Prestes was arrested, as well as several union, military and intellectual leaders were also arrested or had their rights revoked.
The ANL failed to realize its plans and the Communist Intent did not destabilize the government of Getúlio Vargas. The communist incident ended up being used as an excuse, because at the time, the government planted the complaint of a communist plan - Plan Cohen - that threatened the institutional order, allowing the coup that originated the Estado Novo in 1937.